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Thu Oct 21 10:31:20 2004 UTC (9 years, 11 months ago) by swift
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#65107 - Added Portage-specific part to the Gentoo Handbook now that .51 is official; major version bump to 3.0

1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 -->
6    
7     <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/draft/hb-portage-branches.xml,v 1.4 2004/10/10 11:19:15 swift Exp $ -->
8    
9     <sections>
10     <section>
11     <title>Using One Branch</title>
12     <subsection>
13     <title>The Stable Branch</title>
14     <body>
15    
16     <p>
17     The ACCEPT_KEYWORDS variable defines what software branch you use on your
18     system. It defaults to the stable software branch for your architecture, for
19     instance <c>x86</c>.
20     </p>
21    
22     <p>
23     We recommend that you only use the stable branch. However, if you don't care
24     about stability this much and you want to help out Gentoo by submitting
25     bugreports to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>, read on.
26     </p>
27    
28     </body>
29     </subsection>
30     <subsection>
31     <title>The Testing Branch</title>
32     <body>
33    
34     <p>
35     If you want to use more recent software you can consider using the testing
36     branch instead. To have Portage use the testing branch, add a ~ in front of your
37     architecture.
38     </p>
39    
40     <p>
41     For instance, to select the testing branch for the x86 architecture, edit
42     <path>/etc/make.conf</path> and set:
43     </p>
44    
45     <pre caption="Setting the ACCEPT_KEYWORDS variable">
46     ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~x86"
47     </pre>
48    
49     <p>
50     If you update your system now, you will find out that <e>lots</e> of packages
51     will be updated. Mind you though: when you have updated your system to use the
52     testing branch there is usually no easy way back to the stable, official branch
53     (except for using backups of course).
54     </p>
55    
56     </body>
57     </subsection>
58     </section>
59     <section>
60     <title>Mixing Stable with Testing</title>
61     <subsection>
62     <title>The package.keywords file</title>
63     <body>
64    
65     <p>
66     You can ask Portage to allow the testing branch for particular packages but use
67     the stable branch for the rest of the system. To achieve this, add the package
68     category and name you want to use the testing branch of in
69     <path>/etc/portage/package.keywords</path>. For instance, to use the testing
70     branch for <c>gnumeric</c>:
71     </p>
72    
73     <pre caption="/etc/portage/package.keywords setting for gnumeric">
74     app-office/gnumeric
75     </pre>
76    
77     <p>
78     The same can be achieved when you add the correct keyword at the end of the
79     line, for instance for the x86 architecture:
80     </p>
81    
82     <pre caption="/etc/portage/package.keywords setting for gnumeric, full line">
83     app-office/gnumeric ~x86
84     </pre>
85    
86     </body>
87     </subsection>
88     <subsection>
89     <title>Test Particular Versions</title>
90     <body>
91    
92     <p>
93     If you want to use a specific software version from the testing branch but you
94     don't want Portage to use the testing branch for subsequent versions, you can
95     add in the version in the <path>package.keywords</path> file. In this case you
96     <e>must</e> use the = operator. You can also enter a version range
97     using the &lt;=, &lt;, &gt; or &gt;= operators.
98     </p>
99    
100     <p>
101     In any case, if you add version information, you <e>must</e> use an operator. If
102     you leave out version information, you <e>cannot</e> use an operator.
103     </p>
104    
105     <p>
106     In the following example we ask Portage to accept gnumeric-1.2.13:
107     </p>
108    
109     <pre caption="Using a particular gnumeric version">
110     =app-office/gnumeric-1.2.13
111     </pre>
112    
113     </body>
114     </subsection>
115     </section>
116     <section>
117     <title>Using Masked Packages</title>
118     <subsection>
119     <title>The package.unmask file</title>
120     <body>
121    
122     <p>
123     When a package has been masked by the Gentoo developers and you still want to
124     use it despite the reason mentioned in the <path>package.mask</path> file
125     (situated in <path>/usr/portage/profiles</path> by default), add the
126     <e>exact</e> same line in <path>/etc/portage/package.unmask</path>.
127     </p>
128    
129     <p>
130     For instance, if <c>=net-mail/hotwayd-0.8</c> is masked, you can unmask it by
131     adding the exact same line in the <path>package.unmask</path> file:
132     </p>
133    
134     <pre caption="/etc/portage/package.unmask">
135     =net-mail/hotwayd-0.8
136     </pre>
137    
138     </body>
139     </subsection>
140     <subsection>
141     <title>The package.mask file</title>
142     <body>
143    
144     <p>
145     When you don't want Portage to take a certain package or a specific version of a
146     package into account you can mask it yourself by adding an appropriate line to
147     <path>/etc/portage/package.mask</path>.
148     </p>
149    
150     <p>
151     For instance, if you don't want Portage to install newer kernel sources than
152     <c>development-sources-2.6.8.1</c>, you add the following line to
153     <path>package.mask</path>:
154     </p>
155    
156     <pre caption="/etc/portage/package.mask example">
157     &gt;sys-kernel/development-sources-2.6.8.1
158     </pre>
159    
160     </body>
161     </subsection>
162     </section>
163     </sections>

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