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Some people honestly believe that ~arch is the way to go.

1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 -->
6    
7 swift 1.12 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-portage-branches.xml,v 1.11 2005/04/25 14:29:19 neysx Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10 swift 1.2
11 swift 1.12 <version>1.6</version>
12     <date>2005-08-11</date>
13 swift 1.2
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15     <title>Using One Branch</title>
16     <subsection>
17     <title>The Stable Branch</title>
18     <body>
19    
20     <p>
21     The ACCEPT_KEYWORDS variable defines what software branch you use on your
22     system. It defaults to the stable software branch for your architecture, for
23     instance <c>x86</c>.
24     </p>
25    
26     <p>
27     We recommend that you only use the stable branch. However, if you don't care
28     about stability this much and you want to help out Gentoo by submitting
29     bugreports to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>, read on.
30     </p>
31    
32     </body>
33     </subsection>
34     <subsection>
35     <title>The Testing Branch</title>
36     <body>
37    
38     <p>
39 neysx 1.10 If you want to use more recent software, you can consider using the testing
40 swift 1.1 branch instead. To have Portage use the testing branch, add a ~ in front of your
41     architecture.
42     </p>
43    
44     <p>
45 neysx 1.10 The testing branch is exactly what it says - <e>Testing</e>. If a package is in
46     testing, it means that the developers feel that it is functional but has not
47     been thoroughly tested. You could very well be the first to discover a bug in
48     the package in which case you could file a <uri
49     link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugreport</uri> to let the developers know about
50     it.
51     </p>
52    
53     <p>
54 swift 1.12 Beware though, you might notice stability issues, imperfect package handling
55     (for instance wrong/missing dependencies), too frequent updates (resulting in
56     lots of building) or broken packages. If you do not know how Gentoo works and
57     how to solve problems, we recommend that you stick with the stable and tested
58     branch.
59     </p>
60    
61     <p>
62 neysx 1.10 For example, to select the testing branch for the x86 architecture, edit
63 swift 1.1 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> and set:
64     </p>
65    
66     <pre caption="Setting the ACCEPT_KEYWORDS variable">
67     ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~x86"
68     </pre>
69    
70     <p>
71     If you update your system now, you will find out that <e>lots</e> of packages
72     will be updated. Mind you though: when you have updated your system to use the
73     testing branch there is usually no easy way back to the stable, official branch
74     (except for using backups of course).
75     </p>
76    
77     </body>
78     </subsection>
79     </section>
80     <section>
81     <title>Mixing Stable with Testing</title>
82     <subsection>
83     <title>The package.keywords file</title>
84     <body>
85    
86     <p>
87     You can ask Portage to allow the testing branch for particular packages but use
88     the stable branch for the rest of the system. To achieve this, add the package
89     category and name you want to use the testing branch of in
90     <path>/etc/portage/package.keywords</path>. For instance, to use the testing
91     branch for <c>gnumeric</c>:
92     </p>
93    
94     <pre caption="/etc/portage/package.keywords setting for gnumeric, full line">
95     app-office/gnumeric ~x86
96     </pre>
97    
98     </body>
99     </subsection>
100     <subsection>
101     <title>Test Particular Versions</title>
102     <body>
103    
104     <p>
105     If you want to use a specific software version from the testing branch but you
106     don't want Portage to use the testing branch for subsequent versions, you can
107     add in the version in the <path>package.keywords</path> file. In this case you
108     <e>must</e> use the = operator. You can also enter a version range
109     using the &lt;=, &lt;, &gt; or &gt;= operators.
110     </p>
111    
112     <p>
113     In any case, if you add version information, you <e>must</e> use an operator. If
114     you leave out version information, you <e>cannot</e> use an operator.
115     </p>
116    
117     <p>
118     In the following example we ask Portage to accept gnumeric-1.2.13:
119     </p>
120    
121 vapier 1.8 <pre caption="Enabling a particular gnumeric test version">
122 vapier 1.6 =app-office/gnumeric-1.2.13 ~x86
123 swift 1.1 </pre>
124    
125     </body>
126     </subsection>
127     </section>
128     <section>
129     <title>Using Masked Packages</title>
130     <subsection>
131     <title>The package.unmask file</title>
132     <body>
133    
134     <p>
135 neysx 1.10 The Gentoo developers do <b>not</b> support the use of these files. Please
136 neysx 1.11 exercise due caution when doing so. Support requests related to
137 neysx 1.10 <c>package.unmask</c> and/or <c>package.mask</c> will not be answered. You have
138     been warned.
139     </p>
140    
141     <p>
142 swift 1.1 When a package has been masked by the Gentoo developers and you still want to
143     use it despite the reason mentioned in the <path>package.mask</path> file
144     (situated in <path>/usr/portage/profiles</path> by default), add the
145     <e>exact</e> same line in <path>/etc/portage/package.unmask</path>.
146     </p>
147    
148     <p>
149     For instance, if <c>=net-mail/hotwayd-0.8</c> is masked, you can unmask it by
150     adding the exact same line in the <path>package.unmask</path> file:
151     </p>
152    
153     <pre caption="/etc/portage/package.unmask">
154     =net-mail/hotwayd-0.8
155     </pre>
156    
157     </body>
158     </subsection>
159     <subsection>
160     <title>The package.mask file</title>
161     <body>
162    
163     <p>
164     When you don't want Portage to take a certain package or a specific version of a
165     package into account you can mask it yourself by adding an appropriate line to
166     <path>/etc/portage/package.mask</path>.
167     </p>
168    
169     <p>
170     For instance, if you don't want Portage to install newer kernel sources than
171 dertobi123 1.9 <c>gentoo-sources-2.6.8.1</c>, you add the following line to
172 swift 1.1 <path>package.mask</path>:
173     </p>
174    
175     <pre caption="/etc/portage/package.mask example">
176 dertobi123 1.9 &gt;sys-kernel/gentoo-sources-2.6.8.1
177 swift 1.1 </pre>
178    
179     </body>
180     </subsection>
181     </section>
182     </sections>

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