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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 -->
6    
7 swift 1.3 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/draft/hb-portage-branches.xml,v 1.7 2004/11/09 13:05:40 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10 swift 1.2
11     <version>1.1</version>
12     <date>October 21, 2004</date>
13    
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15     <title>Using One Branch</title>
16     <subsection>
17     <title>The Stable Branch</title>
18     <body>
19    
20     <p>
21     The ACCEPT_KEYWORDS variable defines what software branch you use on your
22     system. It defaults to the stable software branch for your architecture, for
23     instance <c>x86</c>.
24     </p>
25    
26     <p>
27     We recommend that you only use the stable branch. However, if you don't care
28     about stability this much and you want to help out Gentoo by submitting
29     bugreports to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>, read on.
30     </p>
31    
32     </body>
33     </subsection>
34     <subsection>
35     <title>The Testing Branch</title>
36     <body>
37    
38     <p>
39     If you want to use more recent software you can consider using the testing
40     branch instead. To have Portage use the testing branch, add a ~ in front of your
41     architecture.
42     </p>
43    
44     <p>
45     For instance, to select the testing branch for the x86 architecture, edit
46     <path>/etc/make.conf</path> and set:
47     </p>
48    
49     <pre caption="Setting the ACCEPT_KEYWORDS variable">
50     ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~x86"
51     </pre>
52    
53     <p>
54     If you update your system now, you will find out that <e>lots</e> of packages
55     will be updated. Mind you though: when you have updated your system to use the
56     testing branch there is usually no easy way back to the stable, official branch
57     (except for using backups of course).
58     </p>
59    
60     </body>
61     </subsection>
62     </section>
63     <section>
64     <title>Mixing Stable with Testing</title>
65     <subsection>
66     <title>The package.keywords file</title>
67     <body>
68    
69     <p>
70     You can ask Portage to allow the testing branch for particular packages but use
71     the stable branch for the rest of the system. To achieve this, add the package
72     category and name you want to use the testing branch of in
73     <path>/etc/portage/package.keywords</path>. For instance, to use the testing
74     branch for <c>gnumeric</c>:
75     </p>
76    
77     <pre caption="/etc/portage/package.keywords setting for gnumeric">
78     app-office/gnumeric
79     </pre>
80    
81     <p>
82     The same can be achieved when you add the correct keyword at the end of the
83     line, for instance for the x86 architecture:
84     </p>
85    
86     <pre caption="/etc/portage/package.keywords setting for gnumeric, full line">
87     app-office/gnumeric ~x86
88     </pre>
89    
90     </body>
91     </subsection>
92     <subsection>
93     <title>Test Particular Versions</title>
94     <body>
95    
96     <p>
97     If you want to use a specific software version from the testing branch but you
98     don't want Portage to use the testing branch for subsequent versions, you can
99     add in the version in the <path>package.keywords</path> file. In this case you
100     <e>must</e> use the = operator. You can also enter a version range
101     using the &lt;=, &lt;, &gt; or &gt;= operators.
102     </p>
103    
104     <p>
105     In any case, if you add version information, you <e>must</e> use an operator. If
106     you leave out version information, you <e>cannot</e> use an operator.
107     </p>
108    
109     <p>
110     In the following example we ask Portage to accept gnumeric-1.2.13:
111     </p>
112    
113     <pre caption="Using a particular gnumeric version">
114     =app-office/gnumeric-1.2.13
115     </pre>
116    
117     </body>
118     </subsection>
119     </section>
120     <section>
121     <title>Using Masked Packages</title>
122     <subsection>
123     <title>The package.unmask file</title>
124     <body>
125    
126     <p>
127     When a package has been masked by the Gentoo developers and you still want to
128     use it despite the reason mentioned in the <path>package.mask</path> file
129     (situated in <path>/usr/portage/profiles</path> by default), add the
130     <e>exact</e> same line in <path>/etc/portage/package.unmask</path>.
131     </p>
132    
133     <p>
134     For instance, if <c>=net-mail/hotwayd-0.8</c> is masked, you can unmask it by
135     adding the exact same line in the <path>package.unmask</path> file:
136     </p>
137    
138     <pre caption="/etc/portage/package.unmask">
139     =net-mail/hotwayd-0.8
140     </pre>
141    
142     </body>
143     </subsection>
144     <subsection>
145     <title>The package.mask file</title>
146     <body>
147    
148     <p>
149     When you don't want Portage to take a certain package or a specific version of a
150     package into account you can mask it yourself by adding an appropriate line to
151     <path>/etc/portage/package.mask</path>.
152     </p>
153    
154     <p>
155     For instance, if you don't want Portage to install newer kernel sources than
156     <c>development-sources-2.6.8.1</c>, you add the following line to
157     <path>package.mask</path>:
158     </p>
159    
160     <pre caption="/etc/portage/package.mask example">
161     &gt;sys-kernel/development-sources-2.6.8.1
162     </pre>
163    
164     </body>
165     </subsection>
166     </section>
167     </sections>

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