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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-portage-branches.xml,v 1.10 2005/04/25 12:31:36 neysx Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>1.5</version>
12 <date>2005-04-25</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Using One Branch</title>
16 <subsection>
17 <title>The Stable Branch</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 The ACCEPT_KEYWORDS variable defines what software branch you use on your
22 system. It defaults to the stable software branch for your architecture, for
23 instance <c>x86</c>.
24 </p>
25
26 <p>
27 We recommend that you only use the stable branch. However, if you don't care
28 about stability this much and you want to help out Gentoo by submitting
29 bugreports to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>, read on.
30 </p>
31
32 </body>
33 </subsection>
34 <subsection>
35 <title>The Testing Branch</title>
36 <body>
37
38 <p>
39 If you want to use more recent software, you can consider using the testing
40 branch instead. To have Portage use the testing branch, add a ~ in front of your
41 architecture.
42 </p>
43
44 <p>
45 The testing branch is exactly what it says - <e>Testing</e>. If a package is in
46 testing, it means that the developers feel that it is functional but has not
47 been thoroughly tested. You could very well be the first to discover a bug in
48 the package in which case you could file a <uri
49 link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugreport</uri> to let the developers know about
50 it.
51 </p>
52
53 <p>
54 For example, to select the testing branch for the x86 architecture, edit
55 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> and set:
56 </p>
57
58 <pre caption="Setting the ACCEPT_KEYWORDS variable">
59 ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~x86"
60 </pre>
61
62 <p>
63 If you update your system now, you will find out that <e>lots</e> of packages
64 will be updated. Mind you though: when you have updated your system to use the
65 testing branch there is usually no easy way back to the stable, official branch
66 (except for using backups of course).
67 </p>
68
69 </body>
70 </subsection>
71 </section>
72 <section>
73 <title>Mixing Stable with Testing</title>
74 <subsection>
75 <title>The package.keywords file</title>
76 <body>
77
78 <p>
79 You can ask Portage to allow the testing branch for particular packages but use
80 the stable branch for the rest of the system. To achieve this, add the package
81 category and name you want to use the testing branch of in
82 <path>/etc/portage/package.keywords</path>. For instance, to use the testing
83 branch for <c>gnumeric</c>:
84 </p>
85
86 <pre caption="/etc/portage/package.keywords setting for gnumeric, full line">
87 app-office/gnumeric ~x86
88 </pre>
89
90 </body>
91 </subsection>
92 <subsection>
93 <title>Test Particular Versions</title>
94 <body>
95
96 <p>
97 If you want to use a specific software version from the testing branch but you
98 don't want Portage to use the testing branch for subsequent versions, you can
99 add in the version in the <path>package.keywords</path> file. In this case you
100 <e>must</e> use the = operator. You can also enter a version range
101 using the &lt;=, &lt;, &gt; or &gt;= operators.
102 </p>
103
104 <p>
105 In any case, if you add version information, you <e>must</e> use an operator. If
106 you leave out version information, you <e>cannot</e> use an operator.
107 </p>
108
109 <p>
110 In the following example we ask Portage to accept gnumeric-1.2.13:
111 </p>
112
113 <pre caption="Enabling a particular gnumeric test version">
114 =app-office/gnumeric-1.2.13 ~x86
115 </pre>
116
117 </body>
118 </subsection>
119 </section>
120 <section>
121 <title>Using Masked Packages</title>
122 <subsection>
123 <title>The package.unmask file</title>
124 <body>
125
126 <p>
127 The Gentoo developers do <b>not</b> support the use of these files. Please
128 exercise due caution when doing so. Support requests related to
129 <c>package.unmask</c> and/or <c>package.mask</c> will not be answered. You have
130 been warned.
131 </p>
132
133 <p>
134 When a package has been masked by the Gentoo developers and you still want to
135 use it despite the reason mentioned in the <path>package.mask</path> file
136 (situated in <path>/usr/portage/profiles</path> by default), add the
137 <e>exact</e> same line in <path>/etc/portage/package.unmask</path>.
138 </p>
139
140 <p>
141 For instance, if <c>=net-mail/hotwayd-0.8</c> is masked, you can unmask it by
142 adding the exact same line in the <path>package.unmask</path> file:
143 </p>
144
145 <pre caption="/etc/portage/package.unmask">
146 =net-mail/hotwayd-0.8
147 </pre>
148
149 </body>
150 </subsection>
151 <subsection>
152 <title>The package.mask file</title>
153 <body>
154
155 <p>
156 When you don't want Portage to take a certain package or a specific version of a
157 package into account you can mask it yourself by adding an appropriate line to
158 <path>/etc/portage/package.mask</path>.
159 </p>
160
161 <p>
162 For instance, if you don't want Portage to install newer kernel sources than
163 <c>gentoo-sources-2.6.8.1</c>, you add the following line to
164 <path>package.mask</path>:
165 </p>
166
167 <pre caption="/etc/portage/package.mask example">
168 &gt;sys-kernel/gentoo-sources-2.6.8.1
169 </pre>
170
171 </body>
172 </subsection>
173 </section>
174 </sections>

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