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Tue Aug 1 17:35:05 2006 UTC (8 years ago) by swift
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Portage supports directories as well

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-portage-branches.xml,v 1.13 2006/03/14 19:29:29 neysx Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>1.7</version>
12 <date>2006-08-01</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Using One Branch</title>
16 <subsection>
17 <title>The Stable Branch</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 The ACCEPT_KEYWORDS variable defines what software branch you use on your
22 system. It defaults to the stable software branch for your architecture, for
23 instance <c>x86</c>.
24 </p>
25
26 <p>
27 We recommend that you only use the stable branch. However, if you don't care
28 about stability this much and you want to help out Gentoo by submitting
29 bugreports to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>, read on.
30 </p>
31
32 </body>
33 </subsection>
34 <subsection>
35 <title>The Testing Branch</title>
36 <body>
37
38 <p>
39 If you want to use more recent software, you can consider using the testing
40 branch instead. To have Portage use the testing branch, add a ~ in front of your
41 architecture.
42 </p>
43
44 <p>
45 The testing branch is exactly what it says - <e>Testing</e>. If a package is in
46 testing, it means that the developers feel that it is functional but has not
47 been thoroughly tested. You could very well be the first to discover a bug in
48 the package in which case you could file a <uri
49 link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugreport</uri> to let the developers know about
50 it.
51 </p>
52
53 <p>
54 Beware though, you might notice stability issues, imperfect package handling
55 (for instance wrong/missing dependencies), too frequent updates (resulting in
56 lots of building) or broken packages. If you do not know how Gentoo works and
57 how to solve problems, we recommend that you stick with the stable and tested
58 branch.
59 </p>
60
61 <p>
62 For example, to select the testing branch for the x86 architecture, edit
63 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> and set:
64 </p>
65
66 <pre caption="Setting the ACCEPT_KEYWORDS variable">
67 ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~x86"
68 </pre>
69
70 <p>
71 If you update your system now, you will find out that <e>lots</e> of packages
72 will be updated. Mind you though: when you have updated your system to use the
73 testing branch there is usually no easy way back to the stable, official branch
74 (except for using backups of course).
75 </p>
76
77 </body>
78 </subsection>
79 </section>
80 <section>
81 <title>Mixing Stable with Testing</title>
82 <subsection>
83 <title>The package.keywords location</title>
84 <body>
85
86 <p>
87 You can ask Portage to allow the testing branch for particular packages but use
88 the stable branch for the rest of the system. To achieve this, add the package
89 category and name you want to use the testing branch of in
90 <path>/etc/portage/package.keywords</path>. You can also create a directory
91 (with the same name) and list the package in the files under that directory.
92 For instance, to use the testing branch for <c>gnumeric</c>:
93 </p>
94
95 <pre caption="/etc/portage/package.keywords setting for gnumeric, full line">
96 app-office/gnumeric ~x86
97 </pre>
98
99 </body>
100 </subsection>
101 <subsection>
102 <title>Test Particular Versions</title>
103 <body>
104
105 <p>
106 If you want to use a specific software version from the testing branch but you
107 don't want Portage to use the testing branch for subsequent versions, you can
108 add in the version in the <path>package.keywords</path> location. In this case
109 you <e>must</e> use the = operator. You can also enter a version range
110 using the &lt;=, &lt;, &gt; or &gt;= operators.
111 </p>
112
113 <p>
114 In any case, if you add version information, you <e>must</e> use an operator. If
115 you leave out version information, you <e>cannot</e> use an operator.
116 </p>
117
118 <p>
119 In the following example we ask Portage to accept gnumeric-1.2.13:
120 </p>
121
122 <pre caption="Enabling a particular gnumeric test version">
123 =app-office/gnumeric-1.2.13 ~x86
124 </pre>
125
126 </body>
127 </subsection>
128 </section>
129 <section>
130 <title>Using Masked Packages</title>
131 <subsection>
132 <title>The package.unmask location</title>
133 <body>
134
135 <p>
136 The Gentoo developers do <b>not</b> support the use of this location. Please
137 exercise due caution when doing so. Support requests related to
138 <c>package.unmask</c> and/or <c>package.mask</c> will not be answered. You have
139 been warned.
140 </p>
141
142 <p>
143 When a package has been masked by the Gentoo developers and you still want to
144 use it despite the reason mentioned in the <path>package.mask</path> file
145 (situated in <path>/usr/portage/profiles</path> by default), add the
146 <e>exact</e> same line in the <path>/etc/portage/package.unmask</path> file
147 (or in a file in that directory if it is a directory).
148 </p>
149
150 <p>
151 For instance, if <c>=net-mail/hotwayd-0.8</c> is masked, you can unmask it by
152 adding the exact same line in the <path>package.unmask</path> location:
153 </p>
154
155 <pre caption="/etc/portage/package.unmask">
156 =net-mail/hotwayd-0.8
157 </pre>
158
159 </body>
160 </subsection>
161 <subsection>
162 <title>The package.mask location</title>
163 <body>
164
165 <p>
166 When you don't want Portage to take a certain package or a specific version of a
167 package into account you can mask it yourself by adding an appropriate line to
168 the <path>/etc/portage/package.mask</path> location (either in that file or
169 in a file in this directory).
170 </p>
171
172 <p>
173 For instance, if you don't want Portage to install newer kernel sources than
174 <c>gentoo-sources-2.6.8.1</c>, you add the following line at the
175 <path>package.mask</path> location:
176 </p>
177
178 <pre caption="/etc/portage/package.mask example">
179 &gt;sys-kernel/gentoo-sources-2.6.8.1
180 </pre>
181
182 </body>
183 </subsection>
184 </section>
185 </sections>

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