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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-portage-branches.xml,v 1.1 2004/10/21 10:31:20 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>1.1</version>
12 <date>October 21, 2004</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Using One Branch</title>
16 <subsection>
17 <title>The Stable Branch</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 The ACCEPT_KEYWORDS variable defines what software branch you use on your
22 system. It defaults to the stable software branch for your architecture, for
23 instance <c>x86</c>.
24 </p>
25
26 <p>
27 We recommend that you only use the stable branch. However, if you don't care
28 about stability this much and you want to help out Gentoo by submitting
29 bugreports to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>, read on.
30 </p>
31
32 </body>
33 </subsection>
34 <subsection>
35 <title>The Testing Branch</title>
36 <body>
37
38 <p>
39 If you want to use more recent software you can consider using the testing
40 branch instead. To have Portage use the testing branch, add a ~ in front of your
41 architecture.
42 </p>
43
44 <p>
45 For instance, to select the testing branch for the x86 architecture, edit
46 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> and set:
47 </p>
48
49 <pre caption="Setting the ACCEPT_KEYWORDS variable">
50 ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~x86"
51 </pre>
52
53 <p>
54 If you update your system now, you will find out that <e>lots</e> of packages
55 will be updated. Mind you though: when you have updated your system to use the
56 testing branch there is usually no easy way back to the stable, official branch
57 (except for using backups of course).
58 </p>
59
60 </body>
61 </subsection>
62 </section>
63 <section>
64 <title>Mixing Stable with Testing</title>
65 <subsection>
66 <title>The package.keywords file</title>
67 <body>
68
69 <p>
70 You can ask Portage to allow the testing branch for particular packages but use
71 the stable branch for the rest of the system. To achieve this, add the package
72 category and name you want to use the testing branch of in
73 <path>/etc/portage/package.keywords</path>. For instance, to use the testing
74 branch for <c>gnumeric</c>:
75 </p>
76
77 <pre caption="/etc/portage/package.keywords setting for gnumeric">
78 app-office/gnumeric
79 </pre>
80
81 <p>
82 The same can be achieved when you add the correct keyword at the end of the
83 line, for instance for the x86 architecture:
84 </p>
85
86 <pre caption="/etc/portage/package.keywords setting for gnumeric, full line">
87 app-office/gnumeric ~x86
88 </pre>
89
90 </body>
91 </subsection>
92 <subsection>
93 <title>Test Particular Versions</title>
94 <body>
95
96 <p>
97 If you want to use a specific software version from the testing branch but you
98 don't want Portage to use the testing branch for subsequent versions, you can
99 add in the version in the <path>package.keywords</path> file. In this case you
100 <e>must</e> use the = operator. You can also enter a version range
101 using the &lt;=, &lt;, &gt; or &gt;= operators.
102 </p>
103
104 <p>
105 In any case, if you add version information, you <e>must</e> use an operator. If
106 you leave out version information, you <e>cannot</e> use an operator.
107 </p>
108
109 <p>
110 In the following example we ask Portage to accept gnumeric-1.2.13:
111 </p>
112
113 <pre caption="Using a particular gnumeric version">
114 =app-office/gnumeric-1.2.13
115 </pre>
116
117 </body>
118 </subsection>
119 </section>
120 <section>
121 <title>Using Masked Packages</title>
122 <subsection>
123 <title>The package.unmask file</title>
124 <body>
125
126 <p>
127 When a package has been masked by the Gentoo developers and you still want to
128 use it despite the reason mentioned in the <path>package.mask</path> file
129 (situated in <path>/usr/portage/profiles</path> by default), add the
130 <e>exact</e> same line in <path>/etc/portage/package.unmask</path>.
131 </p>
132
133 <p>
134 For instance, if <c>=net-mail/hotwayd-0.8</c> is masked, you can unmask it by
135 adding the exact same line in the <path>package.unmask</path> file:
136 </p>
137
138 <pre caption="/etc/portage/package.unmask">
139 =net-mail/hotwayd-0.8
140 </pre>
141
142 </body>
143 </subsection>
144 <subsection>
145 <title>The package.mask file</title>
146 <body>
147
148 <p>
149 When you don't want Portage to take a certain package or a specific version of a
150 package into account you can mask it yourself by adding an appropriate line to
151 <path>/etc/portage/package.mask</path>.
152 </p>
153
154 <p>
155 For instance, if you don't want Portage to install newer kernel sources than
156 <c>development-sources-2.6.8.1</c>, you add the following line to
157 <path>package.mask</path>:
158 </p>
159
160 <pre caption="/etc/portage/package.mask example">
161 &gt;sys-kernel/development-sources-2.6.8.1
162 </pre>
163
164 </body>
165 </subsection>
166 </section>
167 </sections>

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