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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-portage-branches.xml,v 1.6 2005/04/05 23:40:25 vapier Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>1.3</version>
12 <date>2005-04-05</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Using One Branch</title>
16 <subsection>
17 <title>The Stable Branch</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 The ACCEPT_KEYWORDS variable defines what software branch you use on your
22 system. It defaults to the stable software branch for your architecture, for
23 instance <c>x86</c>.
24 </p>
25
26 <p>
27 We recommend that you only use the stable branch. However, if you don't care
28 about stability this much and you want to help out Gentoo by submitting
29 bugreports to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>, read on.
30 </p>
31
32 </body>
33 </subsection>
34 <subsection>
35 <title>The Testing Branch</title>
36 <body>
37
38 <p>
39 If you want to use more recent software you can consider using the testing
40 branch instead. To have Portage use the testing branch, add a ~ in front of your
41 architecture.
42 </p>
43
44 <p>
45 For instance, to select the testing branch for the x86 architecture, edit
46 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> and set:
47 </p>
48
49 <pre caption="Setting the ACCEPT_KEYWORDS variable">
50 ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~x86"
51 </pre>
52
53 <p>
54 If you update your system now, you will find out that <e>lots</e> of packages
55 will be updated. Mind you though: when you have updated your system to use the
56 testing branch there is usually no easy way back to the stable, official branch
57 (except for using backups of course).
58 </p>
59
60 </body>
61 </subsection>
62 </section>
63 <section>
64 <title>Mixing Stable with Testing</title>
65 <subsection>
66 <title>The package.keywords file</title>
67 <body>
68
69 <p>
70 You can ask Portage to allow the testing branch for particular packages but use
71 the stable branch for the rest of the system. To achieve this, add the package
72 category and name you want to use the testing branch of in
73 <path>/etc/portage/package.keywords</path>. For instance, to use the testing
74 branch for <c>gnumeric</c>:
75 </p>
76
77 <pre caption="/etc/portage/package.keywords setting for gnumeric, full line">
78 app-office/gnumeric ~x86
79 </pre>
80
81 </body>
82 </subsection>
83 <subsection>
84 <title>Test Particular Versions</title>
85 <body>
86
87 <p>
88 If you want to use a specific software version from the testing branch but you
89 don't want Portage to use the testing branch for subsequent versions, you can
90 add in the version in the <path>package.keywords</path> file. In this case you
91 <e>must</e> use the = operator. You can also enter a version range
92 using the &lt;=, &lt;, &gt; or &gt;= operators.
93 </p>
94
95 <p>
96 In any case, if you add version information, you <e>must</e> use an operator. If
97 you leave out version information, you <e>cannot</e> use an operator.
98 </p>
99
100 <p>
101 In the following example we ask Portage to accept gnumeric-1.2.13:
102 </p>
103
104 <pre caption="Enabling a particular gnumeric test verion">
105 =app-office/gnumeric-1.2.13 ~x86
106 </pre>
107
108 </body>
109 </subsection>
110 </section>
111 <section>
112 <title>Using Masked Packages</title>
113 <subsection>
114 <title>The package.unmask file</title>
115 <body>
116
117 <p>
118 When a package has been masked by the Gentoo developers and you still want to
119 use it despite the reason mentioned in the <path>package.mask</path> file
120 (situated in <path>/usr/portage/profiles</path> by default), add the
121 <e>exact</e> same line in <path>/etc/portage/package.unmask</path>.
122 </p>
123
124 <p>
125 For instance, if <c>=net-mail/hotwayd-0.8</c> is masked, you can unmask it by
126 adding the exact same line in the <path>package.unmask</path> file:
127 </p>
128
129 <pre caption="/etc/portage/package.unmask">
130 =net-mail/hotwayd-0.8
131 </pre>
132
133 </body>
134 </subsection>
135 <subsection>
136 <title>The package.mask file</title>
137 <body>
138
139 <p>
140 When you don't want Portage to take a certain package or a specific version of a
141 package into account you can mask it yourself by adding an appropriate line to
142 <path>/etc/portage/package.mask</path>.
143 </p>
144
145 <p>
146 For instance, if you don't want Portage to install newer kernel sources than
147 <c>development-sources-2.6.8.1</c>, you add the following line to
148 <path>package.mask</path>:
149 </p>
150
151 <pre caption="/etc/portage/package.mask example">
152 &gt;sys-kernel/development-sources-2.6.8.1
153 </pre>
154
155 </body>
156 </subsection>
157 </section>
158 </sections>

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