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1 swift 1.1 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
2     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
3    
4 swift 1.16 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.15 2004/01/06 15:28:05 swift Exp $ -->
5 swift 1.1
6     <sections>
7     <section>
8     <title>Obtaining Package Information</title>
9     <subsection>
10     <title>The Lord of All Tools: emerge</title>
11     <body>
12    
13 swift 1.2 <p>
14 swift 1.5 The main Portage tool that most users will use is <c>emerge</c>. We have already
15     used it during the Gentoo installation and in the previous chapter, but we just
16     briefly explained how to use it. This chapter will elaborate on <c>emerge</c>
17 swift 1.13 and teach you how to use <c>emerge</c> to fix all your software-related needs.
18 swift 1.2 </p>
19    
20     <p>
21     <c>emerge</c> is the command used to install, remove, query and maintain
22     software packages. It is a front-end for <c>ebuild</c>; people interested in
23     becoming Gentoo professionals will learn how to use <c>ebuild</c> later on. For
24     now, we will focus on <c>emerge</c> as it has functionality that <c>ebuild</c>
25     lacks (such as resolving dependencies, searching the Portage tree, etc.).
26     </p>
27    
28     <p>
29     Since <c>emerge</c> is the most important tool for Gentoo users, it has an
30     extensive manpage you can read by issuing <c>man emerge</c>. You can also view
31     the in-command help by running <c>emerge --help</c>.
32     </p>
33    
34     <pre caption="Retrieving help for emerge">
35     # <i>man emerge</i>
36     # <i>emerge --help</i>
37     </pre>
38    
39     </body>
40     </subsection>
41     <subsection>
42     <title>The Portage Tree</title>
43     <body>
44    
45     <p>
46     Before we continue describing <c>emerge</c>, let us first take a look at the
47     Portage Tree. Go to <path>/usr/portage</path> and do a listing of the available
48 swift 1.6 directories. We use <c>ls --classify</c> to list the contents of a
49     directory as it will show directories with a trailing "/".
50 swift 1.2 </p>
51    
52     <pre caption="Viewing the Portage Tree">
53     # <i>cd /usr/portage; ls --classify</i>
54     app-admin/ dev-ml/ gnome-libs/ net-print/
55     app-arch/ dev-perl/ gnome-office/ net-wireless/
56     app-benchmarks/ dev-php/ header.txt net-www/
57     app-cdr/ dev-python/ incoming/ net-zope/
58     app-crypt/ dev-ruby/ jython/ packages/
59     app-dicts/ dev-tcltk/ kde-apps/ profiles/
60     app-doc/ dev-tex/ kde-base/ releases/
61     app-editors/ dev-util/ kde-i18n/ scripts/
62     app-emacs/ distfiles/ kde-libs/ sec-policy/
63     app-emulation/ eclass/ licenses/ skel.ChangeLog
64     app-games/ experimental/ media-fonts/ skel.ebuild
65     app-gnustep/ files/ media-gfx/ skel.metadata.xml
66     app-i18n/ fresco-base/ media-libs/ snapshots/
67     app-misc/ games-action/ media-plugins/ sys-apps/
68     app-office/ games-arcade/ media-radio/ sys-build/
69     app-pda/ games-board/ media-sound/ sys-cluster/
70     app-portage/ games-emulation/ media-tv/ sys-devel/
71     app-sci/ games-engines/ media-video/ sys-fs/
72     app-shells/ games-fps/ metadata/ sys-kernel/
73     app-text/ games-kids/ net-analyzer/ sys-kmods/
74     app-vim/ games-misc/ net-apache/ sys-libs/
75     app-xemacs/ games-mud/ net-dialup/ unix2tcp/
76     berlin-base/ games-puzzle/ net-dns/ x11-base/
77     dev-ada/ games-roguelike/ net-firewall/ x11-libs/
78     dev-cpp/ games-rpg/ net-fs/ x11-misc/
79     dev-db/ games-server/ net-ftp/ x11-plugins/
80     dev-dotnet/ games-simulation/ net-im/ x11-terms/
81     dev-embedded/ games-sports/ net-irc/ x11-themes/
82     dev-games/ games-strategy/ net-libs/ x11-wm/
83     dev-haskell/ games-util/ net-mail/ xfce-base/
84     dev-java/ glep/ net-misc/ xfce-extra/
85     dev-lang/ gnome-apps/ net-nds/
86     dev-libs/ gnome-base/ net-news/
87     dev-lisp/ gnome-extra/ net-p2p/
88     </pre>
89    
90     <p>
91     As you can see, the Portage tree has several subdirectories. Most of them are
92     the <e>categories</e> in which the Gentoo packages, called <e>ebuilds</e>,
93     reside. Take a look at, for instance, <path>app-office</path>:
94     </p>
95    
96     <pre caption="Viewing a category">
97     # <i>cd app-office; ls --classify</i>
98     abiword/ gnotime/ kmymoney2/ ooodi/ plan/ timestamp.x
99     dia/ gnucash/ koffice/ oooqs/ qhacc/
100     dia2code/ gnumeric/ lxbank/ openoffice/ sc/
101     facturalux/ ical/ lyx/ openoffice-bin/ scribus/
102     gaby/ kbudget/ mdbtools/ openoffice-ximian/ siag/
103     gnofin/ khacc/ mrproject/ phprojekt/ texmacs/
104     </pre>
105    
106     <p>
107     Inside a category you will find the packages belonging to that category, with a
108 swift 1.12 separate directory for each package. Let us take a look at the <c>openoffice</c>
109 swift 1.2 package:
110     </p>
111    
112     <pre caption="Viewing a package">
113     # <i>cd openoffice; ls --classify</i>
114     ChangeLog files/ openoffice-1.0.3-r1.ebuild openoffice-1.1.0-r2.ebuild
115     Manifest metadata.xml openoffice-1.1.0-r1.ebuild openoffice-1.1.0.ebuild
116     </pre>
117    
118     <p>
119     Remember that we told you that a Gentoo package is called an ebuild? Well, in
120     the example directory four of such ebuilds are stored. Their naming is
121     almost identical: they only differ in the version name.
122     You are free to view the contents of such a package: they are plain scripts. We
123     will not discuss it right now as it isn't important to know if you plan on just
124     using Gentoo.
125     </p>
126    
127     <p>
128     The other files are the <path>ChangeLog</path> (which contains a listing of all
129     the changes done to the ebuilds), <path>Manifest</path> (which contains the
130     checksums and permissions of all the files in the directory) and
131     <path>metadata.xml</path> (which contains more information about the package,
132 swift 1.6 such as the responsible development group -- called <e>herd</e> -- and a more
133 swift 1.2 extensive description).
134     </p>
135    
136     <p>
137     Inside the <path>files</path> directory you will find extra files, needed by
138     Portage: digests (checksums and permissions of the files needed by a single
139     version of the package), patches, example configuration files, etc.
140     </p>
141    
142     <pre caption="Viewing the extra files">
143     # <i>cd files; ls --classify</i>
144     1.0.3/ digest-openoffice-1.0.3-r1 digest-openoffice-1.1.0-r1
145     1.1.0/ digest-openoffice-1.1.0 digest-openoffice-1.1.0-r2
146     # <i>cd 1.1.0; ls --classify</i>
147     fixed-gcc.patch ooffice-wrapper-1.3
148     newstlportfix.patch openoffice-1.1.0-linux-2.6-fix.patch
149     no-mozab.patch openoffice-1.1.0-sparc64-fix.patch
150     nptl.patch
151     </pre>
152    
153     <p>
154     If you go back to the root of the Portage tree (<path>/usr/portage</path>) you
155     will notice that there are other, non-category directories too. We will discuss
156     those later in this chapter.
157     </p>
158    
159 swift 1.1 </body>
160     </subsection>
161     <subsection>
162     <title>Search for a Package</title>
163     <body>
164    
165 swift 1.2 <p>
166     If you are new to Linux or Gentoo, you might not know what tool you need for
167     what job. To facilitate searching, <c>emerge</c> provides you with a way to
168     search through the available packages on your system. There are two ways you can
169     search through packages: by <e>name</e>, or by <e>name</e> and
170     <e>description</e>.
171     </p>
172    
173     <p>
174     To search through the Portage tree by name, use <c>emerge search</c>. For
175     instance, to find out more about <c>mozilla</c>:
176     </p>
177    
178     <pre caption="Showing information about mozilla">
179     # <i>emerge search mozilla</i>
180     Searching...
181     [ Results for search key : mozilla ]
182     [ Applications found : 5 ]
183     <comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
184     * net-www/mozilla
185     Latest version available: 1.5-r1
186     Latest version installed: 1.4-r3
187     Size of downloaded files: 29,153 kB
188     Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org
189     Description: The Mozilla Web Browser
190    
191     * net-www/mozilla-firebird
192     Latest version available: 0.7
193     Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
194     Size of downloaded files: 37,850 kB
195     Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org/projects/firebird/
196     Description: The Mozilla Firebird Web Browser
197     <comment>(...)</comment>
198     </pre>
199    
200     <p>
201     If you want to include a search through the descriptions too, use the
202     <c>--searchdesc</c> argument:
203     </p>
204    
205     <pre caption="Search through the descriptions too">
206     # <i>emerge --searchdesc mozilla</i>
207     Searching...
208     [ Results for search key : mozilla ]
209     [ Applications found : 10 ]
210     <comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
211     * dev-libs/nss-3.8
212     Latest version available: 3.8
213     Latest version installed: 3.8
214     Size of downloaded files: 2,782 kB
215     Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org/projects/security/pki/nss/
216     Description: Mozilla's Netscape Security Services Library that implements PKI support
217     </pre>
218    
219     <p>
220     As you can see, the output of <c>emerge</c> informs you about the category and
221     name of the package, the available version, the currently installed version,
222     the size of the downloaded files, the homepage and the small description.
223     </p>
224    
225     <p>
226     You see something new? Yes, <e>downloaded files</e>. When you tell Portage to
227 swift 1.4 install a package, it of course needs to have the necessary sources (or
228 swift 1.6 precompiled packages) available. It therefore checks the contents of
229 swift 1.15 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> (for source code) or
230 swift 1.2 <path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> (for precompiled packages) to see if the
231     necessary files are already available. If not, it downloads the necessary files
232     and places them in those directories.
233 swift 1.14 </p>
234 swift 1.2
235 swift 1.14 <!--
236 swift 1.2 <note>
237 swift 1.14 Searching the Portage Tree, especially when using <c>- -searchdesc</c>, is very
238 swift 1.2 time consuming. There are other, more performant tools available. We will
239     describe those in the chapter on <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=7">Gentoolkit and
240     Other Tools</uri>.
241     </note>
242 swift 1.14 -->
243 swift 1.2
244 swift 1.1 </body>
245     </subsection>
246 swift 1.3 <subsection>
247     <title>Viewing the ChangeLog</title>
248     <body>
249    
250     <p>
251     While browsing through the Portage Tree, you saw that there was a ChangeLog for
252     each package. You can view this ChangeLog with <c>emerge</c> too. Use the
253     <c>--pretend --changelog</c> (<c>-pl</c> in short) options. As an example we
254     will view the ChangeLog entries for <c>gnumeric</c>:
255     </p>
256    
257     <pre caption="Viewing the ChangeLog entries for gnumeric">
258     # <i>emerge --pretend --changelog gnumeric</i>
259     </pre>
260    
261     </body>
262     </subsection>
263 swift 1.1 </section>
264     <section>
265     <title>Updating Portage</title>
266     <subsection>
267 swift 1.2 <title>Introduction</title>
268     <body>
269    
270     <p>
271     Searching through Portage is nice, but if you don't update your Portage Tree
272     regularly, you will be stuck with the packages and versions available on your
273 swift 1.6 system. This means that your system will get outdated pretty soon and that
274     you will be missing bugfixes and remedies for possible security problems.
275 swift 1.2 </p>
276    
277     <p>
278     There are several ways to update your Portage Tree. The most popular method is
279     by using one of our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">rsync mirrors</uri>.
280     Another one is by using a Portage snapshot (in case a firewall or unavailability
281     of a network prohibits the use of the rsync server).
282     </p>
283    
284     </body>
285     </subsection>
286     <subsection>
287     <title>Selecting a Mirror for rsync</title>
288 swift 1.1 <body>
289    
290 swift 1.2 <p>
291     It is adviseable to first select a fast <uri
292     link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror</uri> close to you. You can do this manually
293     (by setting the <c>SYNC</c> variable in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>) or use
294     <c>mirrorselect</c> to do this for you automatically. As the <c>SYNC</c>
295     variable will be discussed later on, we will focus on using <c>mirrorselect</c>.
296     First install <c>mirrorselect</c> by emerging it:
297     </p>
298    
299     <pre caption="Installing mirrorselect">
300     # <i>emerge --usepkg mirrorselect</i>
301     </pre>
302    
303     <p>
304     Now run <c>mirrorselect</c> to automatically select mirrors for you (it will
305 swift 1.15 also setup Portage to use a mirror for the source code):
306 swift 1.2 </p>
307    
308     <pre caption="Running mirrorselect">
309     # <i>mirrorselect -a -s3</i>
310     </pre>
311    
312 swift 1.1 </body>
313     </subsection>
314     <subsection>
315 swift 1.2 <title>Updating Portage</title>
316 swift 1.1 <body>
317 swift 1.2
318     <p>
319     To update Portage using rsync, simply run <c>emerge sync</c>:
320     </p>
321    
322     <pre caption="Updating Portage using emerge sync">
323     # <i>emerge sync</i>
324     </pre>
325    
326     <p>
327     If this fails (due to network problems, or a firewall), you can try using
328     <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will download a Portage Tree snapshot using
329     <c>wget</c>. This also means that you can use proxies if you want. We discussed
330     how to setup your system to use proxies during the Gentoo installation.
331     </p>
332    
333     <pre caption="Updating Portage using emerge-webrsync">
334     # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
335     </pre>
336 swift 1.1
337     </body>
338     </subsection>
339     </section>
340     <section>
341     <title>Maintaining Software</title>
342     <subsection>
343 swift 1.8 <title>Building or Prebuilt?</title>
344 swift 1.1 <body>
345    
346 swift 1.3 <p>
347     Gentoo provides ebuilds, the Gentoo packages if you like. But when you want to
348 swift 1.15 install such an ebuild, you can choose between <e>building</e> the package and
349 swift 1.8 using a <e>prebuilt</e> package. But what are the advantages/disadvantages of
350 swift 1.3 both approaches, and can they be used next to each other?
351     </p>
352    
353     <p>
354     As you probably have guessed, building packages takes a lot of time (especially
355     if you have little resources or want to build big packages, such as <uri
356     link="http://www.kde.org">KDE</uri>, <uri
357     link="http://www.openoffice.org">OpenOffice.org</uri>, etc.). By building the
358     package, you can use the <c>USE</c> setting to tweak the package to your system.
359 swift 1.4 Of course, you can also define high optimization options (in the <c>CFLAGS</c>
360 swift 1.3 and <c>CXXFLAGS</c> variables) to compile the package with.
361     </p>
362    
363     <p>
364 swift 1.8 Using prebuilt packages improves the installation time (as no more compilation
365 swift 1.3 is needed), but you will lose the advantages of the <c>USE</c> setting and the
366     <c>CFLAGS</c> &amp; <c>CXXFLAGS</c> variables.
367     </p>
368    
369     <p>
370 swift 1.8 As previously stated, prebuilt packages are stored in the
371 swift 1.15 <path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> directory, while the source code of the
372     packages is placed in <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. If you have finished
373     installing a package you can remove the package or source code from the
374     respective directory. However, you might want to keep the package/source code of
375 swift 1.3 the latest version, just in case you want to reinstall the package (so you don't
376     have to redownload it).
377     </p>
378    
379     </body>
380     </subsection>
381     <subsection>
382     <title>Installing Software from Sources</title>
383     <body>
384    
385     <p>
386     Okay, enough talking, let's cut to the chase. To install a package, you will use
387 swift 1.8 the <c>emerge</c> command. If you don't want to use any prebuilt packages, you
388 swift 1.3 can just use <c>emerge &lt;package-name&gt;</c> or <c>emerge
389     &lt;category&gt;/&lt;package-name&gt;</c>. As an example we'll install
390     <c>gnumeric</c>:
391     </p>
392    
393     <pre caption="Building gnumeric">
394     # <i>emerge gnumeric</i>
395     </pre>
396    
397     <p>
398 swift 1.15 This will download the source code for you and unpacks, compiles and installs
399     the package on your system. It will also do the same for all the dependencies.
400     If you want to see what dependencies will be installed with it, use the
401 swift 1.3 <c>--pretend</c> option (<c>-p</c> in short):
402     </p>
403    
404     <pre caption="Pretending to build gnumeric">
405     # <i>emerge --pretend gnumeric</i>
406     </pre>
407    
408     <p>
409 swift 1.15 If you want to download the source code of the package and its dependencies,
410 swift 1.3 but don't want to build the package, use the <c>--fetchonly</c> option
411     (<c>-f</c> in short):
412     </p>
413    
414     <pre caption="Fetching sources for gnumeric">
415     # <i>emerge --fetchonly gnumeric</i>
416     </pre>
417    
418     <p>
419     If you want to see where <c>emerge</c> downloads the sources from, combine the
420     <c>--fetchonly</c> and <c>--pretend</c> options:
421     </p>
422    
423     <pre caption="Showing URLs of the sources for gnumeric">
424     # <i>emerge --fetchonly --pretend gnumeric</i>
425     </pre>
426    
427     <p>
428     You can also opt to install a specific version of a package.
429     For instance, if you want to install a gnumeric version older than 1.2 -- for
430     any reason whatsoever :) you would type:
431     </p>
432    
433     <pre caption="Installing a specific gnumeric version">
434     # <i>emerge "&lt;gnumeric-1.2"</i>
435     </pre>
436    
437     <p>
438 swift 1.4 Other possibilities are of course "&gt;" (later version) and "=" (the exact
439 swift 1.3 version).
440     </p>
441    
442     </body>
443     </subsection>
444     <subsection>
445 swift 1.8 <title>Installing Prebuilt Packages</title>
446 swift 1.3 <body>
447    
448     <p>
449 swift 1.8 When you want to install a prebuilt package, you should use the <c>--usepkg</c>
450 swift 1.3 option (<c>-k</c> in short). This will use the binary package available in
451     <path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> <e>if</e> the package and the version of
452     the application you want to install match.
453     </p>
454    
455 swift 1.8 <pre caption="Installing a prebuilt package for gnumeric">
456 swift 1.3 # <i>emerge --usepkg gnumeric</i>
457     </pre>
458    
459     <p>
460     If you want to use the binary package, even if the versions don't match, use
461     <c>--usepkgonly</c> (<c>-K</c> in short).
462     </p>
463    
464 swift 1.8 <pre caption="Installing the prebuilt package for gnumeric">
465 swift 1.3 # <i>emerge --usepkgonly gnumeric</i>
466     </pre>
467    
468     <p>
469 swift 1.8 If you don't have the prebuilt package on your system yet, you can have
470 swift 1.3 <c>emerge</c> download it from a mirror, defined in the <c>PORTAGE_BINHOST</c>
471     variable declared in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>.
472     </p>
473    
474     <p>
475     To download the binary package in case this package doesn't exist on
476 swift 1.10 your system already, use <c>--getbinpkg</c> (<c>-g</c> in short):
477 swift 1.3 </p>
478    
479 swift 1.8 <pre caption="Downloading and installing a prebuilt package for gnumeric">
480 swift 1.10 # <i>emerge --getbinpkg gnumeric</i>
481 swift 1.3 </pre>
482    
483     <p>
484     This will download the package and the package-related information for you and
485     install it on your system, together with the dependencies. If you want to see
486 swift 1.10 what dependencies will be installed with it, use the <c>--pretend</c> option
487 swift 1.3 (<c>-p</c> in short):
488     </p>
489    
490 swift 1.8 <pre caption="Pretending to download the prebuilt packages for gnumeric">
491 swift 1.10 # <i>emerge --getbinpkg --pretend gnumeric</i>
492 swift 1.3 </pre>
493    
494     <p>
495 swift 1.8 You can also opt to download the prebuilt package (and the package-related
496 swift 1.3 information) <e>without</e> checking the information on your local system and
497 swift 1.8 <e>without</e> using the prebuilt package already on your system (if
498 swift 1.10 applicable), use the <c>--getbinpkgonly</c> option (<c>-G</c> in short):
499 swift 1.3 </p>
500    
501 swift 1.8 <pre caption="Installing a prebuilt package without using local information">
502 swift 1.10 # <i>emerge --getbinpkgonly gnumeric</i>
503 swift 1.3 </pre>
504    
505     <p>
506     You can also opt to install a specific version of a package.
507     For instance, if you want to install a gnumeric version older than 1.2 -- for
508     any reason whatsoever :) you would type:
509     </p>
510    
511     <pre caption="Installing a specific gnumeric version">
512     # <i>emerge --usepkg "&lt;gnumeric-1.2"</i>
513     </pre>
514    
515     <p>
516 swift 1.4 Other possibilities are of course "&gt;" (later version) and "=" (the exact
517 swift 1.3 version).
518     </p>
519    
520    
521 swift 1.1 </body>
522     </subsection>
523     <subsection>
524 swift 1.11 <title>Working with Dependencies</title>
525     <body>
526    
527     <p>
528     Portage has an extensive support for dependency handling. Although you usually
529     don't need to even think about this (as dependencies are automatically handled
530     by Portage) some users might want to know how you can work with <c>emerge</c>
531     and dependencies.
532     </p>
533    
534     <p>
535     For instance, if you want Portage to pretend that none of the dependencies of a
536     package are installed, you can use <c>--emptytree</c> (<c>-e</c> in short). This
537     is useful with <c>--pretend</c> to display a complete tree of dependencies for
538     any particular package. Without <c>--pretend</c>, <c>emerge</c> will (re)compile
539     all listed packages. However, <c>glibc</c> will <e>not</e> be listed as
540     dependency for safety reasons.
541     </p>
542    
543     <pre caption="Show all dependencies of gnumeric">
544     # <i>emerge --emptytree --pretend gnumeric</i>
545     </pre>
546    
547     <p>
548     Another argument is <c>--nodeps</c>, which will ask Portage to try install the
549     given package without taking care of the dependencies. It is trivial that this
550     can lead to failures.
551     </p>
552    
553     <pre caption="Installing gnumeric without taking care of the dependencies">
554     # <i>emerge --nodeps gnumeric</i>
555     </pre>
556    
557     <p>
558 swift 1.15 The opposite of <c>--nodeps</c> is <c>--onlydeps</c>, which will have Portage
559 swift 1.11 install all dependencies of a given package, but not the package itself:
560     </p>
561    
562     <pre caption="Installing the dependencies of gnumeric">
563     # <i>emerge --onlydeps gnumeric</i>
564     </pre>
565    
566     </body>
567     </subsection>
568     <subsection>
569 swift 1.3 <title>Updating your System</title>
570 swift 1.1 <body>
571    
572 swift 1.3 <p>
573     Portage knows two special tags to denote a set of software packages:
574     <e>system</e> and <e>world</e>. You have already seen the former while
575     installing Gentoo if you didn't use a <e>stage3</e> installation. To refresh
576     things: <e>system</e> is the collection of <e>core</e> packages, necessary to
577     have a working Gentoo system.
578     </p>
579    
580     <p>
581     The <e>world</e> tag consists of all software you have installed yourself on
582     your system plus the <e>system</e> information. In other words, every time you
583     emerge a package using <c>emerge &lt;package-name&gt;</c>, the
584     <c>&lt;package-name&gt;</c> is registered in the <e>world</e> file
585     (<path>/var/cache/edb/world</path>). Dependencies are <e>not</e> part of the
586     <e>world</e> file, but we will get to that later.
587     </p>
588    
589     <p>
590     If you want to update the system packages, use the <c>--update</c> option
591     (<c>-u</c> in short):
592     </p>
593    
594     <pre caption="Updating the system packages">
595     # <i>emerge --update system</i>
596     </pre>
597    
598     <p>
599     An identical approach can be used for the world packages:
600     </p>
601    
602     <pre caption="Updating your entire system">
603     # <i>emerge --update world</i>
604     </pre>
605    
606     <p>
607     Again, if you want to see what <c>emerge</c> wants to update, use the
608     <c>--pretend</c> option together with the <c>--update</c> option:
609     </p>
610    
611     <pre caption="Pretending to update your entire system">
612     # <i>emerge --pretend --update world</i>
613     <comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
614     [ebuild U ] net-misc/wget-1.9-r1 [1.9]
615     [ebuild UD] media-video/dvdauthor-0.5.0 [0.5.3]
616     [ebuild U ] net-analyzer/ethereal-0.9.16 [0.9.14]
617     </pre>
618    
619     <p>
620     Right next to the word "ebuild" you will notice a letter (or combination of
621     letters) which gives you more information about the package:
622     </p>
623    
624     <ul>
625     <li>
626     <e>B</e> (blocks) The package listed to the left is blocking the emerge of
627     the package listed to the right
628     </li>
629     <li>
630     <e>N</e> (new) The package is new to your system and will be emerged for the
631     first time
632     </li>
633     <li>
634     <e>R</e> (reemerge) The package isn't new, but needs to be reemerged
635     </li>
636     <li>
637 swift 1.15 <e>F</e> (fetch) The package requires that you download the source code
638 swift 1.3 manually (for instance due to licencing issues)
639     </li>
640     <li>
641     <e>U</e> (update) The package already exists on your system but will be
642     upgraded
643     </li>
644     <li>
645     <e>UD</e> (downgrade) The package already exists on your system but will be
646     downgraded
647     </li>
648     <li>
649     <e>U-</e> (slot warning) The package you have installed on your system
650     is listed as a package that can not coexist with a different version, but
651     your update does. The update will be installed and the older version will be
652     removed.
653     </li>
654     </ul>
655    
656     <p>
657     In certain cases, an update may mean a downgrade (i.e. install an older version
658     instead of a newer version). If you don't want this to happen, use the
659     <c>--upgradeonly</c> option (<c>-U</c> in short):
660     </p>
661    
662     <pre caption="Upgrading your entire system">
663     # <i>emerge --update --upgradeonly world</i>
664     </pre>
665    
666     <p>
667 swift 1.4 Of course, we are talking here about <e>system</e> and <e>world</e>, but you can
668 swift 1.3 perform the same actions for individual software packages.
669     </p>
670    
671 swift 1.1 </body>
672     </subsection>
673     <subsection>
674     <title>Removing Software</title>
675     <body>
676    
677 swift 1.3 <p>
678     If you want to remove software from your system, you can use the <c>unmerge</c>
679     option (<c>-C</c> - capital C - in short):
680     </p>
681    
682     <pre caption="Uninstalling software">
683     # <i>emerge unmerge gnumeric</i>
684     </pre>
685    
686     <p>
687     If you want to test a removal (but not perform it), you can use <c>--pretend</c>
688     again:
689     </p>
690    
691     <pre caption="Pretending to uninstall software">
692     # <i>emerge --pretend unmerge gnumeric</i>
693     </pre>
694    
695     <warn>
696     Portage doesn't verify if a package is a dependency for another
697     installed package. It also doesn't warn you if the package is part of
698     <e>system</e>, i.e. a core application necessary for the correct functioning of
699     your system!
700     </warn>
701 swift 1.11
702     <p>
703     Once the unmerge begins you will see a long list of filenames belonging to the
704     package. Some of these filenames will have a flag displayed to the
705     left of the filename. The flags <c>!mtime</c>, <c>!empty</c>, and <c>cfgpro</c>
706     specify reasons why certain files are not being removed while the package is.
707     Files listed without any of these three flags are removed from the
708     filesystem successfully. The three flags specify the following reasons:
709     </p>
710    
711     <ul>
712     <li>
713     <c>!mtime</c> : The listed file has been changed since it was installed,
714     probably by you or some tool
715     </li>
716     <li>
717     <c>!empty</c> : The listed directory is not empty
718     </li>
719     <li>
720 swift 1.16 <c>cfgpro</c> : This file is located inside a protected directory and will
721     not be touched for safety
722 swift 1.11 </li>
723     </ul>
724 swift 1.3
725 swift 1.1 </body>
726     </subsection>
727     </section>
728     <section>
729     <title>Software Availability</title>
730     <subsection>
731     <title>ARCH or not?</title>
732     <body>
733    
734 swift 1.3 <p>
735     Gentoo places its packages in two possible stadia called <e>ARCH</e> and
736     <e>~ARCH</e>. Don't take this literally: the stadia depend on the architecture
737     you are using. In other words, for x86-based systems you have <e>x86</e> and
738     <e>~x86</e>, for ppc-based systems you have <e>ppc</e> and <e>~ppc</e> etc.
739     </p>
740    
741     <p>
742     The <e>~ARCH</e> stadium means that the package works for the developer in
743     charge of the package, but that the package hasn't been tested thoroughly enough
744     by the community to be placed in <e>ARCH</e>. <e>~ARCH</e> packages usually go
745     to <e>ARCH</e> after being bugfree for a sufficient amount of time.
746     </p>
747    
748     <p>
749     Your system will use <e>ARCH</e> packages per default. If you want to live on
750     the edge, don't mind having a broken package once in a while, and you like
751     submitting bugreports to <uri
752     link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugs.gentoo.org</uri>, then you can opt to use
753     <e>~ARCH</e> packages. To "move" your system to a <e>~ARCH</e>-using system,
754     edit the <c>ACCEPT_KEYWORDS</c> variable in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so that
755     it reads <e>~ARCH</e> (again: for x86-based systems: <e>~x86</e>, etc.).
756     </p>
757    
758     <p>
759     If you want to update your system now, you will notice that <e>a lot</e> of
760     packages will be updated!
761     </p>
762    
763 swift 1.1 </body>
764     </subsection>
765     <subsection>
766     <title>Masked Packages</title>
767     <body>
768    
769 swift 1.3 <p>
770     When you want to install a package, you might come across the following message:
771     </p>
772    
773     <pre caption="Message about masked packages">
774     Calculating dependencies
775     !!! <comment>all ebuilds that could satisfy </comment>&lt;your package&gt;<comment> have been masked.</comment>
776     </pre>
777    
778     <p>
779     A package can be masked due to two reasons:
780     </p>
781    
782     <ol>
783     <li>The package is in <e>~ARCH</e> while you use <e>ARCH</e></li>
784     <li>The package is hard-masked explicitly</li>
785     </ol>
786    
787     <p>
788     If the package is masked because of the first reason, and you <e>really</e> want
789     to install it (knowing that there <e>is</e> a reason why it isn't available in
790     <e>ARCH</e>), you can temporarily accept <e>~ARCH</e> packages:
791     </p>
792    
793     <pre caption="Temporarily accepting ~ARCH packages">
794     # <i>ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~x86" emerge gnumeric</i>
795     </pre>
796    
797     <p>
798     A package is hardmasked if it is listed in
799     <path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path>. If you read this file, you
800     will also read the reason why the package is hardmasked (it is usually added as
801     a comment). If you want to install the package nevertheless (despite all the
802     possible warnings we could ever throw at your head about "breaking your system",
803     "breaks other packages", or "badly needs testing"), create the
804     <path>/etc/portage/package.unmask</path> file and list the package in it (use
805     the same format as is used in <path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path>).
806     </p>
807    
808     <p>
809     Do <e>not</e> alter the <path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path> file as
810     all changes are undone the next time you update your Portage tree.
811     </p>
812    
813     <p>
814     Another trick to circumvent the "masked package" problem is to install the
815     package using the full path. This will ignore both the <c>ACCEPT_KEYWORD</c>
816     settings and the <path>package.mask</path> listing.
817     </p>
818    
819     <pre caption="Installing a package without checking for stadium / masking">
820     # <i>emerge /usr/portage/app-office/gnumeric/gnumeric-1.2.0.ebuild</i>
821     </pre>
822    
823 swift 1.1 </body>
824     </subsection>
825     <subsection>
826     <title>Blocked Packages</title>
827     <body>
828 swift 1.3
829     <p>
830     You have a situation when you receive the following error on your screen:
831     </p>
832    
833     <pre caption="Blocking package">
834     [blocks B ] gnome-base/bonobo-activation (from pkg gnome-base/libbonobo-2.4.0)
835     </pre>
836    
837     <p>
838     In the above example, the package <c>bonobo-activation</c> is blocking the
839     emerge of <c>libbonobo</c>. To resolve this issue, remove the
840     <c>bonobo-activation</c> package and continue:
841     </p>
842    
843     <pre caption="Resolving a blocking situation">
844     # <i>emerge unmerge bonobo-activation</i>
845     </pre>
846 swift 1.1
847     </body>
848     </subsection>
849     </section>
850     </sections>

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