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1 swift 1.1 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
2     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
3    
4 swift 1.17 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.16 2004/01/06 15:39:48 swift Exp $ -->
5 swift 1.1
6     <sections>
7     <section>
8     <title>Obtaining Package Information</title>
9     <subsection>
10     <title>The Lord of All Tools: emerge</title>
11     <body>
12    
13 swift 1.2 <p>
14 swift 1.5 The main Portage tool that most users will use is <c>emerge</c>. We have already
15     used it during the Gentoo installation and in the previous chapter, but we just
16     briefly explained how to use it. This chapter will elaborate on <c>emerge</c>
17 swift 1.13 and teach you how to use <c>emerge</c> to fix all your software-related needs.
18 swift 1.2 </p>
19    
20     <p>
21     <c>emerge</c> is the command used to install, remove, query and maintain
22     software packages. It is a front-end for <c>ebuild</c>; people interested in
23     becoming Gentoo professionals will learn how to use <c>ebuild</c> later on. For
24     now, we will focus on <c>emerge</c> as it has functionality that <c>ebuild</c>
25     lacks (such as resolving dependencies, searching the Portage tree, etc.).
26     </p>
27    
28     <p>
29     Since <c>emerge</c> is the most important tool for Gentoo users, it has an
30     extensive manpage you can read by issuing <c>man emerge</c>. You can also view
31     the in-command help by running <c>emerge --help</c>.
32     </p>
33    
34     <pre caption="Retrieving help for emerge">
35     # <i>man emerge</i>
36     # <i>emerge --help</i>
37     </pre>
38    
39     </body>
40     </subsection>
41     <subsection>
42     <title>The Portage Tree</title>
43     <body>
44    
45     <p>
46     Before we continue describing <c>emerge</c>, let us first take a look at the
47     Portage Tree. Go to <path>/usr/portage</path> and do a listing of the available
48 swift 1.6 directories. We use <c>ls --classify</c> to list the contents of a
49     directory as it will show directories with a trailing "/".
50 swift 1.2 </p>
51    
52     <pre caption="Viewing the Portage Tree">
53     # <i>cd /usr/portage; ls --classify</i>
54     app-admin/ dev-ml/ gnome-libs/ net-print/
55     app-arch/ dev-perl/ gnome-office/ net-wireless/
56     app-benchmarks/ dev-php/ header.txt net-www/
57     app-cdr/ dev-python/ incoming/ net-zope/
58     app-crypt/ dev-ruby/ jython/ packages/
59     app-dicts/ dev-tcltk/ kde-apps/ profiles/
60     app-doc/ dev-tex/ kde-base/ releases/
61     app-editors/ dev-util/ kde-i18n/ scripts/
62     app-emacs/ distfiles/ kde-libs/ sec-policy/
63     app-emulation/ eclass/ licenses/ skel.ChangeLog
64     app-games/ experimental/ media-fonts/ skel.ebuild
65     app-gnustep/ files/ media-gfx/ skel.metadata.xml
66     app-i18n/ fresco-base/ media-libs/ snapshots/
67     app-misc/ games-action/ media-plugins/ sys-apps/
68     app-office/ games-arcade/ media-radio/ sys-build/
69     app-pda/ games-board/ media-sound/ sys-cluster/
70     app-portage/ games-emulation/ media-tv/ sys-devel/
71     app-sci/ games-engines/ media-video/ sys-fs/
72     app-shells/ games-fps/ metadata/ sys-kernel/
73     app-text/ games-kids/ net-analyzer/ sys-kmods/
74     app-vim/ games-misc/ net-apache/ sys-libs/
75     app-xemacs/ games-mud/ net-dialup/ unix2tcp/
76     berlin-base/ games-puzzle/ net-dns/ x11-base/
77     dev-ada/ games-roguelike/ net-firewall/ x11-libs/
78     dev-cpp/ games-rpg/ net-fs/ x11-misc/
79     dev-db/ games-server/ net-ftp/ x11-plugins/
80     dev-dotnet/ games-simulation/ net-im/ x11-terms/
81     dev-embedded/ games-sports/ net-irc/ x11-themes/
82     dev-games/ games-strategy/ net-libs/ x11-wm/
83     dev-haskell/ games-util/ net-mail/ xfce-base/
84     dev-java/ glep/ net-misc/ xfce-extra/
85     dev-lang/ gnome-apps/ net-nds/
86     dev-libs/ gnome-base/ net-news/
87     dev-lisp/ gnome-extra/ net-p2p/
88     </pre>
89    
90     <p>
91     As you can see, the Portage tree has several subdirectories. Most of them are
92     the <e>categories</e> in which the Gentoo packages, called <e>ebuilds</e>,
93     reside. Take a look at, for instance, <path>app-office</path>:
94     </p>
95    
96     <pre caption="Viewing a category">
97     # <i>cd app-office; ls --classify</i>
98     abiword/ gnotime/ kmymoney2/ ooodi/ plan/ timestamp.x
99     dia/ gnucash/ koffice/ oooqs/ qhacc/
100     dia2code/ gnumeric/ lxbank/ openoffice/ sc/
101     facturalux/ ical/ lyx/ openoffice-bin/ scribus/
102     gaby/ kbudget/ mdbtools/ openoffice-ximian/ siag/
103     gnofin/ khacc/ mrproject/ phprojekt/ texmacs/
104     </pre>
105    
106     <p>
107     Inside a category you will find the packages belonging to that category, with a
108 swift 1.12 separate directory for each package. Let us take a look at the <c>openoffice</c>
109 swift 1.2 package:
110     </p>
111    
112     <pre caption="Viewing a package">
113     # <i>cd openoffice; ls --classify</i>
114     ChangeLog files/ openoffice-1.0.3-r1.ebuild openoffice-1.1.0-r2.ebuild
115     Manifest metadata.xml openoffice-1.1.0-r1.ebuild openoffice-1.1.0.ebuild
116     </pre>
117    
118     <p>
119     Remember that we told you that a Gentoo package is called an ebuild? Well, in
120     the example directory four of such ebuilds are stored. Their naming is
121     almost identical: they only differ in the version name.
122     You are free to view the contents of such a package: they are plain scripts. We
123     will not discuss it right now as it isn't important to know if you plan on just
124     using Gentoo.
125     </p>
126    
127     <p>
128     The other files are the <path>ChangeLog</path> (which contains a listing of all
129     the changes done to the ebuilds), <path>Manifest</path> (which contains the
130     checksums and permissions of all the files in the directory) and
131     <path>metadata.xml</path> (which contains more information about the package,
132 swift 1.6 such as the responsible development group -- called <e>herd</e> -- and a more
133 swift 1.2 extensive description).
134     </p>
135    
136     <p>
137     Inside the <path>files</path> directory you will find extra files, needed by
138     Portage: digests (checksums and permissions of the files needed by a single
139     version of the package), patches, example configuration files, etc.
140     </p>
141    
142     <pre caption="Viewing the extra files">
143     # <i>cd files; ls --classify</i>
144     1.0.3/ digest-openoffice-1.0.3-r1 digest-openoffice-1.1.0-r1
145     1.1.0/ digest-openoffice-1.1.0 digest-openoffice-1.1.0-r2
146     # <i>cd 1.1.0; ls --classify</i>
147     fixed-gcc.patch ooffice-wrapper-1.3
148     newstlportfix.patch openoffice-1.1.0-linux-2.6-fix.patch
149     no-mozab.patch openoffice-1.1.0-sparc64-fix.patch
150     nptl.patch
151     </pre>
152    
153     <p>
154     If you go back to the root of the Portage tree (<path>/usr/portage</path>) you
155     will notice that there are other, non-category directories too. We will discuss
156     those later in this chapter.
157     </p>
158    
159 swift 1.1 </body>
160     </subsection>
161     <subsection>
162     <title>Search for a Package</title>
163     <body>
164    
165 swift 1.2 <p>
166     If you are new to Linux or Gentoo, you might not know what tool you need for
167     what job. To facilitate searching, <c>emerge</c> provides you with a way to
168     search through the available packages on your system. There are two ways you can
169     search through packages: by <e>name</e>, or by <e>name</e> and
170     <e>description</e>.
171     </p>
172    
173     <p>
174     To search through the Portage tree by name, use <c>emerge search</c>. For
175     instance, to find out more about <c>mozilla</c>:
176     </p>
177    
178     <pre caption="Showing information about mozilla">
179     # <i>emerge search mozilla</i>
180     Searching...
181     [ Results for search key : mozilla ]
182     [ Applications found : 5 ]
183     <comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
184     * net-www/mozilla
185     Latest version available: 1.5-r1
186     Latest version installed: 1.4-r3
187     Size of downloaded files: 29,153 kB
188     Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org
189     Description: The Mozilla Web Browser
190    
191     * net-www/mozilla-firebird
192     Latest version available: 0.7
193     Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
194     Size of downloaded files: 37,850 kB
195     Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org/projects/firebird/
196     Description: The Mozilla Firebird Web Browser
197     <comment>(...)</comment>
198     </pre>
199    
200     <p>
201     If you want to include a search through the descriptions too, use the
202     <c>--searchdesc</c> argument:
203     </p>
204    
205     <pre caption="Search through the descriptions too">
206     # <i>emerge --searchdesc mozilla</i>
207     Searching...
208     [ Results for search key : mozilla ]
209     [ Applications found : 10 ]
210     <comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
211     * dev-libs/nss-3.8
212     Latest version available: 3.8
213     Latest version installed: 3.8
214     Size of downloaded files: 2,782 kB
215     Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org/projects/security/pki/nss/
216     Description: Mozilla's Netscape Security Services Library that implements PKI support
217     </pre>
218    
219     <p>
220     As you can see, the output of <c>emerge</c> informs you about the category and
221     name of the package, the available version, the currently installed version,
222     the size of the downloaded files, the homepage and the small description.
223     </p>
224    
225     <p>
226     You see something new? Yes, <e>downloaded files</e>. When you tell Portage to
227 swift 1.4 install a package, it of course needs to have the necessary sources (or
228 swift 1.6 precompiled packages) available. It therefore checks the contents of
229 swift 1.15 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> (for source code) or
230 swift 1.2 <path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> (for precompiled packages) to see if the
231     necessary files are already available. If not, it downloads the necessary files
232     and places them in those directories.
233 swift 1.14 </p>
234 swift 1.2
235 swift 1.14 <!--
236 swift 1.2 <note>
237 swift 1.14 Searching the Portage Tree, especially when using <c>- -searchdesc</c>, is very
238 swift 1.2 time consuming. There are other, more performant tools available. We will
239     describe those in the chapter on <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=7">Gentoolkit and
240     Other Tools</uri>.
241     </note>
242 swift 1.14 -->
243 swift 1.2
244 swift 1.1 </body>
245     </subsection>
246 swift 1.3 <subsection>
247     <title>Viewing the ChangeLog</title>
248     <body>
249    
250     <p>
251     While browsing through the Portage Tree, you saw that there was a ChangeLog for
252 swift 1.17 each package. You can view the ChangeLog entries between the available version
253     and the installed version with <c>emerge</c> too. Use the
254 swift 1.3 <c>--pretend --changelog</c> (<c>-pl</c> in short) options. As an example we
255     will view the ChangeLog entries for <c>gnumeric</c>:
256     </p>
257    
258     <pre caption="Viewing the ChangeLog entries for gnumeric">
259     # <i>emerge --pretend --changelog gnumeric</i>
260 swift 1.17 <comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
261     *gnumeric-1.2.2
262    
263     27 Nov 2003; foser &lt;foser@gentoo.org&gt; gnumeric-1.2.2.ebuild :
264     New release, requested in #34492
265     updated deps
266    
267     12 Nov 2003; Jason Wever &lt;weeve@gentoo.org&gt; gnumeric-1.2.0.ebuild:
268     Marked stable on sparc, fixes bug #32405.
269    
270     14 Oct 2003; Jason Wever &lt;weeve@gentoo.org&gt; gnumeric-1.0.8.ebuild:
271     Added ~sparc keyword. Fixes bug #31150.
272 swift 1.3 </pre>
273    
274     </body>
275     </subsection>
276 swift 1.1 </section>
277     <section>
278     <title>Updating Portage</title>
279     <subsection>
280 swift 1.2 <title>Introduction</title>
281     <body>
282    
283     <p>
284     Searching through Portage is nice, but if you don't update your Portage Tree
285     regularly, you will be stuck with the packages and versions available on your
286 swift 1.6 system. This means that your system will get outdated pretty soon and that
287     you will be missing bugfixes and remedies for possible security problems.
288 swift 1.2 </p>
289    
290     <p>
291     There are several ways to update your Portage Tree. The most popular method is
292     by using one of our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">rsync mirrors</uri>.
293     Another one is by using a Portage snapshot (in case a firewall or unavailability
294     of a network prohibits the use of the rsync server).
295     </p>
296    
297     </body>
298     </subsection>
299     <subsection>
300     <title>Selecting a Mirror for rsync</title>
301 swift 1.1 <body>
302    
303 swift 1.2 <p>
304     It is adviseable to first select a fast <uri
305     link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror</uri> close to you. You can do this manually
306     (by setting the <c>SYNC</c> variable in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>) or use
307     <c>mirrorselect</c> to do this for you automatically. As the <c>SYNC</c>
308     variable will be discussed later on, we will focus on using <c>mirrorselect</c>.
309     First install <c>mirrorselect</c> by emerging it:
310     </p>
311    
312     <pre caption="Installing mirrorselect">
313     # <i>emerge --usepkg mirrorselect</i>
314     </pre>
315    
316     <p>
317     Now run <c>mirrorselect</c> to automatically select mirrors for you (it will
318 swift 1.15 also setup Portage to use a mirror for the source code):
319 swift 1.2 </p>
320    
321     <pre caption="Running mirrorselect">
322     # <i>mirrorselect -a -s3</i>
323     </pre>
324    
325 swift 1.1 </body>
326     </subsection>
327     <subsection>
328 swift 1.2 <title>Updating Portage</title>
329 swift 1.1 <body>
330 swift 1.2
331     <p>
332     To update Portage using rsync, simply run <c>emerge sync</c>:
333     </p>
334    
335     <pre caption="Updating Portage using emerge sync">
336     # <i>emerge sync</i>
337     </pre>
338    
339     <p>
340     If this fails (due to network problems, or a firewall), you can try using
341     <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will download a Portage Tree snapshot using
342     <c>wget</c>. This also means that you can use proxies if you want. We discussed
343     how to setup your system to use proxies during the Gentoo installation.
344     </p>
345    
346     <pre caption="Updating Portage using emerge-webrsync">
347     # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
348     </pre>
349 swift 1.1
350     </body>
351     </subsection>
352     </section>
353     <section>
354     <title>Maintaining Software</title>
355     <subsection>
356 swift 1.8 <title>Building or Prebuilt?</title>
357 swift 1.1 <body>
358    
359 swift 1.3 <p>
360     Gentoo provides ebuilds, the Gentoo packages if you like. But when you want to
361 swift 1.15 install such an ebuild, you can choose between <e>building</e> the package and
362 swift 1.8 using a <e>prebuilt</e> package. But what are the advantages/disadvantages of
363 swift 1.3 both approaches, and can they be used next to each other?
364     </p>
365    
366     <p>
367     As you probably have guessed, building packages takes a lot of time (especially
368     if you have little resources or want to build big packages, such as <uri
369     link="http://www.kde.org">KDE</uri>, <uri
370     link="http://www.openoffice.org">OpenOffice.org</uri>, etc.). By building the
371     package, you can use the <c>USE</c> setting to tweak the package to your system.
372 swift 1.4 Of course, you can also define high optimization options (in the <c>CFLAGS</c>
373 swift 1.3 and <c>CXXFLAGS</c> variables) to compile the package with.
374     </p>
375    
376     <p>
377 swift 1.8 Using prebuilt packages improves the installation time (as no more compilation
378 swift 1.3 is needed), but you will lose the advantages of the <c>USE</c> setting and the
379     <c>CFLAGS</c> &amp; <c>CXXFLAGS</c> variables.
380     </p>
381    
382     <p>
383 swift 1.8 As previously stated, prebuilt packages are stored in the
384 swift 1.15 <path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> directory, while the source code of the
385     packages is placed in <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. If you have finished
386     installing a package you can remove the package or source code from the
387     respective directory. However, you might want to keep the package/source code of
388 swift 1.3 the latest version, just in case you want to reinstall the package (so you don't
389     have to redownload it).
390     </p>
391    
392     </body>
393     </subsection>
394     <subsection>
395     <title>Installing Software from Sources</title>
396     <body>
397    
398     <p>
399     Okay, enough talking, let's cut to the chase. To install a package, you will use
400 swift 1.8 the <c>emerge</c> command. If you don't want to use any prebuilt packages, you
401 swift 1.3 can just use <c>emerge &lt;package-name&gt;</c> or <c>emerge
402     &lt;category&gt;/&lt;package-name&gt;</c>. As an example we'll install
403     <c>gnumeric</c>:
404     </p>
405    
406     <pre caption="Building gnumeric">
407     # <i>emerge gnumeric</i>
408     </pre>
409    
410     <p>
411 swift 1.15 This will download the source code for you and unpacks, compiles and installs
412     the package on your system. It will also do the same for all the dependencies.
413     If you want to see what dependencies will be installed with it, use the
414 swift 1.3 <c>--pretend</c> option (<c>-p</c> in short):
415     </p>
416    
417     <pre caption="Pretending to build gnumeric">
418     # <i>emerge --pretend gnumeric</i>
419     </pre>
420    
421     <p>
422 swift 1.15 If you want to download the source code of the package and its dependencies,
423 swift 1.3 but don't want to build the package, use the <c>--fetchonly</c> option
424     (<c>-f</c> in short):
425     </p>
426    
427     <pre caption="Fetching sources for gnumeric">
428     # <i>emerge --fetchonly gnumeric</i>
429     </pre>
430    
431     <p>
432     If you want to see where <c>emerge</c> downloads the sources from, combine the
433     <c>--fetchonly</c> and <c>--pretend</c> options:
434     </p>
435    
436     <pre caption="Showing URLs of the sources for gnumeric">
437     # <i>emerge --fetchonly --pretend gnumeric</i>
438     </pre>
439    
440     <p>
441     You can also opt to install a specific version of a package.
442     For instance, if you want to install a gnumeric version older than 1.2 -- for
443     any reason whatsoever :) you would type:
444     </p>
445    
446     <pre caption="Installing a specific gnumeric version">
447     # <i>emerge "&lt;gnumeric-1.2"</i>
448     </pre>
449    
450     <p>
451 swift 1.4 Other possibilities are of course "&gt;" (later version) and "=" (the exact
452 swift 1.3 version).
453     </p>
454    
455     </body>
456     </subsection>
457     <subsection>
458 swift 1.8 <title>Installing Prebuilt Packages</title>
459 swift 1.3 <body>
460    
461     <p>
462 swift 1.8 When you want to install a prebuilt package, you should use the <c>--usepkg</c>
463 swift 1.3 option (<c>-k</c> in short). This will use the binary package available in
464     <path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> <e>if</e> the package and the version of
465     the application you want to install match.
466     </p>
467    
468 swift 1.8 <pre caption="Installing a prebuilt package for gnumeric">
469 swift 1.3 # <i>emerge --usepkg gnumeric</i>
470     </pre>
471    
472     <p>
473     If you want to use the binary package, even if the versions don't match, use
474     <c>--usepkgonly</c> (<c>-K</c> in short).
475     </p>
476    
477 swift 1.8 <pre caption="Installing the prebuilt package for gnumeric">
478 swift 1.3 # <i>emerge --usepkgonly gnumeric</i>
479     </pre>
480    
481     <p>
482 swift 1.8 If you don't have the prebuilt package on your system yet, you can have
483 swift 1.3 <c>emerge</c> download it from a mirror, defined in the <c>PORTAGE_BINHOST</c>
484     variable declared in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>.
485     </p>
486    
487     <p>
488     To download the binary package in case this package doesn't exist on
489 swift 1.10 your system already, use <c>--getbinpkg</c> (<c>-g</c> in short):
490 swift 1.3 </p>
491    
492 swift 1.8 <pre caption="Downloading and installing a prebuilt package for gnumeric">
493 swift 1.10 # <i>emerge --getbinpkg gnumeric</i>
494 swift 1.3 </pre>
495    
496     <p>
497     This will download the package and the package-related information for you and
498     install it on your system, together with the dependencies. If you want to see
499 swift 1.10 what dependencies will be installed with it, use the <c>--pretend</c> option
500 swift 1.3 (<c>-p</c> in short):
501     </p>
502    
503 swift 1.8 <pre caption="Pretending to download the prebuilt packages for gnumeric">
504 swift 1.10 # <i>emerge --getbinpkg --pretend gnumeric</i>
505 swift 1.3 </pre>
506    
507     <p>
508 swift 1.8 You can also opt to download the prebuilt package (and the package-related
509 swift 1.3 information) <e>without</e> checking the information on your local system and
510 swift 1.8 <e>without</e> using the prebuilt package already on your system (if
511 swift 1.10 applicable), use the <c>--getbinpkgonly</c> option (<c>-G</c> in short):
512 swift 1.3 </p>
513    
514 swift 1.8 <pre caption="Installing a prebuilt package without using local information">
515 swift 1.10 # <i>emerge --getbinpkgonly gnumeric</i>
516 swift 1.3 </pre>
517    
518     <p>
519     You can also opt to install a specific version of a package.
520     For instance, if you want to install a gnumeric version older than 1.2 -- for
521     any reason whatsoever :) you would type:
522     </p>
523    
524     <pre caption="Installing a specific gnumeric version">
525     # <i>emerge --usepkg "&lt;gnumeric-1.2"</i>
526     </pre>
527    
528     <p>
529 swift 1.4 Other possibilities are of course "&gt;" (later version) and "=" (the exact
530 swift 1.3 version).
531     </p>
532    
533    
534 swift 1.1 </body>
535     </subsection>
536     <subsection>
537 swift 1.11 <title>Working with Dependencies</title>
538     <body>
539    
540     <p>
541     Portage has an extensive support for dependency handling. Although you usually
542     don't need to even think about this (as dependencies are automatically handled
543     by Portage) some users might want to know how you can work with <c>emerge</c>
544     and dependencies.
545     </p>
546    
547     <p>
548     For instance, if you want Portage to pretend that none of the dependencies of a
549     package are installed, you can use <c>--emptytree</c> (<c>-e</c> in short). This
550     is useful with <c>--pretend</c> to display a complete tree of dependencies for
551     any particular package. Without <c>--pretend</c>, <c>emerge</c> will (re)compile
552     all listed packages. However, <c>glibc</c> will <e>not</e> be listed as
553     dependency for safety reasons.
554     </p>
555    
556     <pre caption="Show all dependencies of gnumeric">
557     # <i>emerge --emptytree --pretend gnumeric</i>
558     </pre>
559    
560     <p>
561     Another argument is <c>--nodeps</c>, which will ask Portage to try install the
562     given package without taking care of the dependencies. It is trivial that this
563     can lead to failures.
564     </p>
565    
566     <pre caption="Installing gnumeric without taking care of the dependencies">
567     # <i>emerge --nodeps gnumeric</i>
568     </pre>
569    
570     <p>
571 swift 1.15 The opposite of <c>--nodeps</c> is <c>--onlydeps</c>, which will have Portage
572 swift 1.11 install all dependencies of a given package, but not the package itself:
573     </p>
574    
575     <pre caption="Installing the dependencies of gnumeric">
576     # <i>emerge --onlydeps gnumeric</i>
577     </pre>
578    
579     </body>
580     </subsection>
581     <subsection>
582 swift 1.3 <title>Updating your System</title>
583 swift 1.1 <body>
584    
585 swift 1.3 <p>
586     Portage knows two special tags to denote a set of software packages:
587     <e>system</e> and <e>world</e>. You have already seen the former while
588     installing Gentoo if you didn't use a <e>stage3</e> installation. To refresh
589     things: <e>system</e> is the collection of <e>core</e> packages, necessary to
590     have a working Gentoo system.
591     </p>
592    
593     <p>
594     The <e>world</e> tag consists of all software you have installed yourself on
595     your system plus the <e>system</e> information. In other words, every time you
596     emerge a package using <c>emerge &lt;package-name&gt;</c>, the
597     <c>&lt;package-name&gt;</c> is registered in the <e>world</e> file
598     (<path>/var/cache/edb/world</path>). Dependencies are <e>not</e> part of the
599     <e>world</e> file, but we will get to that later.
600     </p>
601    
602     <p>
603     If you want to update the system packages, use the <c>--update</c> option
604     (<c>-u</c> in short):
605     </p>
606    
607     <pre caption="Updating the system packages">
608     # <i>emerge --update system</i>
609     </pre>
610    
611     <p>
612     An identical approach can be used for the world packages:
613     </p>
614    
615     <pre caption="Updating your entire system">
616     # <i>emerge --update world</i>
617     </pre>
618    
619     <p>
620     Again, if you want to see what <c>emerge</c> wants to update, use the
621     <c>--pretend</c> option together with the <c>--update</c> option:
622     </p>
623    
624     <pre caption="Pretending to update your entire system">
625     # <i>emerge --pretend --update world</i>
626     <comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
627     [ebuild U ] net-misc/wget-1.9-r1 [1.9]
628     [ebuild UD] media-video/dvdauthor-0.5.0 [0.5.3]
629     [ebuild U ] net-analyzer/ethereal-0.9.16 [0.9.14]
630     </pre>
631    
632     <p>
633     Right next to the word "ebuild" you will notice a letter (or combination of
634     letters) which gives you more information about the package:
635     </p>
636    
637     <ul>
638     <li>
639     <e>B</e> (blocks) The package listed to the left is blocking the emerge of
640     the package listed to the right
641     </li>
642     <li>
643     <e>N</e> (new) The package is new to your system and will be emerged for the
644     first time
645     </li>
646     <li>
647     <e>R</e> (reemerge) The package isn't new, but needs to be reemerged
648     </li>
649     <li>
650 swift 1.15 <e>F</e> (fetch) The package requires that you download the source code
651 swift 1.3 manually (for instance due to licencing issues)
652     </li>
653     <li>
654     <e>U</e> (update) The package already exists on your system but will be
655     upgraded
656     </li>
657     <li>
658     <e>UD</e> (downgrade) The package already exists on your system but will be
659     downgraded
660     </li>
661     <li>
662     <e>U-</e> (slot warning) The package you have installed on your system
663     is listed as a package that can not coexist with a different version, but
664     your update does. The update will be installed and the older version will be
665     removed.
666     </li>
667     </ul>
668    
669     <p>
670     In certain cases, an update may mean a downgrade (i.e. install an older version
671     instead of a newer version). If you don't want this to happen, use the
672     <c>--upgradeonly</c> option (<c>-U</c> in short):
673     </p>
674    
675     <pre caption="Upgrading your entire system">
676     # <i>emerge --update --upgradeonly world</i>
677     </pre>
678    
679     <p>
680 swift 1.4 Of course, we are talking here about <e>system</e> and <e>world</e>, but you can
681 swift 1.3 perform the same actions for individual software packages.
682     </p>
683    
684 swift 1.1 </body>
685     </subsection>
686     <subsection>
687     <title>Removing Software</title>
688     <body>
689    
690 swift 1.3 <p>
691     If you want to remove software from your system, you can use the <c>unmerge</c>
692     option (<c>-C</c> - capital C - in short):
693     </p>
694    
695     <pre caption="Uninstalling software">
696     # <i>emerge unmerge gnumeric</i>
697     </pre>
698    
699     <p>
700     If you want to test a removal (but not perform it), you can use <c>--pretend</c>
701     again:
702     </p>
703    
704     <pre caption="Pretending to uninstall software">
705     # <i>emerge --pretend unmerge gnumeric</i>
706     </pre>
707    
708     <warn>
709     Portage doesn't verify if a package is a dependency for another
710     installed package. It also doesn't warn you if the package is part of
711     <e>system</e>, i.e. a core application necessary for the correct functioning of
712     your system!
713     </warn>
714 swift 1.11
715     <p>
716     Once the unmerge begins you will see a long list of filenames belonging to the
717     package. Some of these filenames will have a flag displayed to the
718     left of the filename. The flags <c>!mtime</c>, <c>!empty</c>, and <c>cfgpro</c>
719     specify reasons why certain files are not being removed while the package is.
720     Files listed without any of these three flags are removed from the
721     filesystem successfully. The three flags specify the following reasons:
722     </p>
723    
724     <ul>
725     <li>
726     <c>!mtime</c> : The listed file has been changed since it was installed,
727     probably by you or some tool
728     </li>
729     <li>
730     <c>!empty</c> : The listed directory is not empty
731     </li>
732     <li>
733 swift 1.16 <c>cfgpro</c> : This file is located inside a protected directory and will
734     not be touched for safety
735 swift 1.11 </li>
736     </ul>
737 swift 1.3
738 swift 1.1 </body>
739     </subsection>
740     </section>
741     <section>
742     <title>Software Availability</title>
743     <subsection>
744     <title>ARCH or not?</title>
745     <body>
746    
747 swift 1.3 <p>
748     Gentoo places its packages in two possible stadia called <e>ARCH</e> and
749     <e>~ARCH</e>. Don't take this literally: the stadia depend on the architecture
750     you are using. In other words, for x86-based systems you have <e>x86</e> and
751     <e>~x86</e>, for ppc-based systems you have <e>ppc</e> and <e>~ppc</e> etc.
752     </p>
753    
754     <p>
755     The <e>~ARCH</e> stadium means that the package works for the developer in
756     charge of the package, but that the package hasn't been tested thoroughly enough
757     by the community to be placed in <e>ARCH</e>. <e>~ARCH</e> packages usually go
758     to <e>ARCH</e> after being bugfree for a sufficient amount of time.
759     </p>
760    
761     <p>
762     Your system will use <e>ARCH</e> packages per default. If you want to live on
763     the edge, don't mind having a broken package once in a while, and you like
764     submitting bugreports to <uri
765     link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugs.gentoo.org</uri>, then you can opt to use
766     <e>~ARCH</e> packages. To "move" your system to a <e>~ARCH</e>-using system,
767     edit the <c>ACCEPT_KEYWORDS</c> variable in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so that
768     it reads <e>~ARCH</e> (again: for x86-based systems: <e>~x86</e>, etc.).
769     </p>
770    
771     <p>
772     If you want to update your system now, you will notice that <e>a lot</e> of
773     packages will be updated!
774     </p>
775    
776 swift 1.1 </body>
777     </subsection>
778     <subsection>
779     <title>Masked Packages</title>
780     <body>
781    
782 swift 1.3 <p>
783     When you want to install a package, you might come across the following message:
784     </p>
785    
786     <pre caption="Message about masked packages">
787     Calculating dependencies
788     !!! <comment>all ebuilds that could satisfy </comment>&lt;your package&gt;<comment> have been masked.</comment>
789     </pre>
790    
791     <p>
792     A package can be masked due to two reasons:
793     </p>
794    
795     <ol>
796     <li>The package is in <e>~ARCH</e> while you use <e>ARCH</e></li>
797     <li>The package is hard-masked explicitly</li>
798     </ol>
799    
800     <p>
801     If the package is masked because of the first reason, and you <e>really</e> want
802     to install it (knowing that there <e>is</e> a reason why it isn't available in
803     <e>ARCH</e>), you can temporarily accept <e>~ARCH</e> packages:
804     </p>
805    
806     <pre caption="Temporarily accepting ~ARCH packages">
807     # <i>ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~x86" emerge gnumeric</i>
808     </pre>
809    
810     <p>
811     A package is hardmasked if it is listed in
812     <path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path>. If you read this file, you
813     will also read the reason why the package is hardmasked (it is usually added as
814     a comment). If you want to install the package nevertheless (despite all the
815     possible warnings we could ever throw at your head about "breaking your system",
816     "breaks other packages", or "badly needs testing"), create the
817     <path>/etc/portage/package.unmask</path> file and list the package in it (use
818     the same format as is used in <path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path>).
819     </p>
820    
821     <p>
822     Do <e>not</e> alter the <path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path> file as
823     all changes are undone the next time you update your Portage tree.
824     </p>
825    
826     <p>
827     Another trick to circumvent the "masked package" problem is to install the
828     package using the full path. This will ignore both the <c>ACCEPT_KEYWORD</c>
829     settings and the <path>package.mask</path> listing.
830     </p>
831    
832     <pre caption="Installing a package without checking for stadium / masking">
833     # <i>emerge /usr/portage/app-office/gnumeric/gnumeric-1.2.0.ebuild</i>
834     </pre>
835    
836 swift 1.1 </body>
837     </subsection>
838     <subsection>
839     <title>Blocked Packages</title>
840     <body>
841 swift 1.3
842     <p>
843     You have a situation when you receive the following error on your screen:
844     </p>
845    
846     <pre caption="Blocking package">
847     [blocks B ] gnome-base/bonobo-activation (from pkg gnome-base/libbonobo-2.4.0)
848     </pre>
849    
850     <p>
851     In the above example, the package <c>bonobo-activation</c> is blocking the
852     emerge of <c>libbonobo</c>. To resolve this issue, remove the
853     <c>bonobo-activation</c> package and continue:
854     </p>
855    
856     <pre caption="Resolving a blocking situation">
857     # <i>emerge unmerge bonobo-activation</i>
858     </pre>
859 swift 1.1
860     </body>
861     </subsection>
862     </section>
863     </sections>

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