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#65107 - Added Portage-specific part to the Gentoo Handbook now that .51 is official; major version bump to 3.0

1 swift 1.18 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4 swift 1.1 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 swift 1.39 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 -->
6 swift 1.1
7 swift 1.39 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/draft/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.24 2004/10/09 11:54:07 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10     <section>
11 swift 1.39 <title>Welcome to Portage</title>
12 swift 1.1 <body>
13    
14 swift 1.2 <p>
15 swift 1.39 Portage is probably Gentoo's most notable innovation in software management.
16     With its high flexibility and enormous amount of features it is frequently seen
17     as the best software management tool available for Linux.
18 swift 1.2 </p>
19    
20     <p>
21 swift 1.39 Portage is completely written in <uri link="http://www.python.org">Python</uri>
22     and <uri link="http://www.gnu.org/software/bash">Bash</uri> and therefore fully
23     visible to the users as both are scripting languages.
24 swift 1.2 </p>
25    
26     <p>
27 swift 1.39 Most users will work with Portage through the <c>emerge</c> tool. This chapter
28     is not meant to duplicate the information available from the emerge man page.
29     For a complete rundown of emerge's options, please consult the man page:
30 swift 1.2 </p>
31    
32 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Reading the emerge man page">
33     $ <i>man emerge</i>
34 swift 1.2 </pre>
35    
36     </body>
37 swift 1.1 </section>
38     <section>
39 swift 1.39 <title>The Portage Tree</title>
40 swift 1.1 <subsection>
41 swift 1.39 <title>Ebuilds</title>
42 swift 1.2 <body>
43    
44     <p>
45 swift 1.39 When we talk about packages, we often mean software titles that are available to
46     the Gentoo users through the Portage tree. The Portage tree is a collection of
47     <e>ebuilds</e>, files that contain all information Portage needs to maintain
48     software (install, search, query, ...). These ebuilds reside in
49     <path>/usr/portage</path> by default.
50 swift 1.2 </p>
51    
52     <p>
53 swift 1.39 Whenever you ask Portage to perform some action regarding software titles, it
54     will use the ebuilds on your system as a base. It is therefore important that
55     you regularly update the ebuilds on your system so Portage knows about new
56     software, security updates, etc.
57 swift 1.2 </p>
58    
59     </body>
60     </subsection>
61     <subsection>
62 swift 1.39 <title>Updating the Portage Tree</title>
63 swift 1.1 <body>
64 swift 1.2
65     <p>
66 swift 1.39 The Portage tree is usually updated with <uri
67     link="http://rsync.gentoo.org">rsync</uri>, a fast incremental file transfer
68     utility. Updating is fairly simple as the <c>emerge</c> command provides a
69     front-end for rsync:
70 swift 1.2 </p>
71    
72 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
73 cam 1.38 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
74 swift 1.2 </pre>
75    
76     <p>
77 swift 1.39 If you are unable to rsync due to firewall restrictions you can still update
78     your Portage tree by using our daily generated portage tree snapshots. The
79     <c>emerge-webrsync</c> tool automatically fetches and installs the latest
80     snapshot on your system:
81 swift 1.2 </p>
82    
83 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Running emerge-webrsync">
84 swift 1.2 # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
85     </pre>
86 swift 1.1
87     </body>
88     </subsection>
89     </section>
90     <section>
91     <title>Maintaining Software</title>
92     <subsection>
93 swift 1.39 <title>Searching for Software</title>
94 swift 1.1 <body>
95    
96 swift 1.3 <p>
97 swift 1.39 To search through the Portage tree after software titles, you can use
98     <c>emerge</c> built-in search capabilities. By default, <c>emerge search</c>
99     returns package names whos title corresponds with (either fully or partially)
100     the given search term.
101 swift 1.3 </p>
102    
103     <p>
104 swift 1.39 For instance, to search for all packages who have "pdf" in their name:
105 swift 1.3 </p>
106    
107 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Searching for pdf-named packages">
108     $ <i>emerge search pdf</i>
109     </pre>
110    
111 swift 1.3 <p>
112 swift 1.39 If you want to search through the descriptions as well you can use the
113     <c>--searchdesc</c> (or <c>-S</c>) switch:
114 swift 1.3 </p>
115    
116 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Searching for pdf-related packages">
117     $ <i>emerge --searchdesc pdf</i>
118     </pre>
119    
120 swift 1.3 <p>
121 swift 1.39 When you take a look at the output, you'll notice that it gives you a lot of
122     information. The fields are clearly labelled so we won't go further into their
123     meanings:
124 swift 1.3 </p>
125    
126 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Example emerge search output">
127     * net-print/cups-pdf
128     Latest version available: 1.5.2
129     Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
130     Size of downloaded files: 15 kB
131     Homepage: http://cip.physik.uni-wuerzburg.de/~vrbehr/cups-pdf/
132     Description: Provides a virtual printer for CUPS to produce PDF files.
133     License: GPL-2
134     </pre>
135    
136 swift 1.3 </body>
137     </subsection>
138     <subsection>
139 swift 1.39 <title>Installing Software</title>
140 swift 1.3 <body>
141    
142     <p>
143 swift 1.39 Once you've found a software title to your liking, you can easily install it
144     with <c>emerge</c>: just add the package name. For instance, to install
145 swift 1.3 <c>gnumeric</c>:
146     </p>
147    
148 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Installing gnumeric">
149 swift 1.3 # <i>emerge gnumeric</i>
150     </pre>
151    
152     <p>
153 swift 1.39 Since many applications depend on each other, any attempt to install a certain
154     software package might result in the installation of several dependencies as
155     well. Don't worry, Portage handles dependencies well. If you want to find out
156     what Portage <e>would</e> install when you ask it to install a certain package,
157     add the <c>--pretend</c> switch. For instance:
158 swift 1.3 </p>
159    
160 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Pretend to install gnumeric">
161 swift 1.3 # <i>emerge --pretend gnumeric</i>
162     </pre>
163    
164     <p>
165 swift 1.39 When you ask Portage to install a package, it will download the necessary source
166     code from the internet (if necessary) and store it by default in
167     <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. After this it will unpack, compile and
168     install the package. If you want Portage to only download the sources without
169     installing them, add the <c>--fetchonly</c> option to the <c>emerge</c> command:
170 swift 1.3 </p>
171    
172 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Download the sourcecode for gnumeric">
173 swift 1.3 # <i>emerge --fetchonly gnumeric</i>
174     </pre>
175    
176     </body>
177     </subsection>
178     <subsection>
179 swift 1.39 <title>Removing Software</title>
180 swift 1.3 <body>
181    
182     <p>
183 swift 1.39 When you want to remove a software package from your system, use <c>emerge
184     unmerge</c>. This will tell Portage to remove all files installed by that
185     package from your system <e>except</e> the configuration files of that
186     application if you have altered those after the installation. Leaving the
187     configuration files allows you to continue working with the package if you ever
188     decide to install it again.
189 swift 1.3 </p>
190    
191     <p>
192 swift 1.39 However, a <brite>big warning</brite> applies: Portage will <e>not</e> check if
193     the package you want to remove is required by another package. It will however
194     warn you when you want to remove an important package that breaks your system
195     if you unmerge it.
196 swift 1.3 </p>
197    
198 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Removing gnumeric from the system">
199     # <i>emerge unmerge gnumeric</i>
200 swift 1.3 </pre>
201    
202     <p>
203 swift 1.39 When you remove a package from your system, the dependencies of that package
204     that were installed automatically when you installed the software are left. To
205     have Portage locate all dependencies that can now be removed, use
206     <c>emerge</c>'s <c>depclean</c> functionality. We will talk about this later on.
207 swift 1.3 </p>
208    
209 swift 1.39 </body>
210     </subsection>
211     <subsection>
212     <title>Updating your System</title>
213     <body>
214 swift 1.32
215 swift 1.3 <p>
216 swift 1.39 To keep your system in perfect shape (and not to mention install the latest
217     security updates) you need to update your system regularly. Since Portage only
218     checks the ebuilds in your Portage tree you first have to update your Portage
219     tree. When your Portage tree is updated, you can update your system with
220     <c>emerge --update world</c>:
221 swift 1.3 </p>
222    
223 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Updating your system">
224     # <i>emerge --update world</i>
225 swift 1.3 </pre>
226    
227     <p>
228 swift 1.39 Portage will then search for newer version of the applications you have
229     installed. However, it will only verify the versions for the applications you
230     have explicitly installed - not the dependencies. If you want to update every
231     single package on your system, add the <c>--deep</c> argument:
232 swift 1.3 </p>
233    
234 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Updating your entire system">
235     # <i>emerge --update --deep world</i>
236 swift 1.3 </pre>
237    
238     <p>
239 swift 1.39 If you have altered any of your <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>
240     lately you might want to add <c>--newuse</c> as well. Portage will then verify
241     if the change requires the installation of new packages or recompilation of
242     existing ones:
243 swift 1.3 </p>
244    
245 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Performing a full update">
246     # <i>emerge --update --deep --newuse world</i>
247 swift 1.3 </pre>
248    
249 swift 1.1 </body>
250     </subsection>
251     <subsection>
252 swift 1.39 <title>Stub Packages</title>
253 swift 1.11 <body>
254    
255     <p>
256 swift 1.39 Some packages in the Portage tree don't have any real content but are used to
257     install a collection of packages. For instance, the <c>kde</c> package will
258     install a complete KDE environment on your system by pulling in various
259     KDE-related packages as dependencies.
260 swift 1.11 </p>
261    
262     <p>
263 swift 1.39 If you ever want to remove such a package from your system, running <c>emerge
264     unmerge</c> on the package won't have much effect as the dependencies remain on
265     the system.
266 swift 1.11 </p>
267    
268     <p>
269 swift 1.39 Portage has the functionality to remove orphaned dependencies as well, but since
270     the availability of software is dynamically dependent you first need to update
271     your entire system fully, including the new changes you applied when changing
272     USE flags. After this you can run <c>emerge depclean</c> to remove the orphaned
273     dependencies. When this is done, you need to rebuild the applications that were
274     dynamically linked to the now-removed software titles but don't require them
275     anymore.
276 swift 1.11 </p>
277    
278     <p>
279 swift 1.39 All this is handled with the following three commands:
280 swift 1.11 </p>
281    
282 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Removing orphaned dependencies">
283     # <i>emerge --update --deep --newuse world</i>
284     # <i>emerge depclean</i>
285     # <i>revdep-rebuild</i>
286 swift 1.11 </pre>
287    
288 swift 1.34 <p>
289 swift 1.39 <c>revdep-rebuild</c> is provided by the <c>gentoolkit</c> package; don't forget
290     to emerge it first:
291 swift 1.34 </p>
292    
293 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Installing the gentoolkit package">
294     # <i>emerge gentoolkit</i>
295 swift 1.34 </pre>
296    
297 swift 1.11 </body>
298     </subsection>
299 swift 1.39 </section>
300     <section>
301     <title>When Portage is Complaining...</title>
302 swift 1.11 <subsection>
303 swift 1.39 <title>About SLOTs, Virtuals, Branches, Architectures and Profiles</title>
304 swift 1.1 <body>
305    
306 swift 1.3 <p>
307 swift 1.39 As we stated before, Portage is extremely powerful and supports many features
308     that other software management tools lack. To understand this, we explain a few
309     aspects of Portage without going in too much detail.
310 swift 1.3 </p>
311    
312     <p>
313 swift 1.39 With Portage different versions of a single package can coexist on a system.
314     While other distributions tend to name their package to those versions (like
315     <c>freetype</c> and <c>freetype2</c>) Portage uses a technology called
316     <e>SLOT</e>s. An ebuild declares a certain SLOT for its version. Ebuilds with
317     different SLOTs can coexist on the same system. For instance, the
318     <c>freetype</c> package has ebuilds with <c>SLOT="1"</c> and <c>SLOT="2"</c>.
319 swift 1.3 </p>
320    
321     <p>
322 swift 1.39 There are also packages that provide the same functionality but are implemented
323     differently. For instance, <c>metalogd</c>, <c>sysklogd</c> and <c>syslog-ng</c>
324     are all system loggers. Applications that rely on the availability of "a system
325     logger" cannot depend on, for instance, <c>metalogd</c>, as the other system
326     loggers are as good a choice as any. Portage allows for <e>virtuals</e>: each
327     system logger provides <c>virtual/syslog</c> so that applications can depend on
328     <c>virtual/syslog</c>.
329 swift 1.3 </p>
330    
331     <p>
332 swift 1.39 Software in the Portage tree can reside in different branches. By default your
333     system only accepts packages that Gentoo deems stable. Most new software titles,
334     when committed, are added to the testing branch, meaning more testing needs to
335     be done before it is marked as stable. Although you will see the ebuilds for
336     those software in the Portage tree, Portage will not update them before they are
337     placed in the stable branch.
338 swift 1.3 </p>
339    
340     <p>
341 swift 1.39 Some software is only available for a few architectures. Or the software doesn't
342     work on the other architectures, or it needs more testing, or the developer that
343     committed the software to the Portage tree is unable to verify if the package
344     works on different architectures.
345 swift 1.25 </p>
346    
347     <p>
348 swift 1.39 Each Gentoo installation adheres to a certain <c>profile</c> which contains,
349     amongst other information, the list of packages that are required for a system
350     to function normally.
351 swift 1.3 </p>
352    
353 swift 1.1 </body>
354     </subsection>
355 swift 1.39 <subsection id="blocked">
356     <title>Blocked Packages</title>
357 swift 1.1 <body>
358    
359 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (with --pretend)">
360     [blocks B ] gnome-base/bonobo-activation (from pkg gnome-base/libbonobo-2.4.0)
361     </pre>
362 swift 1.3
363 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (without --pretend)">
364     !!! Error: the gnome-base/bonobo-activation package conflicts with another package.
365     !!! both can't be installed on the same system together.
366     !!! Please use 'emerge --pretend' to determine blockers.
367 swift 1.3 </pre>
368    
369     <p>
370 swift 1.39 Ebuilds contain specific fields that inform Portage about it's dependencies.
371     There are two possible dependencies: build dependencies, declared in
372     <c>DEPEND</c> and run-time dependencies, declared in <c>RDEPEND</c>. When one of
373     these dependencies explicitly marks a package or virtual as being <e>not</e>
374     compatible, it triggers a blockage.
375 swift 1.3 </p>
376    
377 swift 1.11 <p>
378 swift 1.39 To fix a blockage, you can choose to not install the package or unmerge the
379     conflicting package first. In the given example, you can opt not to install
380     <c>libbonobo</c> or to remove <c>bonobo-activation</c> first.
381 swift 1.11 </p>
382    
383 swift 1.1 </body>
384     </subsection>
385 swift 1.39 <subsection id="masked">
386     <title>Masked Packages</title>
387 swift 1.1 <body>
388    
389 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Portage warning about masked packages">
390     !!! all ebuilds that could satisfy "bootsplash" have been masked.
391     </pre>
392    
393     <pre caption="Portage warning about masked packages - reason">
394     !!! possible candidates are:
395 swift 1.3
396 swift 1.39 - gnome-base/gnome-2.8.0_pre1 (masked by: <i>~x86 keyword</i>)
397     - lm-sensors/lm-sensors-2.8.7 (masked by: <i>-sparc keyword</i>)
398     - sys-libs/glibc-2.3.4.20040808 (masked by: <i>-* keyword</i>)
399     - dev-util/cvsd-1.0.2 (masked by: <i>missing keyword</i>)
400     - media-video/ati-gatos-4.3.0 (masked by: <i>package.mask</i>)
401     - sys-libs/glibc-2.3.2-r11 (masked by: <i>profile</i>)
402 swift 1.35 </pre>
403    
404 swift 1.3 <p>
405 swift 1.39 When you want to install a package that isn't available for your system, you
406     will receive this masking error. You should try installing a different
407     application that is available for your system or wait until the package is put
408     available. There is always a reason why a package is masked:
409 swift 1.3 </p>
410    
411 swift 1.35 <ul>
412     <li>
413 swift 1.39 <b>~arch keyword</b> means that the application is not tested sufficiently
414     to be put in the stable branch. Wait a few days or weeks and try again.
415 swift 1.35 </li>
416     <li>
417 swift 1.39 <b>-arch keyword</b> or <b>-* keyword</b> means that the application does
418     not work on your architecture. If you believe the package does work file
419     a bug at our <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> website.
420 swift 1.35 </li>
421     <li>
422 swift 1.39 <b>missing keyword</b> means that the application has not been tested on
423     your architecture yet. Ask the architecture porting team to test the package
424     or test it for them and report your findings on our <uri
425     link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> website.
426 swift 1.35 </li>
427     <li>
428 swift 1.39 <b>package.mask</b> means that the package has been found corrupt, unstable
429     or worse and has been deliberately marked as do-not-use.
430 swift 1.35 </li>
431     <li>
432 swift 1.39 <b>profile</b> means that the package has been found not suitable for your
433     profile. The application might break your system if you installed it or is
434     just not compatible with the profile you use.
435 swift 1.35 </li>
436     </ul>
437    
438 swift 1.1 </body>
439     </subsection>
440 swift 1.39 <subsection id="missingdependencies">
441     <title>Missing Dependencies</title>
442 swift 1.1 <body>
443    
444 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Portage warning about missing dependency">
445     emerge: there are no ebuilds to satisfy "&gt;=sys-devel/gcc-4.2-r4".
446 swift 1.3
447 swift 1.39 !!! Problem with ebuild sys-devel/gcc-3.4.2-r2
448     !!! Possibly a DEPEND/*DEPEND problem.
449 swift 1.3 </pre>
450    
451     <p>
452 swift 1.39 The application you are trying to install depends on another package that is not
453     available for your system. Please check <uri
454     link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> if the issue is known and if not,
455     please report it. Unless you are mixing branches this should not occur and is
456     therefore a bug.
457 swift 1.3 </p>
458    
459 swift 1.39 </body>
460     </subsection>
461     <subsection id="ambiguousebuild">
462     <title>Ambiguous Ebuild Name</title>
463     <body>
464 swift 1.3
465 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Portage warning about ambiguous ebuild names">
466     !!! The short ebuild name "aterm" is ambiguous. Please specify
467     !!! one of the following fully-qualified ebuild names instead:
468 swift 1.35
469 swift 1.39 dev-libs/aterm
470     x11-terms/aterm
471 swift 1.3 </pre>
472    
473     <p>
474 swift 1.39 The application you want to install has a name that corresponds with more than
475     one package. You need to supply the category name as well. Portage will inform
476     you of possible matches to choose from.
477 swift 1.35 </p>
478    
479 swift 1.39 </body>
480     </subsection>
481     <subsection id="circulardependencies">
482     <title>Circular Dependencies</title>
483     <body>
484 swift 1.35
485 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Portage warning about circular dependencies">
486     !!! Error: circular dependencies:
487 swift 1.35
488 swift 1.39 ebuild / net-print/cups-1.1.15-r2 depends on ebuild / app-text/ghostscript-7.05.3-r1
489     ebuild / app-text/ghostscript-7.05.3-r1 depends on ebuild / net-print/cups-1.1.15-r2
490 swift 1.35 </pre>
491    
492     <p>
493 swift 1.39 Two (or more) packages you want to install depend on each other and can
494     therefore not be installed. This is most likely a bug in the Portage tree.
495     Please resync after a while and try again. You can also check <uri
496     link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> if the issue is known and if not,
497     report it.
498 swift 1.3 </p>
499    
500 swift 1.39 </body>
501     </subsection>
502     <subsection id="fetchfailed">
503     <title>Fetch failed</title>
504     <body>
505 swift 1.29
506 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Portage warning about fetch failed">
507     !!! Fetch failed for sys-libs/ncurses-5.4-r5, continuing...
508     <comment>(...)</comment>
509     !!! Some fetch errors were encountered. Please see above for details.
510 swift 1.3 </pre>
511    
512 swift 1.35 <p>
513 swift 1.39 Portage was unable to download the sources for the given application and will
514     try to continue installing the other applications (if applicable). This failure
515     can be due to a mirror that has not synchronised correctly or because the ebuild
516     points to an incorrect location. The server where the sources reside can also be
517     down for some reason.
518 swift 1.35 </p>
519    
520     <p>
521 swift 1.39 Retry after one hour to see if the issue still persists.
522 swift 1.35 </p>
523    
524 swift 1.1 </body>
525     </subsection>
526 swift 1.39 <subsection id="profileprotect">
527     <title>System Profile Protection</title>
528 swift 1.1 <body>
529 swift 1.3
530 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Portage warning about profile-protected package">
531     !!! Trying to unmerge package(s) in system profile. 'sys-apps/portage'
532     !!! This could be damaging to your system.
533 swift 1.3 </pre>
534    
535     <p>
536 swift 1.39 You have asked to remove a package that is part of your system's core packages.
537     It is listed in your profile as required and should therefore not be removed
538     from the system.
539 swift 1.3 </p>
540    
541 swift 1.1 </body>
542     </subsection>
543     </section>
544     </sections>

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