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1 swift 1.18 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4 swift 1.1 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 swift 1.39 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 -->
6 swift 1.1
7 neysx 1.45 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.44 2004/11/15 12:47:47 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10 swift 1.43
11     <version>1.42</version>
12 neysx 1.45 <date>2004-10-24</date>
13 swift 1.43
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15 swift 1.39 <title>Welcome to Portage</title>
16 swift 1.1 <body>
17    
18 swift 1.2 <p>
19 swift 1.39 Portage is probably Gentoo's most notable innovation in software management.
20     With its high flexibility and enormous amount of features it is frequently seen
21     as the best software management tool available for Linux.
22 swift 1.2 </p>
23    
24     <p>
25 swift 1.39 Portage is completely written in <uri link="http://www.python.org">Python</uri>
26     and <uri link="http://www.gnu.org/software/bash">Bash</uri> and therefore fully
27     visible to the users as both are scripting languages.
28 swift 1.2 </p>
29    
30     <p>
31 swift 1.39 Most users will work with Portage through the <c>emerge</c> tool. This chapter
32     is not meant to duplicate the information available from the emerge man page.
33     For a complete rundown of emerge's options, please consult the man page:
34 swift 1.2 </p>
35    
36 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Reading the emerge man page">
37     $ <i>man emerge</i>
38 swift 1.2 </pre>
39    
40     </body>
41 swift 1.1 </section>
42     <section>
43 swift 1.39 <title>The Portage Tree</title>
44 swift 1.1 <subsection>
45 swift 1.39 <title>Ebuilds</title>
46 swift 1.2 <body>
47    
48     <p>
49 swift 1.39 When we talk about packages, we often mean software titles that are available to
50     the Gentoo users through the Portage tree. The Portage tree is a collection of
51     <e>ebuilds</e>, files that contain all information Portage needs to maintain
52     software (install, search, query, ...). These ebuilds reside in
53     <path>/usr/portage</path> by default.
54 swift 1.2 </p>
55    
56     <p>
57 swift 1.39 Whenever you ask Portage to perform some action regarding software titles, it
58     will use the ebuilds on your system as a base. It is therefore important that
59     you regularly update the ebuilds on your system so Portage knows about new
60     software, security updates, etc.
61 swift 1.2 </p>
62    
63     </body>
64     </subsection>
65     <subsection>
66 swift 1.39 <title>Updating the Portage Tree</title>
67 swift 1.1 <body>
68 swift 1.2
69     <p>
70 swift 1.39 The Portage tree is usually updated with <uri
71     link="http://rsync.gentoo.org">rsync</uri>, a fast incremental file transfer
72     utility. Updating is fairly simple as the <c>emerge</c> command provides a
73     front-end for rsync:
74 swift 1.2 </p>
75    
76 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
77 cam 1.38 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
78 swift 1.2 </pre>
79    
80     <p>
81 swift 1.39 If you are unable to rsync due to firewall restrictions you can still update
82 swift 1.40 your Portage tree by using our daily generated Portage tree snapshots. The
83 swift 1.39 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> tool automatically fetches and installs the latest
84     snapshot on your system:
85 swift 1.2 </p>
86    
87 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Running emerge-webrsync">
88 swift 1.2 # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
89     </pre>
90 swift 1.1
91     </body>
92     </subsection>
93     </section>
94     <section>
95     <title>Maintaining Software</title>
96     <subsection>
97 swift 1.39 <title>Searching for Software</title>
98 swift 1.1 <body>
99    
100 swift 1.3 <p>
101 swift 1.39 To search through the Portage tree after software titles, you can use
102     <c>emerge</c> built-in search capabilities. By default, <c>emerge search</c>
103 neysx 1.42 returns the names of packages whose title matches (either fully or partially)
104 swift 1.39 the given search term.
105 swift 1.3 </p>
106    
107     <p>
108 swift 1.39 For instance, to search for all packages who have "pdf" in their name:
109 swift 1.3 </p>
110    
111 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Searching for pdf-named packages">
112     $ <i>emerge search pdf</i>
113     </pre>
114    
115 swift 1.3 <p>
116 swift 1.39 If you want to search through the descriptions as well you can use the
117     <c>--searchdesc</c> (or <c>-S</c>) switch:
118 swift 1.3 </p>
119    
120 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Searching for pdf-related packages">
121     $ <i>emerge --searchdesc pdf</i>
122     </pre>
123    
124 swift 1.3 <p>
125 swift 1.39 When you take a look at the output, you'll notice that it gives you a lot of
126     information. The fields are clearly labelled so we won't go further into their
127     meanings:
128 swift 1.3 </p>
129    
130 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Example emerge search output">
131     * net-print/cups-pdf
132     Latest version available: 1.5.2
133     Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
134     Size of downloaded files: 15 kB
135     Homepage: http://cip.physik.uni-wuerzburg.de/~vrbehr/cups-pdf/
136     Description: Provides a virtual printer for CUPS to produce PDF files.
137     License: GPL-2
138     </pre>
139    
140 swift 1.3 </body>
141     </subsection>
142     <subsection>
143 swift 1.39 <title>Installing Software</title>
144 swift 1.3 <body>
145    
146     <p>
147 swift 1.39 Once you've found a software title to your liking, you can easily install it
148     with <c>emerge</c>: just add the package name. For instance, to install
149 swift 1.3 <c>gnumeric</c>:
150     </p>
151    
152 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Installing gnumeric">
153 swift 1.3 # <i>emerge gnumeric</i>
154     </pre>
155    
156     <p>
157 swift 1.39 Since many applications depend on each other, any attempt to install a certain
158     software package might result in the installation of several dependencies as
159     well. Don't worry, Portage handles dependencies well. If you want to find out
160     what Portage <e>would</e> install when you ask it to install a certain package,
161     add the <c>--pretend</c> switch. For instance:
162 swift 1.3 </p>
163    
164 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Pretend to install gnumeric">
165 swift 1.3 # <i>emerge --pretend gnumeric</i>
166     </pre>
167    
168     <p>
169 swift 1.39 When you ask Portage to install a package, it will download the necessary source
170     code from the internet (if necessary) and store it by default in
171     <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. After this it will unpack, compile and
172     install the package. If you want Portage to only download the sources without
173     installing them, add the <c>--fetchonly</c> option to the <c>emerge</c> command:
174 swift 1.3 </p>
175    
176 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Download the sourcecode for gnumeric">
177 swift 1.3 # <i>emerge --fetchonly gnumeric</i>
178     </pre>
179    
180     </body>
181     </subsection>
182     <subsection>
183 swift 1.39 <title>Removing Software</title>
184 swift 1.3 <body>
185    
186     <p>
187 swift 1.39 When you want to remove a software package from your system, use <c>emerge
188     unmerge</c>. This will tell Portage to remove all files installed by that
189     package from your system <e>except</e> the configuration files of that
190     application if you have altered those after the installation. Leaving the
191     configuration files allows you to continue working with the package if you ever
192     decide to install it again.
193 swift 1.3 </p>
194    
195     <p>
196 swift 1.39 However, a <brite>big warning</brite> applies: Portage will <e>not</e> check if
197     the package you want to remove is required by another package. It will however
198     warn you when you want to remove an important package that breaks your system
199     if you unmerge it.
200 swift 1.3 </p>
201    
202 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Removing gnumeric from the system">
203     # <i>emerge unmerge gnumeric</i>
204 swift 1.3 </pre>
205    
206     <p>
207 swift 1.39 When you remove a package from your system, the dependencies of that package
208     that were installed automatically when you installed the software are left. To
209     have Portage locate all dependencies that can now be removed, use
210     <c>emerge</c>'s <c>depclean</c> functionality. We will talk about this later on.
211 swift 1.3 </p>
212    
213 swift 1.39 </body>
214     </subsection>
215     <subsection>
216     <title>Updating your System</title>
217     <body>
218 swift 1.32
219 swift 1.3 <p>
220 swift 1.39 To keep your system in perfect shape (and not to mention install the latest
221     security updates) you need to update your system regularly. Since Portage only
222     checks the ebuilds in your Portage tree you first have to update your Portage
223     tree. When your Portage tree is updated, you can update your system with
224     <c>emerge --update world</c>:
225 swift 1.3 </p>
226    
227 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Updating your system">
228     # <i>emerge --update world</i>
229 swift 1.3 </pre>
230    
231     <p>
232 swift 1.39 Portage will then search for newer version of the applications you have
233     installed. However, it will only verify the versions for the applications you
234     have explicitly installed - not the dependencies. If you want to update every
235     single package on your system, add the <c>--deep</c> argument:
236 swift 1.3 </p>
237    
238 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Updating your entire system">
239     # <i>emerge --update --deep world</i>
240 swift 1.3 </pre>
241    
242     <p>
243 swift 1.39 If you have altered any of your <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>
244     lately you might want to add <c>--newuse</c> as well. Portage will then verify
245     if the change requires the installation of new packages or recompilation of
246     existing ones:
247 swift 1.3 </p>
248    
249 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Performing a full update">
250     # <i>emerge --update --deep --newuse world</i>
251 swift 1.3 </pre>
252    
253 swift 1.1 </body>
254     </subsection>
255     <subsection>
256 swift 1.39 <title>Stub Packages</title>
257 swift 1.11 <body>
258    
259     <p>
260 swift 1.39 Some packages in the Portage tree don't have any real content but are used to
261     install a collection of packages. For instance, the <c>kde</c> package will
262     install a complete KDE environment on your system by pulling in various
263     KDE-related packages as dependencies.
264 swift 1.11 </p>
265    
266     <p>
267 swift 1.39 If you ever want to remove such a package from your system, running <c>emerge
268     unmerge</c> on the package won't have much effect as the dependencies remain on
269     the system.
270 swift 1.11 </p>
271    
272     <p>
273 swift 1.39 Portage has the functionality to remove orphaned dependencies as well, but since
274     the availability of software is dynamically dependent you first need to update
275     your entire system fully, including the new changes you applied when changing
276     USE flags. After this you can run <c>emerge depclean</c> to remove the orphaned
277     dependencies. When this is done, you need to rebuild the applications that were
278     dynamically linked to the now-removed software titles but don't require them
279     anymore.
280 swift 1.11 </p>
281    
282     <p>
283 swift 1.39 All this is handled with the following three commands:
284 swift 1.11 </p>
285    
286 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Removing orphaned dependencies">
287     # <i>emerge --update --deep --newuse world</i>
288     # <i>emerge depclean</i>
289     # <i>revdep-rebuild</i>
290 swift 1.11 </pre>
291    
292 swift 1.34 <p>
293 swift 1.39 <c>revdep-rebuild</c> is provided by the <c>gentoolkit</c> package; don't forget
294     to emerge it first:
295 swift 1.34 </p>
296    
297 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Installing the gentoolkit package">
298     # <i>emerge gentoolkit</i>
299 swift 1.34 </pre>
300    
301 swift 1.11 </body>
302     </subsection>
303 swift 1.39 </section>
304     <section>
305     <title>When Portage is Complaining...</title>
306 swift 1.11 <subsection>
307 swift 1.39 <title>About SLOTs, Virtuals, Branches, Architectures and Profiles</title>
308 swift 1.1 <body>
309    
310 swift 1.3 <p>
311 swift 1.39 As we stated before, Portage is extremely powerful and supports many features
312     that other software management tools lack. To understand this, we explain a few
313     aspects of Portage without going in too much detail.
314 swift 1.3 </p>
315    
316     <p>
317 swift 1.39 With Portage different versions of a single package can coexist on a system.
318     While other distributions tend to name their package to those versions (like
319     <c>freetype</c> and <c>freetype2</c>) Portage uses a technology called
320     <e>SLOT</e>s. An ebuild declares a certain SLOT for its version. Ebuilds with
321     different SLOTs can coexist on the same system. For instance, the
322     <c>freetype</c> package has ebuilds with <c>SLOT="1"</c> and <c>SLOT="2"</c>.
323 swift 1.3 </p>
324    
325     <p>
326 swift 1.39 There are also packages that provide the same functionality but are implemented
327     differently. For instance, <c>metalogd</c>, <c>sysklogd</c> and <c>syslog-ng</c>
328     are all system loggers. Applications that rely on the availability of "a system
329     logger" cannot depend on, for instance, <c>metalogd</c>, as the other system
330     loggers are as good a choice as any. Portage allows for <e>virtuals</e>: each
331     system logger provides <c>virtual/syslog</c> so that applications can depend on
332     <c>virtual/syslog</c>.
333 swift 1.3 </p>
334    
335     <p>
336 swift 1.39 Software in the Portage tree can reside in different branches. By default your
337     system only accepts packages that Gentoo deems stable. Most new software titles,
338     when committed, are added to the testing branch, meaning more testing needs to
339     be done before it is marked as stable. Although you will see the ebuilds for
340     those software in the Portage tree, Portage will not update them before they are
341     placed in the stable branch.
342 swift 1.3 </p>
343    
344     <p>
345 swift 1.39 Some software is only available for a few architectures. Or the software doesn't
346     work on the other architectures, or it needs more testing, or the developer that
347     committed the software to the Portage tree is unable to verify if the package
348     works on different architectures.
349 swift 1.25 </p>
350    
351     <p>
352 swift 1.39 Each Gentoo installation adheres to a certain <c>profile</c> which contains,
353     amongst other information, the list of packages that are required for a system
354     to function normally.
355 swift 1.3 </p>
356    
357 swift 1.1 </body>
358     </subsection>
359 swift 1.39 <subsection id="blocked">
360     <title>Blocked Packages</title>
361 swift 1.1 <body>
362    
363 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (with --pretend)">
364     [blocks B ] gnome-base/bonobo-activation (from pkg gnome-base/libbonobo-2.4.0)
365     </pre>
366 swift 1.3
367 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (without --pretend)">
368     !!! Error: the gnome-base/bonobo-activation package conflicts with another package.
369     !!! both can't be installed on the same system together.
370     !!! Please use 'emerge --pretend' to determine blockers.
371 swift 1.3 </pre>
372    
373     <p>
374 swift 1.41 Ebuilds contain specific fields that inform Portage about its dependencies.
375 swift 1.39 There are two possible dependencies: build dependencies, declared in
376     <c>DEPEND</c> and run-time dependencies, declared in <c>RDEPEND</c>. When one of
377     these dependencies explicitly marks a package or virtual as being <e>not</e>
378     compatible, it triggers a blockage.
379 swift 1.3 </p>
380    
381 swift 1.11 <p>
382 swift 1.39 To fix a blockage, you can choose to not install the package or unmerge the
383     conflicting package first. In the given example, you can opt not to install
384     <c>libbonobo</c> or to remove <c>bonobo-activation</c> first.
385 swift 1.11 </p>
386    
387 swift 1.1 </body>
388     </subsection>
389 swift 1.39 <subsection id="masked">
390     <title>Masked Packages</title>
391 swift 1.1 <body>
392    
393 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Portage warning about masked packages">
394     !!! all ebuilds that could satisfy "bootsplash" have been masked.
395     </pre>
396    
397     <pre caption="Portage warning about masked packages - reason">
398     !!! possible candidates are:
399 swift 1.3
400 swift 1.39 - gnome-base/gnome-2.8.0_pre1 (masked by: <i>~x86 keyword</i>)
401     - lm-sensors/lm-sensors-2.8.7 (masked by: <i>-sparc keyword</i>)
402     - sys-libs/glibc-2.3.4.20040808 (masked by: <i>-* keyword</i>)
403     - dev-util/cvsd-1.0.2 (masked by: <i>missing keyword</i>)
404     - media-video/ati-gatos-4.3.0 (masked by: <i>package.mask</i>)
405     - sys-libs/glibc-2.3.2-r11 (masked by: <i>profile</i>)
406 swift 1.35 </pre>
407    
408 swift 1.3 <p>
409 swift 1.39 When you want to install a package that isn't available for your system, you
410     will receive this masking error. You should try installing a different
411     application that is available for your system or wait until the package is put
412     available. There is always a reason why a package is masked:
413 swift 1.3 </p>
414    
415 swift 1.35 <ul>
416     <li>
417 swift 1.39 <b>~arch keyword</b> means that the application is not tested sufficiently
418     to be put in the stable branch. Wait a few days or weeks and try again.
419 swift 1.35 </li>
420     <li>
421 swift 1.39 <b>-arch keyword</b> or <b>-* keyword</b> means that the application does
422     not work on your architecture. If you believe the package does work file
423     a bug at our <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> website.
424 swift 1.35 </li>
425     <li>
426 swift 1.39 <b>missing keyword</b> means that the application has not been tested on
427     your architecture yet. Ask the architecture porting team to test the package
428     or test it for them and report your findings on our <uri
429     link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> website.
430 swift 1.35 </li>
431     <li>
432 swift 1.39 <b>package.mask</b> means that the package has been found corrupt, unstable
433     or worse and has been deliberately marked as do-not-use.
434 swift 1.35 </li>
435     <li>
436 swift 1.39 <b>profile</b> means that the package has been found not suitable for your
437     profile. The application might break your system if you installed it or is
438     just not compatible with the profile you use.
439 swift 1.35 </li>
440     </ul>
441    
442 swift 1.1 </body>
443     </subsection>
444 swift 1.39 <subsection id="missingdependencies">
445     <title>Missing Dependencies</title>
446 swift 1.1 <body>
447    
448 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Portage warning about missing dependency">
449     emerge: there are no ebuilds to satisfy "&gt;=sys-devel/gcc-4.2-r4".
450 swift 1.3
451 swift 1.39 !!! Problem with ebuild sys-devel/gcc-3.4.2-r2
452     !!! Possibly a DEPEND/*DEPEND problem.
453 swift 1.3 </pre>
454    
455     <p>
456 swift 1.39 The application you are trying to install depends on another package that is not
457     available for your system. Please check <uri
458     link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> if the issue is known and if not,
459     please report it. Unless you are mixing branches this should not occur and is
460     therefore a bug.
461 swift 1.3 </p>
462    
463 swift 1.39 </body>
464     </subsection>
465     <subsection id="ambiguousebuild">
466     <title>Ambiguous Ebuild Name</title>
467     <body>
468 swift 1.3
469 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Portage warning about ambiguous ebuild names">
470     !!! The short ebuild name "aterm" is ambiguous. Please specify
471     !!! one of the following fully-qualified ebuild names instead:
472 swift 1.35
473 swift 1.39 dev-libs/aterm
474     x11-terms/aterm
475 swift 1.3 </pre>
476    
477     <p>
478 swift 1.39 The application you want to install has a name that corresponds with more than
479     one package. You need to supply the category name as well. Portage will inform
480     you of possible matches to choose from.
481 swift 1.35 </p>
482    
483 swift 1.39 </body>
484     </subsection>
485     <subsection id="circulardependencies">
486     <title>Circular Dependencies</title>
487     <body>
488 swift 1.35
489 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Portage warning about circular dependencies">
490     !!! Error: circular dependencies:
491 swift 1.35
492 swift 1.39 ebuild / net-print/cups-1.1.15-r2 depends on ebuild / app-text/ghostscript-7.05.3-r1
493     ebuild / app-text/ghostscript-7.05.3-r1 depends on ebuild / net-print/cups-1.1.15-r2
494 swift 1.35 </pre>
495    
496     <p>
497 swift 1.39 Two (or more) packages you want to install depend on each other and can
498     therefore not be installed. This is most likely a bug in the Portage tree.
499     Please resync after a while and try again. You can also check <uri
500     link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> if the issue is known and if not,
501     report it.
502 swift 1.3 </p>
503    
504 swift 1.39 </body>
505     </subsection>
506     <subsection id="fetchfailed">
507     <title>Fetch failed</title>
508     <body>
509 swift 1.29
510 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Portage warning about fetch failed">
511     !!! Fetch failed for sys-libs/ncurses-5.4-r5, continuing...
512     <comment>(...)</comment>
513     !!! Some fetch errors were encountered. Please see above for details.
514 swift 1.3 </pre>
515    
516 swift 1.35 <p>
517 swift 1.39 Portage was unable to download the sources for the given application and will
518     try to continue installing the other applications (if applicable). This failure
519     can be due to a mirror that has not synchronised correctly or because the ebuild
520     points to an incorrect location. The server where the sources reside can also be
521     down for some reason.
522 swift 1.35 </p>
523    
524     <p>
525 swift 1.39 Retry after one hour to see if the issue still persists.
526 swift 1.35 </p>
527    
528 swift 1.1 </body>
529     </subsection>
530 swift 1.39 <subsection id="profileprotect">
531     <title>System Profile Protection</title>
532 swift 1.1 <body>
533 swift 1.3
534 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Portage warning about profile-protected package">
535     !!! Trying to unmerge package(s) in system profile. 'sys-apps/portage'
536     !!! This could be damaging to your system.
537 swift 1.3 </pre>
538    
539     <p>
540 swift 1.39 You have asked to remove a package that is part of your system's core packages.
541     It is listed in your profile as required and should therefore not be removed
542     from the system.
543 swift 1.3 </p>
544    
545 swift 1.1 </body>
546     </subsection>
547     </section>
548     </sections>

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