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1 swift 1.18 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4 swift 1.1 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 swift 1.39 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 -->
6 swift 1.1
7 neysx 1.48 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.47 2005/01/22 01:24:31 cam Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10 swift 1.43
11 neysx 1.48 <version>1.44</version>
12     <date>2005-02-08</date>
13 swift 1.43
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15 swift 1.39 <title>Welcome to Portage</title>
16 swift 1.1 <body>
17    
18 swift 1.2 <p>
19 swift 1.39 Portage is probably Gentoo's most notable innovation in software management.
20     With its high flexibility and enormous amount of features it is frequently seen
21     as the best software management tool available for Linux.
22 swift 1.2 </p>
23    
24     <p>
25 swift 1.39 Portage is completely written in <uri link="http://www.python.org">Python</uri>
26     and <uri link="http://www.gnu.org/software/bash">Bash</uri> and therefore fully
27     visible to the users as both are scripting languages.
28 swift 1.2 </p>
29    
30     <p>
31 swift 1.39 Most users will work with Portage through the <c>emerge</c> tool. This chapter
32     is not meant to duplicate the information available from the emerge man page.
33     For a complete rundown of emerge's options, please consult the man page:
34 swift 1.2 </p>
35    
36 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Reading the emerge man page">
37     $ <i>man emerge</i>
38 swift 1.2 </pre>
39    
40     </body>
41 swift 1.1 </section>
42     <section>
43 swift 1.39 <title>The Portage Tree</title>
44 swift 1.1 <subsection>
45 swift 1.39 <title>Ebuilds</title>
46 swift 1.2 <body>
47    
48     <p>
49 swift 1.39 When we talk about packages, we often mean software titles that are available to
50     the Gentoo users through the Portage tree. The Portage tree is a collection of
51     <e>ebuilds</e>, files that contain all information Portage needs to maintain
52     software (install, search, query, ...). These ebuilds reside in
53     <path>/usr/portage</path> by default.
54 swift 1.2 </p>
55    
56     <p>
57 swift 1.39 Whenever you ask Portage to perform some action regarding software titles, it
58     will use the ebuilds on your system as a base. It is therefore important that
59     you regularly update the ebuilds on your system so Portage knows about new
60     software, security updates, etc.
61 swift 1.2 </p>
62    
63     </body>
64     </subsection>
65     <subsection>
66 swift 1.39 <title>Updating the Portage Tree</title>
67 swift 1.1 <body>
68 swift 1.2
69     <p>
70 swift 1.39 The Portage tree is usually updated with <uri
71     link="http://rsync.gentoo.org">rsync</uri>, a fast incremental file transfer
72     utility. Updating is fairly simple as the <c>emerge</c> command provides a
73     front-end for rsync:
74 swift 1.2 </p>
75    
76 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
77 cam 1.38 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
78 swift 1.2 </pre>
79    
80     <p>
81 swift 1.39 If you are unable to rsync due to firewall restrictions you can still update
82 swift 1.40 your Portage tree by using our daily generated Portage tree snapshots. The
83 swift 1.39 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> tool automatically fetches and installs the latest
84     snapshot on your system:
85 swift 1.2 </p>
86    
87 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Running emerge-webrsync">
88 swift 1.2 # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
89     </pre>
90 swift 1.1
91     </body>
92     </subsection>
93     </section>
94     <section>
95     <title>Maintaining Software</title>
96     <subsection>
97 swift 1.39 <title>Searching for Software</title>
98 swift 1.1 <body>
99    
100 swift 1.3 <p>
101 swift 1.39 To search through the Portage tree after software titles, you can use
102 cam 1.47 <c>emerge</c> built-in search capabilities. By default, <c>emerge --search</c>
103 neysx 1.42 returns the names of packages whose title matches (either fully or partially)
104 swift 1.39 the given search term.
105 swift 1.3 </p>
106    
107     <p>
108 swift 1.39 For instance, to search for all packages who have "pdf" in their name:
109 swift 1.3 </p>
110    
111 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Searching for pdf-named packages">
112 cam 1.47 $ <i>emerge --search pdf</i>
113 swift 1.39 </pre>
114    
115 swift 1.3 <p>
116 swift 1.39 If you want to search through the descriptions as well you can use the
117     <c>--searchdesc</c> (or <c>-S</c>) switch:
118 swift 1.3 </p>
119    
120 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Searching for pdf-related packages">
121     $ <i>emerge --searchdesc pdf</i>
122     </pre>
123    
124 swift 1.3 <p>
125 swift 1.39 When you take a look at the output, you'll notice that it gives you a lot of
126     information. The fields are clearly labelled so we won't go further into their
127     meanings:
128 swift 1.3 </p>
129    
130 cam 1.47 <pre caption="Example emerge --search output">
131 swift 1.39 * net-print/cups-pdf
132     Latest version available: 1.5.2
133     Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
134     Size of downloaded files: 15 kB
135     Homepage: http://cip.physik.uni-wuerzburg.de/~vrbehr/cups-pdf/
136     Description: Provides a virtual printer for CUPS to produce PDF files.
137     License: GPL-2
138     </pre>
139    
140 swift 1.3 </body>
141     </subsection>
142     <subsection>
143 swift 1.39 <title>Installing Software</title>
144 swift 1.3 <body>
145    
146     <p>
147 swift 1.39 Once you've found a software title to your liking, you can easily install it
148     with <c>emerge</c>: just add the package name. For instance, to install
149 swift 1.3 <c>gnumeric</c>:
150     </p>
151    
152 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Installing gnumeric">
153 swift 1.3 # <i>emerge gnumeric</i>
154     </pre>
155    
156     <p>
157 swift 1.39 Since many applications depend on each other, any attempt to install a certain
158     software package might result in the installation of several dependencies as
159     well. Don't worry, Portage handles dependencies well. If you want to find out
160     what Portage <e>would</e> install when you ask it to install a certain package,
161     add the <c>--pretend</c> switch. For instance:
162 swift 1.3 </p>
163    
164 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Pretend to install gnumeric">
165 swift 1.3 # <i>emerge --pretend gnumeric</i>
166     </pre>
167    
168     <p>
169 swift 1.39 When you ask Portage to install a package, it will download the necessary source
170     code from the internet (if necessary) and store it by default in
171     <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. After this it will unpack, compile and
172     install the package. If you want Portage to only download the sources without
173     installing them, add the <c>--fetchonly</c> option to the <c>emerge</c> command:
174 swift 1.3 </p>
175    
176 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Download the sourcecode for gnumeric">
177 swift 1.3 # <i>emerge --fetchonly gnumeric</i>
178     </pre>
179    
180     </body>
181     </subsection>
182     <subsection>
183 swift 1.39 <title>Removing Software</title>
184 swift 1.3 <body>
185    
186     <p>
187 swift 1.39 When you want to remove a software package from your system, use <c>emerge
188 cam 1.47 --unmerge</c>. This will tell Portage to remove all files installed by that
189 swift 1.39 package from your system <e>except</e> the configuration files of that
190     application if you have altered those after the installation. Leaving the
191     configuration files allows you to continue working with the package if you ever
192     decide to install it again.
193 swift 1.3 </p>
194    
195     <p>
196 swift 1.39 However, a <brite>big warning</brite> applies: Portage will <e>not</e> check if
197     the package you want to remove is required by another package. It will however
198     warn you when you want to remove an important package that breaks your system
199     if you unmerge it.
200 swift 1.3 </p>
201    
202 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Removing gnumeric from the system">
203 cam 1.47 # <i>emerge --unmerge gnumeric</i>
204 swift 1.3 </pre>
205    
206     <p>
207 swift 1.39 When you remove a package from your system, the dependencies of that package
208     that were installed automatically when you installed the software are left. To
209     have Portage locate all dependencies that can now be removed, use
210 cam 1.47 <c>emerge</c>'s <c>--depclean</c> functionality. We will talk about this later
211     on.
212 swift 1.3 </p>
213    
214 swift 1.39 </body>
215     </subsection>
216     <subsection>
217     <title>Updating your System</title>
218     <body>
219 swift 1.32
220 swift 1.3 <p>
221 swift 1.39 To keep your system in perfect shape (and not to mention install the latest
222     security updates) you need to update your system regularly. Since Portage only
223     checks the ebuilds in your Portage tree you first have to update your Portage
224     tree. When your Portage tree is updated, you can update your system with
225     <c>emerge --update world</c>:
226 swift 1.3 </p>
227    
228 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Updating your system">
229     # <i>emerge --update world</i>
230 swift 1.3 </pre>
231    
232     <p>
233 swift 1.39 Portage will then search for newer version of the applications you have
234     installed. However, it will only verify the versions for the applications you
235     have explicitly installed - not the dependencies. If you want to update every
236     single package on your system, add the <c>--deep</c> argument:
237 swift 1.3 </p>
238    
239 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Updating your entire system">
240     # <i>emerge --update --deep world</i>
241 swift 1.3 </pre>
242    
243     <p>
244 swift 1.39 If you have altered any of your <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>
245     lately you might want to add <c>--newuse</c> as well. Portage will then verify
246     if the change requires the installation of new packages or recompilation of
247     existing ones:
248 swift 1.3 </p>
249    
250 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Performing a full update">
251     # <i>emerge --update --deep --newuse world</i>
252 swift 1.3 </pre>
253    
254 swift 1.1 </body>
255     </subsection>
256     <subsection>
257 swift 1.39 <title>Stub Packages</title>
258 swift 1.11 <body>
259    
260     <p>
261 swift 1.39 Some packages in the Portage tree don't have any real content but are used to
262     install a collection of packages. For instance, the <c>kde</c> package will
263     install a complete KDE environment on your system by pulling in various
264     KDE-related packages as dependencies.
265 swift 1.11 </p>
266    
267     <p>
268 swift 1.39 If you ever want to remove such a package from your system, running <c>emerge
269 cam 1.47 --unmerge</c> on the package won't have much effect as the dependencies remain
270     on the system.
271 swift 1.11 </p>
272    
273     <p>
274 swift 1.39 Portage has the functionality to remove orphaned dependencies as well, but since
275     the availability of software is dynamically dependent you first need to update
276     your entire system fully, including the new changes you applied when changing
277 cam 1.47 USE flags. After this you can run <c>emerge --depclean</c> to remove the
278     orphaned dependencies. When this is done, you need to rebuild the applications
279     that were dynamically linked to the now-removed software titles but don't
280     require them anymore.
281 swift 1.11 </p>
282    
283     <p>
284 swift 1.39 All this is handled with the following three commands:
285 swift 1.11 </p>
286    
287 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Removing orphaned dependencies">
288     # <i>emerge --update --deep --newuse world</i>
289 cam 1.47 # <i>emerge --depclean</i>
290 swift 1.39 # <i>revdep-rebuild</i>
291 swift 1.11 </pre>
292    
293 swift 1.34 <p>
294 swift 1.39 <c>revdep-rebuild</c> is provided by the <c>gentoolkit</c> package; don't forget
295     to emerge it first:
296 swift 1.34 </p>
297    
298 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Installing the gentoolkit package">
299     # <i>emerge gentoolkit</i>
300 swift 1.34 </pre>
301    
302 swift 1.11 </body>
303     </subsection>
304 swift 1.39 </section>
305     <section>
306     <title>When Portage is Complaining...</title>
307 swift 1.11 <subsection>
308 swift 1.39 <title>About SLOTs, Virtuals, Branches, Architectures and Profiles</title>
309 swift 1.1 <body>
310    
311 swift 1.3 <p>
312 swift 1.39 As we stated before, Portage is extremely powerful and supports many features
313     that other software management tools lack. To understand this, we explain a few
314 neysx 1.46 aspects of Portage without going into too much detail.
315 swift 1.3 </p>
316    
317     <p>
318 swift 1.39 With Portage different versions of a single package can coexist on a system.
319     While other distributions tend to name their package to those versions (like
320     <c>freetype</c> and <c>freetype2</c>) Portage uses a technology called
321     <e>SLOT</e>s. An ebuild declares a certain SLOT for its version. Ebuilds with
322     different SLOTs can coexist on the same system. For instance, the
323     <c>freetype</c> package has ebuilds with <c>SLOT="1"</c> and <c>SLOT="2"</c>.
324 swift 1.3 </p>
325    
326     <p>
327 swift 1.39 There are also packages that provide the same functionality but are implemented
328     differently. For instance, <c>metalogd</c>, <c>sysklogd</c> and <c>syslog-ng</c>
329     are all system loggers. Applications that rely on the availability of "a system
330     logger" cannot depend on, for instance, <c>metalogd</c>, as the other system
331     loggers are as good a choice as any. Portage allows for <e>virtuals</e>: each
332     system logger provides <c>virtual/syslog</c> so that applications can depend on
333     <c>virtual/syslog</c>.
334 swift 1.3 </p>
335    
336     <p>
337 swift 1.39 Software in the Portage tree can reside in different branches. By default your
338     system only accepts packages that Gentoo deems stable. Most new software titles,
339     when committed, are added to the testing branch, meaning more testing needs to
340     be done before it is marked as stable. Although you will see the ebuilds for
341     those software in the Portage tree, Portage will not update them before they are
342     placed in the stable branch.
343 swift 1.3 </p>
344    
345     <p>
346 swift 1.39 Some software is only available for a few architectures. Or the software doesn't
347     work on the other architectures, or it needs more testing, or the developer that
348     committed the software to the Portage tree is unable to verify if the package
349     works on different architectures.
350 swift 1.25 </p>
351    
352     <p>
353 swift 1.39 Each Gentoo installation adheres to a certain <c>profile</c> which contains,
354     amongst other information, the list of packages that are required for a system
355     to function normally.
356 swift 1.3 </p>
357    
358 swift 1.1 </body>
359     </subsection>
360 swift 1.39 <subsection id="blocked">
361     <title>Blocked Packages</title>
362 swift 1.1 <body>
363    
364 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (with --pretend)">
365     [blocks B ] gnome-base/bonobo-activation (from pkg gnome-base/libbonobo-2.4.0)
366     </pre>
367 swift 1.3
368 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (without --pretend)">
369     !!! Error: the gnome-base/bonobo-activation package conflicts with another package.
370     !!! both can't be installed on the same system together.
371     !!! Please use 'emerge --pretend' to determine blockers.
372 swift 1.3 </pre>
373    
374     <p>
375 swift 1.41 Ebuilds contain specific fields that inform Portage about its dependencies.
376 swift 1.39 There are two possible dependencies: build dependencies, declared in
377     <c>DEPEND</c> and run-time dependencies, declared in <c>RDEPEND</c>. When one of
378     these dependencies explicitly marks a package or virtual as being <e>not</e>
379     compatible, it triggers a blockage.
380 swift 1.3 </p>
381    
382 swift 1.11 <p>
383 swift 1.39 To fix a blockage, you can choose to not install the package or unmerge the
384     conflicting package first. In the given example, you can opt not to install
385     <c>libbonobo</c> or to remove <c>bonobo-activation</c> first.
386 swift 1.11 </p>
387    
388 swift 1.1 </body>
389     </subsection>
390 swift 1.39 <subsection id="masked">
391     <title>Masked Packages</title>
392 swift 1.1 <body>
393    
394 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Portage warning about masked packages">
395     !!! all ebuilds that could satisfy "bootsplash" have been masked.
396     </pre>
397    
398     <pre caption="Portage warning about masked packages - reason">
399     !!! possible candidates are:
400 swift 1.3
401 swift 1.39 - gnome-base/gnome-2.8.0_pre1 (masked by: <i>~x86 keyword</i>)
402     - lm-sensors/lm-sensors-2.8.7 (masked by: <i>-sparc keyword</i>)
403     - sys-libs/glibc-2.3.4.20040808 (masked by: <i>-* keyword</i>)
404     - dev-util/cvsd-1.0.2 (masked by: <i>missing keyword</i>)
405     - media-video/ati-gatos-4.3.0 (masked by: <i>package.mask</i>)
406     - sys-libs/glibc-2.3.2-r11 (masked by: <i>profile</i>)
407 swift 1.35 </pre>
408    
409 swift 1.3 <p>
410 swift 1.39 When you want to install a package that isn't available for your system, you
411     will receive this masking error. You should try installing a different
412     application that is available for your system or wait until the package is put
413     available. There is always a reason why a package is masked:
414 swift 1.3 </p>
415    
416 swift 1.35 <ul>
417     <li>
418 swift 1.39 <b>~arch keyword</b> means that the application is not tested sufficiently
419     to be put in the stable branch. Wait a few days or weeks and try again.
420 swift 1.35 </li>
421     <li>
422 swift 1.39 <b>-arch keyword</b> or <b>-* keyword</b> means that the application does
423     not work on your architecture. If you believe the package does work file
424     a bug at our <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> website.
425 swift 1.35 </li>
426     <li>
427 swift 1.39 <b>missing keyword</b> means that the application has not been tested on
428     your architecture yet. Ask the architecture porting team to test the package
429     or test it for them and report your findings on our <uri
430     link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> website.
431 swift 1.35 </li>
432     <li>
433 swift 1.39 <b>package.mask</b> means that the package has been found corrupt, unstable
434     or worse and has been deliberately marked as do-not-use.
435 swift 1.35 </li>
436     <li>
437 swift 1.39 <b>profile</b> means that the package has been found not suitable for your
438     profile. The application might break your system if you installed it or is
439     just not compatible with the profile you use.
440 swift 1.35 </li>
441     </ul>
442    
443 swift 1.1 </body>
444     </subsection>
445 swift 1.39 <subsection id="missingdependencies">
446     <title>Missing Dependencies</title>
447 swift 1.1 <body>
448    
449 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Portage warning about missing dependency">
450 neysx 1.48 emerge: there are no ebuilds to satisfy "&gt;=sys-devel/gcc-3.4.2-r4".
451 swift 1.3
452 swift 1.39 !!! Problem with ebuild sys-devel/gcc-3.4.2-r2
453     !!! Possibly a DEPEND/*DEPEND problem.
454 swift 1.3 </pre>
455    
456     <p>
457 swift 1.39 The application you are trying to install depends on another package that is not
458     available for your system. Please check <uri
459     link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> if the issue is known and if not,
460     please report it. Unless you are mixing branches this should not occur and is
461     therefore a bug.
462 swift 1.3 </p>
463    
464 swift 1.39 </body>
465     </subsection>
466     <subsection id="ambiguousebuild">
467     <title>Ambiguous Ebuild Name</title>
468     <body>
469 swift 1.3
470 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Portage warning about ambiguous ebuild names">
471     !!! The short ebuild name "aterm" is ambiguous. Please specify
472     !!! one of the following fully-qualified ebuild names instead:
473 swift 1.35
474 swift 1.39 dev-libs/aterm
475     x11-terms/aterm
476 swift 1.3 </pre>
477    
478     <p>
479 swift 1.39 The application you want to install has a name that corresponds with more than
480     one package. You need to supply the category name as well. Portage will inform
481     you of possible matches to choose from.
482 swift 1.35 </p>
483    
484 swift 1.39 </body>
485     </subsection>
486     <subsection id="circulardependencies">
487     <title>Circular Dependencies</title>
488     <body>
489 swift 1.35
490 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Portage warning about circular dependencies">
491     !!! Error: circular dependencies:
492 swift 1.35
493 swift 1.39 ebuild / net-print/cups-1.1.15-r2 depends on ebuild / app-text/ghostscript-7.05.3-r1
494     ebuild / app-text/ghostscript-7.05.3-r1 depends on ebuild / net-print/cups-1.1.15-r2
495 swift 1.35 </pre>
496    
497     <p>
498 swift 1.39 Two (or more) packages you want to install depend on each other and can
499     therefore not be installed. This is most likely a bug in the Portage tree.
500     Please resync after a while and try again. You can also check <uri
501     link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> if the issue is known and if not,
502     report it.
503 swift 1.3 </p>
504    
505 swift 1.39 </body>
506     </subsection>
507     <subsection id="fetchfailed">
508     <title>Fetch failed</title>
509     <body>
510 swift 1.29
511 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Portage warning about fetch failed">
512     !!! Fetch failed for sys-libs/ncurses-5.4-r5, continuing...
513     <comment>(...)</comment>
514     !!! Some fetch errors were encountered. Please see above for details.
515 swift 1.3 </pre>
516    
517 swift 1.35 <p>
518 swift 1.39 Portage was unable to download the sources for the given application and will
519     try to continue installing the other applications (if applicable). This failure
520     can be due to a mirror that has not synchronised correctly or because the ebuild
521     points to an incorrect location. The server where the sources reside can also be
522     down for some reason.
523 swift 1.35 </p>
524    
525     <p>
526 swift 1.39 Retry after one hour to see if the issue still persists.
527 swift 1.35 </p>
528    
529 swift 1.1 </body>
530     </subsection>
531 swift 1.39 <subsection id="profileprotect">
532     <title>System Profile Protection</title>
533 swift 1.1 <body>
534 swift 1.3
535 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Portage warning about profile-protected package">
536     !!! Trying to unmerge package(s) in system profile. 'sys-apps/portage'
537     !!! This could be damaging to your system.
538 swift 1.3 </pre>
539    
540     <p>
541 swift 1.39 You have asked to remove a package that is part of your system's core packages.
542     It is listed in your profile as required and should therefore not be removed
543     from the system.
544 swift 1.3 </p>
545    
546 swift 1.1 </body>
547     </subsection>
548     </section>
549     </sections>

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