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1 swift 1.1 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
2     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
3    
4 swift 1.5 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.4 2003/11/27 11:08:00 swift Exp $ -->
5 swift 1.1
6     <sections>
7     <section>
8     <title>Obtaining Package Information</title>
9     <subsection>
10     <title>The Lord of All Tools: emerge</title>
11     <body>
12    
13 swift 1.2 <p>
14 swift 1.5 The main Portage tool that most users will use is <c>emerge</c>. We have already
15     used it during the Gentoo installation and in the previous chapter, but we just
16     briefly explained how to use it. This chapter will elaborate on <c>emerge</c>
17     and learn you how to use <c>emerge</c> to fix all your software-related needs.
18 swift 1.2 </p>
19    
20     <p>
21     <c>emerge</c> is the command used to install, remove, query and maintain
22     software packages. It is a front-end for <c>ebuild</c>; people interested in
23     becoming Gentoo professionals will learn how to use <c>ebuild</c> later on. For
24     now, we will focus on <c>emerge</c> as it has functionality that <c>ebuild</c>
25     lacks (such as resolving dependencies, searching the Portage tree, etc.).
26     </p>
27    
28     <p>
29     Since <c>emerge</c> is the most important tool for Gentoo users, it has an
30     extensive manpage you can read by issuing <c>man emerge</c>. You can also view
31     the in-command help by running <c>emerge --help</c>.
32     </p>
33    
34     <pre caption="Retrieving help for emerge">
35     # <i>man emerge</i>
36     # <i>emerge --help</i>
37     </pre>
38    
39     </body>
40     </subsection>
41     <subsection>
42     <title>The Portage Tree</title>
43     <body>
44    
45     <p>
46     Before we continue describing <c>emerge</c>, let us first take a look at the
47     Portage Tree. Go to <path>/usr/portage</path> and do a listing of the available
48     directories.
49     </p>
50    
51     <pre caption="Viewing the Portage Tree">
52     # <i>cd /usr/portage; ls --classify</i>
53     <comment>(The --classify will append a special character to note the filetype)</comment>
54     app-admin/ dev-ml/ gnome-libs/ net-print/
55     app-arch/ dev-perl/ gnome-office/ net-wireless/
56     app-benchmarks/ dev-php/ header.txt net-www/
57     app-cdr/ dev-python/ incoming/ net-zope/
58     app-crypt/ dev-ruby/ jython/ packages/
59     app-dicts/ dev-tcltk/ kde-apps/ profiles/
60     app-doc/ dev-tex/ kde-base/ releases/
61     app-editors/ dev-util/ kde-i18n/ scripts/
62     app-emacs/ distfiles/ kde-libs/ sec-policy/
63     app-emulation/ eclass/ licenses/ skel.ChangeLog
64     app-games/ experimental/ media-fonts/ skel.ebuild
65     app-gnustep/ files/ media-gfx/ skel.metadata.xml
66     app-i18n/ fresco-base/ media-libs/ snapshots/
67     app-misc/ games-action/ media-plugins/ sys-apps/
68     app-office/ games-arcade/ media-radio/ sys-build/
69     app-pda/ games-board/ media-sound/ sys-cluster/
70     app-portage/ games-emulation/ media-tv/ sys-devel/
71     app-sci/ games-engines/ media-video/ sys-fs/
72     app-shells/ games-fps/ metadata/ sys-kernel/
73     app-text/ games-kids/ net-analyzer/ sys-kmods/
74     app-vim/ games-misc/ net-apache/ sys-libs/
75     app-xemacs/ games-mud/ net-dialup/ unix2tcp/
76     berlin-base/ games-puzzle/ net-dns/ x11-base/
77     dev-ada/ games-roguelike/ net-firewall/ x11-libs/
78     dev-cpp/ games-rpg/ net-fs/ x11-misc/
79     dev-db/ games-server/ net-ftp/ x11-plugins/
80     dev-dotnet/ games-simulation/ net-im/ x11-terms/
81     dev-embedded/ games-sports/ net-irc/ x11-themes/
82     dev-games/ games-strategy/ net-libs/ x11-wm/
83     dev-haskell/ games-util/ net-mail/ xfce-base/
84     dev-java/ glep/ net-misc/ xfce-extra/
85     dev-lang/ gnome-apps/ net-nds/
86     dev-libs/ gnome-base/ net-news/
87     dev-lisp/ gnome-extra/ net-p2p/
88     </pre>
89    
90     <p>
91     As you can see, the Portage tree has several subdirectories. Most of them are
92     the <e>categories</e> in which the Gentoo packages, called <e>ebuilds</e>,
93     reside. Take a look at, for instance, <path>app-office</path>:
94     </p>
95    
96     <pre caption="Viewing a category">
97     # <i>cd app-office; ls --classify</i>
98     abiword/ gnotime/ kmymoney2/ ooodi/ plan/ timestamp.x
99     dia/ gnucash/ koffice/ oooqs/ qhacc/
100     dia2code/ gnumeric/ lxbank/ openoffice/ sc/
101     facturalux/ ical/ lyx/ openoffice-bin/ scribus/
102     gaby/ kbudget/ mdbtools/ openoffice-ximian/ siag/
103     gnofin/ khacc/ mrproject/ phprojekt/ texmacs/
104     </pre>
105    
106     <p>
107     Inside a category you will find the packages belonging to that category, with a
108     seperate directory for each package. Let us take a look at the <c>openoffice</c>
109     package:
110     </p>
111    
112     <pre caption="Viewing a package">
113     # <i>cd openoffice; ls --classify</i>
114     ChangeLog files/ openoffice-1.0.3-r1.ebuild openoffice-1.1.0-r2.ebuild
115     Manifest metadata.xml openoffice-1.1.0-r1.ebuild openoffice-1.1.0.ebuild
116     </pre>
117    
118     <p>
119     Remember that we told you that a Gentoo package is called an ebuild? Well, in
120     the example directory four of such ebuilds are stored. Their naming is
121     almost identical: they only differ in the version name.
122     You are free to view the contents of such a package: they are plain scripts. We
123     will not discuss it right now as it isn't important to know if you plan on just
124     using Gentoo.
125     </p>
126    
127     <p>
128     The other files are the <path>ChangeLog</path> (which contains a listing of all
129     the changes done to the ebuilds), <path>Manifest</path> (which contains the
130     checksums and permissions of all the files in the directory) and
131     <path>metadata.xml</path> (which contains more information about the package,
132     such as the responsible development group -- called <e>herd</e> and a more
133     extensive description).
134     </p>
135    
136     <p>
137     Inside the <path>files</path> directory you will find extra files, needed by
138     Portage: digests (checksums and permissions of the files needed by a single
139     version of the package), patches, example configuration files, etc.
140     </p>
141    
142     <pre caption="Viewing the extra files">
143     # <i>cd files; ls --classify</i>
144     1.0.3/ digest-openoffice-1.0.3-r1 digest-openoffice-1.1.0-r1
145     1.1.0/ digest-openoffice-1.1.0 digest-openoffice-1.1.0-r2
146     # <i>cd 1.1.0; ls --classify</i>
147     fixed-gcc.patch ooffice-wrapper-1.3
148     newstlportfix.patch openoffice-1.1.0-linux-2.6-fix.patch
149     no-mozab.patch openoffice-1.1.0-sparc64-fix.patch
150     nptl.patch
151     </pre>
152    
153     <p>
154     If you go back to the root of the Portage tree (<path>/usr/portage</path>) you
155     will notice that there are other, non-category directories too. We will discuss
156     those later in this chapter.
157     </p>
158    
159 swift 1.1 </body>
160     </subsection>
161     <subsection>
162     <title>Search for a Package</title>
163     <body>
164    
165 swift 1.2 <p>
166     If you are new to Linux or Gentoo, you might not know what tool you need for
167     what job. To facilitate searching, <c>emerge</c> provides you with a way to
168     search through the available packages on your system. There are two ways you can
169     search through packages: by <e>name</e>, or by <e>name</e> and
170     <e>description</e>.
171     </p>
172    
173     <p>
174     To search through the Portage tree by name, use <c>emerge search</c>. For
175     instance, to find out more about <c>mozilla</c>:
176     </p>
177    
178     <pre caption="Showing information about mozilla">
179     # <i>emerge search mozilla</i>
180     Searching...
181     [ Results for search key : mozilla ]
182     [ Applications found : 5 ]
183     <comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
184     * net-www/mozilla
185     Latest version available: 1.5-r1
186     Latest version installed: 1.4-r3
187     Size of downloaded files: 29,153 kB
188     Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org
189     Description: The Mozilla Web Browser
190    
191     * net-www/mozilla-firebird
192     Latest version available: 0.7
193     Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
194     Size of downloaded files: 37,850 kB
195     Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org/projects/firebird/
196     Description: The Mozilla Firebird Web Browser
197     <comment>(...)</comment>
198     </pre>
199    
200     <p>
201     If you want to include a search through the descriptions too, use the
202     <c>--searchdesc</c> argument:
203     </p>
204    
205     <pre caption="Search through the descriptions too">
206     # <i>emerge --searchdesc mozilla</i>
207     Searching...
208     [ Results for search key : mozilla ]
209     [ Applications found : 10 ]
210     <comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
211     * dev-libs/nss-3.8
212     Latest version available: 3.8
213     Latest version installed: 3.8
214     Size of downloaded files: 2,782 kB
215     Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org/projects/security/pki/nss/
216     Description: Mozilla's Netscape Security Services Library that implements PKI support
217     </pre>
218    
219     <p>
220     As you can see, the output of <c>emerge</c> informs you about the category and
221     name of the package, the available version, the currently installed version,
222     the size of the downloaded files, the homepage and the small description.
223     </p>
224    
225     <p>
226     You see something new? Yes, <e>downloaded files</e>. When you tell Portage to
227 swift 1.4 install a package, it of course needs to have the necessary sources (or
228 swift 1.2 precompiled packages) available. It therefor checks the contents of
229     <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> (for sourcecode) or
230     <path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> (for precompiled packages) to see if the
231     necessary files are already available. If not, it downloads the necessary files
232     and places them in those directories.
233     </p>
234    
235     <note>
236     Searching the Portage Tree, especially when using <c>--searchdesc</c>, is very
237     time consuming. There are other, more performant tools available. We will
238     describe those in the chapter on <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=7">Gentoolkit and
239     Other Tools</uri>.
240     </note>
241    
242 swift 1.1 </body>
243     </subsection>
244 swift 1.3 <subsection>
245     <title>Viewing the ChangeLog</title>
246     <body>
247    
248     <p>
249     While browsing through the Portage Tree, you saw that there was a ChangeLog for
250     each package. You can view this ChangeLog with <c>emerge</c> too. Use the
251     <c>--pretend --changelog</c> (<c>-pl</c> in short) options. As an example we
252     will view the ChangeLog entries for <c>gnumeric</c>:
253     </p>
254    
255     <pre caption="Viewing the ChangeLog entries for gnumeric">
256     # <i>emerge --pretend --changelog gnumeric</i>
257     </pre>
258    
259     </body>
260     </subsection>
261 swift 1.1 </section>
262     <section>
263     <title>Updating Portage</title>
264     <subsection>
265 swift 1.2 <title>Introduction</title>
266     <body>
267    
268     <p>
269     Searching through Portage is nice, but if you don't update your Portage Tree
270     regularly, you will be stuck with the packages and versions available on your
271     system. This means that your system will get outdated pretty soon, and that
272     packages with possible security problems will remain on your system.
273     </p>
274    
275     <p>
276     There are several ways to update your Portage Tree. The most popular method is
277     by using one of our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">rsync mirrors</uri>.
278     Another one is by using a Portage snapshot (in case a firewall or unavailability
279     of a network prohibits the use of the rsync server).
280     </p>
281    
282     </body>
283     </subsection>
284     <subsection>
285     <title>Selecting a Mirror for rsync</title>
286 swift 1.1 <body>
287    
288 swift 1.2 <p>
289     It is adviseable to first select a fast <uri
290     link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror</uri> close to you. You can do this manually
291     (by setting the <c>SYNC</c> variable in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>) or use
292     <c>mirrorselect</c> to do this for you automatically. As the <c>SYNC</c>
293     variable will be discussed later on, we will focus on using <c>mirrorselect</c>.
294     First install <c>mirrorselect</c> by emerging it:
295     </p>
296    
297     <pre caption="Installing mirrorselect">
298     # <i>emerge --usepkg mirrorselect</i>
299     </pre>
300    
301     <p>
302     Now run <c>mirrorselect</c> to automatically select mirrors for you (it will
303     also setup Portage to use a mirror for the sourcecode):
304     </p>
305    
306     <pre caption="Running mirrorselect">
307     # <i>mirrorselect -a -s3</i>
308     </pre>
309    
310 swift 1.1 </body>
311     </subsection>
312     <subsection>
313 swift 1.2 <title>Updating Portage</title>
314 swift 1.1 <body>
315 swift 1.2
316     <p>
317     To update Portage using rsync, simply run <c>emerge sync</c>:
318     </p>
319    
320     <pre caption="Updating Portage using emerge sync">
321     # <i>emerge sync</i>
322     </pre>
323    
324     <p>
325     If this fails (due to network problems, or a firewall), you can try using
326     <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will download a Portage Tree snapshot using
327     <c>wget</c>. This also means that you can use proxies if you want. We discussed
328     how to setup your system to use proxies during the Gentoo installation.
329     </p>
330    
331     <pre caption="Updating Portage using emerge-webrsync">
332     # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
333     </pre>
334 swift 1.1
335     </body>
336     </subsection>
337     </section>
338     <section>
339     <title>Maintaining Software</title>
340     <subsection>
341 swift 1.3 <title>Building or Prebuild?</title>
342 swift 1.1 <body>
343    
344 swift 1.3 <p>
345     Gentoo provides ebuilds, the Gentoo packages if you like. But when you want to
346     install such an ebuild, you can choose between <e>building</e> the package, or
347     using a <e>prebuild</e> package. But what are the advantages/disadvantages of
348     both approaches, and can they be used next to each other?
349     </p>
350    
351     <p>
352     As you probably have guessed, building packages takes a lot of time (especially
353     if you have little resources or want to build big packages, such as <uri
354     link="http://www.kde.org">KDE</uri>, <uri
355     link="http://www.openoffice.org">OpenOffice.org</uri>, etc.). By building the
356     package, you can use the <c>USE</c> setting to tweak the package to your system.
357 swift 1.4 Of course, you can also define high optimization options (in the <c>CFLAGS</c>
358 swift 1.3 and <c>CXXFLAGS</c> variables) to compile the package with.
359     </p>
360    
361     <p>
362     Using prebuild packages improves the installation time (as no more compilation
363     is needed), but you will lose the advantages of the <c>USE</c> setting and the
364     <c>CFLAGS</c> &amp; <c>CXXFLAGS</c> variables.
365     </p>
366    
367     <p>
368     As previously stated, prebuild packages are stored in the
369     <path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> directory, while the sourcecode of the
370     packages are placed in <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. If you have finished
371     installing a package you can remove the package or sourcecode from the
372     respective directory. However, you might want to keep the package/sourcecode of
373     the latest version, just in case you want to reinstall the package (so you don't
374     have to redownload it).
375     </p>
376    
377     </body>
378     </subsection>
379     <subsection>
380     <title>Installing Software from Sources</title>
381     <body>
382    
383     <p>
384     Okay, enough talking, let's cut to the chase. To install a package, you will use
385     the <c>emerge</c> command. If you don't want to use any prebuild packages, you
386     can just use <c>emerge &lt;package-name&gt;</c> or <c>emerge
387     &lt;category&gt;/&lt;package-name&gt;</c>. As an example we'll install
388     <c>gnumeric</c>:
389     </p>
390    
391     <pre caption="Building gnumeric">
392     # <i>emerge gnumeric</i>
393     </pre>
394    
395     <p>
396     This will download the sourcecode for you and unpacks, compiles and installs the
397     package on your system. It will also do the same for all the dependencies. If
398     you want to see what dependencies will be installed with it, use the
399     <c>--pretend</c> option (<c>-p</c> in short):
400     </p>
401    
402     <pre caption="Pretending to build gnumeric">
403     # <i>emerge --pretend gnumeric</i>
404     </pre>
405    
406     <p>
407     If you want to download the sourcecode of the package and its dependencies,
408     but don't want to build the package, use the <c>--fetchonly</c> option
409     (<c>-f</c> in short):
410     </p>
411    
412     <pre caption="Fetching sources for gnumeric">
413     # <i>emerge --fetchonly gnumeric</i>
414     </pre>
415    
416     <p>
417     If you want to see where <c>emerge</c> downloads the sources from, combine the
418     <c>--fetchonly</c> and <c>--pretend</c> options:
419     </p>
420    
421     <pre caption="Showing URLs of the sources for gnumeric">
422     # <i>emerge --fetchonly --pretend gnumeric</i>
423     </pre>
424    
425     <p>
426     You can also opt to install a specific version of a package.
427     For instance, if you want to install a gnumeric version older than 1.2 -- for
428     any reason whatsoever :) you would type:
429     </p>
430    
431     <pre caption="Installing a specific gnumeric version">
432     # <i>emerge "&lt;gnumeric-1.2"</i>
433     </pre>
434    
435     <p>
436 swift 1.4 Other possibilities are of course "&gt;" (later version) and "=" (the exact
437 swift 1.3 version).
438     </p>
439    
440     </body>
441     </subsection>
442     <subsection>
443     <title>Installing Prebuild Packages</title>
444     <body>
445    
446     <p>
447     When you want to install a prebuild package, you should use the <c>--usepkg</c>
448     option (<c>-k</c> in short). This will use the binary package available in
449     <path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> <e>if</e> the package and the version of
450     the application you want to install match.
451     </p>
452    
453     <pre caption="Installing a prebuild package for gnumeric">
454     # <i>emerge --usepkg gnumeric</i>
455     </pre>
456    
457     <p>
458     If you want to use the binary package, even if the versions don't match, use
459     <c>--usepkgonly</c> (<c>-K</c> in short).
460     </p>
461    
462     <pre caption="Installing the prebuild package for gnumeric">
463     # <i>emerge --usepkgonly gnumeric</i>
464     </pre>
465    
466     <!-- TODO When handbook goes life, comment out this parts until the mirrors have
467     been updated with online GRP packages. -->
468     <p>
469     If you don't have the prebuild package on your system yet, you can have
470     <c>emerge</c> download it from a mirror, defined in the <c>PORTAGE_BINHOST</c>
471     variable declared in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>.
472     </p>
473    
474     <p>
475     To download the binary package in case this package doesn't exist on
476     your system already, use <c>--getbinpkg</c> (<c>-g</c> in short):
477     </p>
478    
479     <pre caption="Downloading and installing a prebuild package for gnumeric">
480     # <i>emerge --getbinpkg gnumeric</i>
481     </pre>
482    
483     <p>
484     This will download the package and the package-related information for you and
485     install it on your system, together with the dependencies. If you want to see
486     what dependencies will be installed with it, use the <c>--pretend</c> option
487     (<c>-p</c> in short):
488     </p>
489    
490     <pre caption="Pretending to download the prebuild packages for gnumeric">
491     # <i>emerge --ginbinpkg --pretend gnumeric</i>
492     </pre>
493    
494     <p>
495     You can also opt to download the prebuild package (and the package-related
496     information) <e>without</e> checking the information on your local system and
497     <e>without</e> using the prebuild package already on your system (if
498     applicable), use the <c>--getbinpkgonly</c> option (<c>-G</c> in short):
499     </p>
500    
501     <pre caption="Installing a prebuild package without using local information">
502     # <i>emerge --getbinpkgonly gnumeric</i>
503     </pre>
504    
505     <!-- TODO Up until here -->
506    
507     <p>
508     You can also opt to install a specific version of a package.
509     For instance, if you want to install a gnumeric version older than 1.2 -- for
510     any reason whatsoever :) you would type:
511     </p>
512    
513     <pre caption="Installing a specific gnumeric version">
514     # <i>emerge --usepkg "&lt;gnumeric-1.2"</i>
515     </pre>
516    
517     <p>
518 swift 1.4 Other possibilities are of course "&gt;" (later version) and "=" (the exact
519 swift 1.3 version).
520     </p>
521    
522    
523 swift 1.1 </body>
524     </subsection>
525     <subsection>
526 swift 1.3 <title>Updating your System</title>
527 swift 1.1 <body>
528    
529 swift 1.3 <p>
530     Portage knows two special tags to denote a set of software packages:
531     <e>system</e> and <e>world</e>. You have already seen the former while
532     installing Gentoo if you didn't use a <e>stage3</e> installation. To refresh
533     things: <e>system</e> is the collection of <e>core</e> packages, necessary to
534     have a working Gentoo system.
535     </p>
536    
537     <p>
538     The <e>world</e> tag consists of all software you have installed yourself on
539     your system plus the <e>system</e> information. In other words, every time you
540     emerge a package using <c>emerge &lt;package-name&gt;</c>, the
541     <c>&lt;package-name&gt;</c> is registered in the <e>world</e> file
542     (<path>/var/cache/edb/world</path>). Dependencies are <e>not</e> part of the
543     <e>world</e> file, but we will get to that later.
544     </p>
545    
546     <p>
547     If you want to update the system packages, use the <c>--update</c> option
548     (<c>-u</c> in short):
549     </p>
550    
551     <pre caption="Updating the system packages">
552     # <i>emerge --update system</i>
553     </pre>
554    
555     <p>
556     An identical approach can be used for the world packages:
557     </p>
558    
559     <pre caption="Updating your entire system">
560     # <i>emerge --update world</i>
561     </pre>
562    
563     <p>
564     Again, if you want to see what <c>emerge</c> wants to update, use the
565     <c>--pretend</c> option together with the <c>--update</c> option:
566     </p>
567    
568     <pre caption="Pretending to update your entire system">
569     # <i>emerge --pretend --update world</i>
570     <comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
571     [ebuild U ] net-misc/wget-1.9-r1 [1.9]
572     [ebuild UD] media-video/dvdauthor-0.5.0 [0.5.3]
573     [ebuild U ] net-analyzer/ethereal-0.9.16 [0.9.14]
574     </pre>
575    
576     <p>
577     Right next to the word "ebuild" you will notice a letter (or combination of
578     letters) which gives you more information about the package:
579     </p>
580    
581     <ul>
582     <li>
583     <e>B</e> (blocks) The package listed to the left is blocking the emerge of
584     the package listed to the right
585     </li>
586     <li>
587     <e>N</e> (new) The package is new to your system and will be emerged for the
588     first time
589     </li>
590     <li>
591     <e>R</e> (reemerge) The package isn't new, but needs to be reemerged
592     </li>
593     <li>
594     <e>F</e> (fetch) The package requires that you download the sourcecode
595     manually (for instance due to licencing issues)
596     </li>
597     <li>
598     <e>U</e> (update) The package already exists on your system but will be
599     upgraded
600     </li>
601     <li>
602     <e>UD</e> (downgrade) The package already exists on your system but will be
603     downgraded
604     </li>
605     <li>
606     <e>U-</e> (slot warning) The package you have installed on your system
607     is listed as a package that can not coexist with a different version, but
608     your update does. The update will be installed and the older version will be
609     removed.
610     </li>
611     </ul>
612    
613     <p>
614     In certain cases, an update may mean a downgrade (i.e. install an older version
615     instead of a newer version). If you don't want this to happen, use the
616     <c>--upgradeonly</c> option (<c>-U</c> in short):
617     </p>
618    
619     <pre caption="Upgrading your entire system">
620     # <i>emerge --update --upgradeonly world</i>
621     </pre>
622    
623     <p>
624 swift 1.4 Of course, we are talking here about <e>system</e> and <e>world</e>, but you can
625 swift 1.3 perform the same actions for individual software packages.
626     </p>
627    
628 swift 1.1 </body>
629     </subsection>
630     <subsection>
631     <title>Removing Software</title>
632     <body>
633    
634 swift 1.3 <p>
635     If you want to remove software from your system, you can use the <c>unmerge</c>
636     option (<c>-C</c> - capital C - in short):
637     </p>
638    
639     <pre caption="Uninstalling software">
640     # <i>emerge unmerge gnumeric</i>
641     </pre>
642    
643     <p>
644     If you want to test a removal (but not perform it), you can use <c>--pretend</c>
645     again:
646     </p>
647    
648     <pre caption="Pretending to uninstall software">
649     # <i>emerge --pretend unmerge gnumeric</i>
650     </pre>
651    
652     <warn>
653     Portage doesn't verify if a package is a dependency for another
654     installed package. It also doesn't warn you if the package is part of
655     <e>system</e>, i.e. a core application necessary for the correct functioning of
656     your system!
657     </warn>
658    
659 swift 1.1 </body>
660     </subsection>
661     </section>
662     <section>
663     <title>Software Availability</title>
664     <subsection>
665     <title>ARCH or not?</title>
666     <body>
667    
668 swift 1.3 <p>
669     Gentoo places its packages in two possible stadia called <e>ARCH</e> and
670     <e>~ARCH</e>. Don't take this literally: the stadia depend on the architecture
671     you are using. In other words, for x86-based systems you have <e>x86</e> and
672     <e>~x86</e>, for ppc-based systems you have <e>ppc</e> and <e>~ppc</e> etc.
673     </p>
674    
675     <p>
676     The <e>~ARCH</e> stadium means that the package works for the developer in
677     charge of the package, but that the package hasn't been tested thoroughly enough
678     by the community to be placed in <e>ARCH</e>. <e>~ARCH</e> packages usually go
679     to <e>ARCH</e> after being bugfree for a sufficient amount of time.
680     </p>
681    
682     <p>
683     Your system will use <e>ARCH</e> packages per default. If you want to live on
684     the edge, don't mind having a broken package once in a while, and you like
685     submitting bugreports to <uri
686     link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugs.gentoo.org</uri>, then you can opt to use
687     <e>~ARCH</e> packages. To "move" your system to a <e>~ARCH</e>-using system,
688     edit the <c>ACCEPT_KEYWORDS</c> variable in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so that
689     it reads <e>~ARCH</e> (again: for x86-based systems: <e>~x86</e>, etc.).
690     </p>
691    
692     <p>
693     If you want to update your system now, you will notice that <e>a lot</e> of
694     packages will be updated!
695     </p>
696    
697 swift 1.1 </body>
698     </subsection>
699     <subsection>
700     <title>Masked Packages</title>
701     <body>
702    
703 swift 1.3 <p>
704     When you want to install a package, you might come across the following message:
705     </p>
706    
707     <pre caption="Message about masked packages">
708     Calculating dependencies
709     !!! <comment>all ebuilds that could satisfy </comment>&lt;your package&gt;<comment> have been masked.</comment>
710     </pre>
711    
712     <p>
713     A package can be masked due to two reasons:
714     </p>
715    
716     <ol>
717     <li>The package is in <e>~ARCH</e> while you use <e>ARCH</e></li>
718     <li>The package is hard-masked explicitly</li>
719     </ol>
720    
721     <p>
722     If the package is masked because of the first reason, and you <e>really</e> want
723     to install it (knowing that there <e>is</e> a reason why it isn't available in
724     <e>ARCH</e>), you can temporarily accept <e>~ARCH</e> packages:
725     </p>
726    
727     <pre caption="Temporarily accepting ~ARCH packages">
728     # <i>ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~x86" emerge gnumeric</i>
729     </pre>
730    
731     <p>
732     A package is hardmasked if it is listed in
733     <path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path>. If you read this file, you
734     will also read the reason why the package is hardmasked (it is usually added as
735     a comment). If you want to install the package nevertheless (despite all the
736     possible warnings we could ever throw at your head about "breaking your system",
737     "breaks other packages", or "badly needs testing"), create the
738     <path>/etc/portage/package.unmask</path> file and list the package in it (use
739     the same format as is used in <path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path>).
740     </p>
741    
742     <p>
743     Do <e>not</e> alter the <path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path> file as
744     all changes are undone the next time you update your Portage tree.
745     </p>
746    
747     <p>
748     Another trick to circumvent the "masked package" problem is to install the
749     package using the full path. This will ignore both the <c>ACCEPT_KEYWORD</c>
750     settings and the <path>package.mask</path> listing.
751     </p>
752    
753     <pre caption="Installing a package without checking for stadium / masking">
754     # <i>emerge /usr/portage/app-office/gnumeric/gnumeric-1.2.0.ebuild</i>
755     </pre>
756    
757 swift 1.1 </body>
758     </subsection>
759     <subsection>
760     <title>Blocked Packages</title>
761     <body>
762 swift 1.3
763     <p>
764     You have a situation when you receive the following error on your screen:
765     </p>
766    
767     <pre caption="Blocking package">
768     [blocks B ] gnome-base/bonobo-activation (from pkg gnome-base/libbonobo-2.4.0)
769     </pre>
770    
771     <p>
772     In the above example, the package <c>bonobo-activation</c> is blocking the
773     emerge of <c>libbonobo</c>. To resolve this issue, remove the
774     <c>bonobo-activation</c> package and continue:
775     </p>
776    
777     <pre caption="Resolving a blocking situation">
778     # <i>emerge unmerge bonobo-activation</i>
779     </pre>
780 swift 1.1
781     </body>
782     </subsection>
783     </section>
784     </sections>

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