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Wed Dec 24 07:07:48 2008 UTC (5 years, 8 months ago) by nightmorph
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users shouldn't try running ebuild foo digest anyway. digests haven't been used in a year, ever since the tree was converted to manifest2. the correct command is ebuild foo manifest, so fixed in the example of what not to do.

1 swift 1.18 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4 swift 1.1 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 fox2mike 1.55 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 swift 1.1
7 nightmorph 1.72 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.71 2008/03/01 07:16:57 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10 swift 1.43
11 neysx 1.60 <abstract>
12     This chapter explains the "simple" steps a user definitely needs to know to
13     maintain the software on his system.
14     </abstract>
15    
16 nightmorph 1.72 <version>1.65</version>
17     <date>2008-12-23</date>
18 swift 1.43
19 swift 1.1 <section>
20 swift 1.39 <title>Welcome to Portage</title>
21 swift 1.1 <body>
22    
23 swift 1.2 <p>
24 swift 1.39 Portage is probably Gentoo's most notable innovation in software management.
25     With its high flexibility and enormous amount of features it is frequently seen
26     as the best software management tool available for Linux.
27 swift 1.2 </p>
28    
29     <p>
30 swift 1.39 Portage is completely written in <uri link="http://www.python.org">Python</uri>
31     and <uri link="http://www.gnu.org/software/bash">Bash</uri> and therefore fully
32     visible to the users as both are scripting languages.
33 swift 1.2 </p>
34    
35     <p>
36 swift 1.39 Most users will work with Portage through the <c>emerge</c> tool. This chapter
37     is not meant to duplicate the information available from the emerge man page.
38     For a complete rundown of emerge's options, please consult the man page:
39 swift 1.2 </p>
40    
41 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Reading the emerge man page">
42     $ <i>man emerge</i>
43 swift 1.2 </pre>
44    
45     </body>
46 swift 1.1 </section>
47     <section>
48 swift 1.39 <title>The Portage Tree</title>
49 swift 1.1 <subsection>
50 swift 1.39 <title>Ebuilds</title>
51 swift 1.2 <body>
52    
53     <p>
54 swift 1.39 When we talk about packages, we often mean software titles that are available to
55     the Gentoo users through the Portage tree. The Portage tree is a collection of
56     <e>ebuilds</e>, files that contain all information Portage needs to maintain
57     software (install, search, query, ...). These ebuilds reside in
58     <path>/usr/portage</path> by default.
59 swift 1.2 </p>
60    
61     <p>
62 swift 1.39 Whenever you ask Portage to perform some action regarding software titles, it
63     will use the ebuilds on your system as a base. It is therefore important that
64     you regularly update the ebuilds on your system so Portage knows about new
65     software, security updates, etc.
66 swift 1.2 </p>
67    
68     </body>
69     </subsection>
70     <subsection>
71 swift 1.39 <title>Updating the Portage Tree</title>
72 swift 1.1 <body>
73 swift 1.2
74     <p>
75 swift 1.39 The Portage tree is usually updated with <uri
76 yoswink 1.50 link="http://rsync.samba.org/">rsync</uri>, a fast incremental file transfer
77 swift 1.39 utility. Updating is fairly simple as the <c>emerge</c> command provides a
78     front-end for rsync:
79 swift 1.2 </p>
80    
81 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
82 cam 1.38 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
83 swift 1.2 </pre>
84    
85     <p>
86 swift 1.39 If you are unable to rsync due to firewall restrictions you can still update
87 swift 1.40 your Portage tree by using our daily generated Portage tree snapshots. The
88 swift 1.39 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> tool automatically fetches and installs the latest
89     snapshot on your system:
90 swift 1.2 </p>
91    
92 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Running emerge-webrsync">
93 swift 1.2 # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
94     </pre>
95 swift 1.1
96     </body>
97     </subsection>
98     </section>
99     <section>
100     <title>Maintaining Software</title>
101     <subsection>
102 swift 1.39 <title>Searching for Software</title>
103 swift 1.1 <body>
104    
105 swift 1.3 <p>
106 swift 1.39 To search through the Portage tree after software titles, you can use
107 cam 1.47 <c>emerge</c> built-in search capabilities. By default, <c>emerge --search</c>
108 neysx 1.42 returns the names of packages whose title matches (either fully or partially)
109 swift 1.39 the given search term.
110 swift 1.3 </p>
111    
112     <p>
113 swift 1.39 For instance, to search for all packages who have "pdf" in their name:
114 swift 1.3 </p>
115    
116 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Searching for pdf-named packages">
117 cam 1.47 $ <i>emerge --search pdf</i>
118 swift 1.39 </pre>
119    
120 swift 1.3 <p>
121 swift 1.39 If you want to search through the descriptions as well you can use the
122     <c>--searchdesc</c> (or <c>-S</c>) switch:
123 swift 1.3 </p>
124    
125 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Searching for pdf-related packages">
126     $ <i>emerge --searchdesc pdf</i>
127     </pre>
128    
129 swift 1.3 <p>
130 swift 1.39 When you take a look at the output, you'll notice that it gives you a lot of
131     information. The fields are clearly labelled so we won't go further into their
132     meanings:
133 swift 1.3 </p>
134    
135 swift 1.49 <pre caption="Example 'emerge --search' output">
136 swift 1.39 * net-print/cups-pdf
137     Latest version available: 1.5.2
138     Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
139     Size of downloaded files: 15 kB
140     Homepage: http://cip.physik.uni-wuerzburg.de/~vrbehr/cups-pdf/
141     Description: Provides a virtual printer for CUPS to produce PDF files.
142     License: GPL-2
143     </pre>
144    
145 swift 1.3 </body>
146     </subsection>
147     <subsection>
148 swift 1.39 <title>Installing Software</title>
149 swift 1.3 <body>
150    
151     <p>
152 swift 1.39 Once you've found a software title to your liking, you can easily install it
153     with <c>emerge</c>: just add the package name. For instance, to install
154 swift 1.3 <c>gnumeric</c>:
155     </p>
156    
157 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Installing gnumeric">
158 swift 1.3 # <i>emerge gnumeric</i>
159     </pre>
160    
161     <p>
162 swift 1.39 Since many applications depend on each other, any attempt to install a certain
163     software package might result in the installation of several dependencies as
164     well. Don't worry, Portage handles dependencies well. If you want to find out
165     what Portage <e>would</e> install when you ask it to install a certain package,
166     add the <c>--pretend</c> switch. For instance:
167 swift 1.3 </p>
168    
169 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Pretend to install gnumeric">
170 swift 1.3 # <i>emerge --pretend gnumeric</i>
171     </pre>
172    
173     <p>
174 swift 1.39 When you ask Portage to install a package, it will download the necessary source
175     code from the internet (if necessary) and store it by default in
176     <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. After this it will unpack, compile and
177     install the package. If you want Portage to only download the sources without
178     installing them, add the <c>--fetchonly</c> option to the <c>emerge</c> command:
179 swift 1.3 </p>
180    
181 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Download the sourcecode for gnumeric">
182 swift 1.3 # <i>emerge --fetchonly gnumeric</i>
183     </pre>
184    
185     </body>
186     </subsection>
187     <subsection>
188 neysx 1.52 <title>Finding Installed Package Documentation</title>
189     <body>
190    
191     <p>
192     Many packages come with their own documentation. Sometimes, the <c>doc</c> USE
193     flag determines whether the package documentation should be installed or not.
194     You can check the existence of a <c>doc</c> USE flag with the <c>emerge -vp
195     &lt;package name&gt;</c> command.
196     </p>
197    
198     <pre caption="Checking the existence of a doc USE flag">
199     <comment>(alsa-lib is just an example, of course.)</comment>
200     # <i>emerge -vp alsa-lib</i>
201 nightmorph 1.62 [ebuild N ] media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1 -debug +doc 698 kB
202 neysx 1.52 </pre>
203    
204     <p>
205 jkt 1.67 The best way of enabling the <c>doc</c> USE flag is doing it on a per-package
206 nightmorph 1.68 basis via <path>/etc/portage/package.use</path>, so that you get documentation
207     only for packages that you are interested in. Enabling this flag globally is
208     known to cause problems with circular dependencies. For more information, please
209     read the <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE Flags</uri> chapter.
210 neysx 1.52 </p>
211    
212     <p>
213     Once the package installed, its documentation is generally found in a
214     subdirectory named after the package under the <path>/usr/share/doc</path>
215     directory. You can also list all installed files with the <c>equery</c> tool
216     which is part of the <c>app-portage/gentoolkit</c> <uri
217     link="/doc/en/gentoolkit.xml">package</uri>.
218     </p>
219    
220     <pre caption="Locating package documentation">
221 nightmorph 1.62 # <i>ls -l /usr/share/doc/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1</i>
222 neysx 1.52 total 28
223     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 669 May 17 21:54 ChangeLog.gz
224     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 9373 May 17 21:54 COPYING.gz
225     drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 8560 May 17 21:54 html
226     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 196 May 17 21:54 TODO.gz
227    
228     <comment>(Alternatively, use equery to locate interesting files:)</comment>
229     # <i>equery files alsa-lib | less</i>
230 nightmorph 1.62 media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1
231     * Contents of media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1:
232 neysx 1.52 /usr
233     /usr/bin
234     /usr/bin/alsalisp
235 neysx 1.53 <comment>(Output truncated)</comment>
236 neysx 1.52 </pre>
237    
238     </body>
239     </subsection>
240     <subsection>
241 swift 1.39 <title>Removing Software</title>
242 swift 1.3 <body>
243    
244     <p>
245 swift 1.39 When you want to remove a software package from your system, use <c>emerge
246 cam 1.47 --unmerge</c>. This will tell Portage to remove all files installed by that
247 swift 1.39 package from your system <e>except</e> the configuration files of that
248     application if you have altered those after the installation. Leaving the
249     configuration files allows you to continue working with the package if you ever
250     decide to install it again.
251 swift 1.3 </p>
252    
253     <p>
254 swift 1.39 However, a <brite>big warning</brite> applies: Portage will <e>not</e> check if
255     the package you want to remove is required by another package. It will however
256     warn you when you want to remove an important package that breaks your system
257     if you unmerge it.
258 swift 1.3 </p>
259    
260 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Removing gnumeric from the system">
261 cam 1.47 # <i>emerge --unmerge gnumeric</i>
262 swift 1.3 </pre>
263    
264     <p>
265 swift 1.39 When you remove a package from your system, the dependencies of that package
266     that were installed automatically when you installed the software are left. To
267     have Portage locate all dependencies that can now be removed, use
268 cam 1.47 <c>emerge</c>'s <c>--depclean</c> functionality. We will talk about this later
269     on.
270 swift 1.3 </p>
271    
272 swift 1.39 </body>
273     </subsection>
274     <subsection>
275     <title>Updating your System</title>
276     <body>
277 swift 1.32
278 swift 1.3 <p>
279 swift 1.39 To keep your system in perfect shape (and not to mention install the latest
280     security updates) you need to update your system regularly. Since Portage only
281     checks the ebuilds in your Portage tree you first have to update your Portage
282     tree. When your Portage tree is updated, you can update your system with
283 swift 1.57 <c>emerge --update world</c>. In the next example, we'll also use the
284     <c>--ask</c> switch which will tell Portage to display the list of packages it
285     wants to upgrade and ask you if you want to continue:
286 swift 1.3 </p>
287    
288 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Updating your system">
289 swift 1.57 # <i>emerge --update --ask world</i>
290 swift 1.3 </pre>
291    
292     <p>
293 swift 1.39 Portage will then search for newer version of the applications you have
294     installed. However, it will only verify the versions for the applications you
295 nightmorph 1.61 have <e>explicitly</e> installed (the applications listed in
296     <path>/var/lib/portage/world</path>) - it does not thoroughly check their
297     dependencies. If you want to update <e>every single package</e> on your system,
298     add the <c>--deep</c> argument:
299 swift 1.3 </p>
300    
301 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Updating your entire system">
302     # <i>emerge --update --deep world</i>
303 swift 1.3 </pre>
304    
305     <p>
306 swift 1.54 Since security updates also happen in packages you have not explicitly installed
307     on your system (but that are pulled in as dependencies of other programs), it
308     is recommended to run this command once in a while.
309     </p>
310    
311     <p>
312 swift 1.39 If you have altered any of your <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>
313     lately you might want to add <c>--newuse</c> as well. Portage will then verify
314     if the change requires the installation of new packages or recompilation of
315     existing ones:
316 swift 1.3 </p>
317    
318 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Performing a full update">
319     # <i>emerge --update --deep --newuse world</i>
320 swift 1.3 </pre>
321    
322 swift 1.1 </body>
323     </subsection>
324     <subsection>
325 neysx 1.51 <title>Metapackages</title>
326 swift 1.11 <body>
327    
328     <p>
329 swift 1.39 Some packages in the Portage tree don't have any real content but are used to
330     install a collection of packages. For instance, the <c>kde</c> package will
331     install a complete KDE environment on your system by pulling in various
332     KDE-related packages as dependencies.
333 swift 1.11 </p>
334    
335     <p>
336 swift 1.39 If you ever want to remove such a package from your system, running <c>emerge
337 cam 1.47 --unmerge</c> on the package won't have much effect as the dependencies remain
338     on the system.
339 swift 1.11 </p>
340    
341     <p>
342 swift 1.39 Portage has the functionality to remove orphaned dependencies as well, but since
343     the availability of software is dynamically dependent you first need to update
344     your entire system fully, including the new changes you applied when changing
345 cam 1.47 USE flags. After this you can run <c>emerge --depclean</c> to remove the
346     orphaned dependencies. When this is done, you need to rebuild the applications
347     that were dynamically linked to the now-removed software titles but don't
348     require them anymore.
349 swift 1.11 </p>
350    
351     <p>
352 swift 1.39 All this is handled with the following three commands:
353 swift 1.11 </p>
354    
355 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Removing orphaned dependencies">
356     # <i>emerge --update --deep --newuse world</i>
357 cam 1.47 # <i>emerge --depclean</i>
358 swift 1.39 # <i>revdep-rebuild</i>
359 swift 1.11 </pre>
360    
361 swift 1.34 <p>
362 swift 1.39 <c>revdep-rebuild</c> is provided by the <c>gentoolkit</c> package; don't forget
363     to emerge it first:
364 swift 1.34 </p>
365    
366 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Installing the gentoolkit package">
367     # <i>emerge gentoolkit</i>
368 swift 1.34 </pre>
369    
370 swift 1.11 </body>
371     </subsection>
372 swift 1.39 </section>
373     <section>
374     <title>When Portage is Complaining...</title>
375 swift 1.11 <subsection>
376 swift 1.39 <title>About SLOTs, Virtuals, Branches, Architectures and Profiles</title>
377 swift 1.1 <body>
378    
379 swift 1.3 <p>
380 swift 1.39 As we stated before, Portage is extremely powerful and supports many features
381     that other software management tools lack. To understand this, we explain a few
382 neysx 1.46 aspects of Portage without going into too much detail.
383 swift 1.3 </p>
384    
385     <p>
386 swift 1.39 With Portage different versions of a single package can coexist on a system.
387     While other distributions tend to name their package to those versions (like
388     <c>freetype</c> and <c>freetype2</c>) Portage uses a technology called
389     <e>SLOT</e>s. An ebuild declares a certain SLOT for its version. Ebuilds with
390     different SLOTs can coexist on the same system. For instance, the
391     <c>freetype</c> package has ebuilds with <c>SLOT="1"</c> and <c>SLOT="2"</c>.
392 swift 1.3 </p>
393    
394     <p>
395 swift 1.39 There are also packages that provide the same functionality but are implemented
396     differently. For instance, <c>metalogd</c>, <c>sysklogd</c> and <c>syslog-ng</c>
397     are all system loggers. Applications that rely on the availability of "a system
398     logger" cannot depend on, for instance, <c>metalogd</c>, as the other system
399     loggers are as good a choice as any. Portage allows for <e>virtuals</e>: each
400     system logger provides <c>virtual/syslog</c> so that applications can depend on
401     <c>virtual/syslog</c>.
402 swift 1.3 </p>
403    
404     <p>
405 swift 1.39 Software in the Portage tree can reside in different branches. By default your
406     system only accepts packages that Gentoo deems stable. Most new software titles,
407     when committed, are added to the testing branch, meaning more testing needs to
408     be done before it is marked as stable. Although you will see the ebuilds for
409     those software in the Portage tree, Portage will not update them before they are
410     placed in the stable branch.
411 swift 1.3 </p>
412    
413     <p>
414 swift 1.39 Some software is only available for a few architectures. Or the software doesn't
415     work on the other architectures, or it needs more testing, or the developer that
416     committed the software to the Portage tree is unable to verify if the package
417     works on different architectures.
418 swift 1.25 </p>
419    
420     <p>
421 swift 1.39 Each Gentoo installation adheres to a certain <c>profile</c> which contains,
422     amongst other information, the list of packages that are required for a system
423     to function normally.
424 swift 1.3 </p>
425    
426 swift 1.1 </body>
427     </subsection>
428 swift 1.39 <subsection id="blocked">
429     <title>Blocked Packages</title>
430 swift 1.1 <body>
431    
432 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (with --pretend)">
433 fox2mike 1.55 [blocks B ] mail-mta/ssmtp (is blocking mail-mta/postfix-2.2.2-r1)
434 swift 1.39 </pre>
435 swift 1.3
436 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (without --pretend)">
437 fox2mike 1.55 !!! Error: the mail-mta/postfix package conflicts with another package.
438 swift 1.39 !!! both can't be installed on the same system together.
439     !!! Please use 'emerge --pretend' to determine blockers.
440 swift 1.3 </pre>
441    
442     <p>
443 swift 1.41 Ebuilds contain specific fields that inform Portage about its dependencies.
444 swift 1.39 There are two possible dependencies: build dependencies, declared in
445     <c>DEPEND</c> and run-time dependencies, declared in <c>RDEPEND</c>. When one of
446     these dependencies explicitly marks a package or virtual as being <e>not</e>
447     compatible, it triggers a blockage.
448 swift 1.3 </p>
449    
450 swift 1.11 <p>
451 swift 1.39 To fix a blockage, you can choose to not install the package or unmerge the
452     conflicting package first. In the given example, you can opt not to install
453 fox2mike 1.55 <c>postfix</c> or to remove <c>ssmtp</c> first.
454 swift 1.11 </p>
455    
456 swift 1.56 <p>
457 nightmorph 1.63 You may also see blocking packages with specific atoms, such as
458     <b>&lt;</b>media-video/mplayer-bin-1.0_rc1-r2. In this case, updating to a more
459     recent version of the blocking package would remove the block.
460     </p>
461    
462     <p>
463 swift 1.56 It is also possible that two packages that are yet to be installed are blocking
464     each other. In this rare case, you should find out why you need to install both.
465     In most cases you can do with one of the packages alone. If not, please file a
466     bug on <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">Gentoo's bugtracking system</uri>.
467     </p>
468    
469 swift 1.1 </body>
470     </subsection>
471 swift 1.39 <subsection id="masked">
472     <title>Masked Packages</title>
473 swift 1.1 <body>
474    
475 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Portage warning about masked packages">
476     !!! all ebuilds that could satisfy "bootsplash" have been masked.
477     </pre>
478    
479     <pre caption="Portage warning about masked packages - reason">
480     !!! possible candidates are:
481 swift 1.3
482 swift 1.39 - gnome-base/gnome-2.8.0_pre1 (masked by: <i>~x86 keyword</i>)
483     - lm-sensors/lm-sensors-2.8.7 (masked by: <i>-sparc keyword</i>)
484     - sys-libs/glibc-2.3.4.20040808 (masked by: <i>-* keyword</i>)
485     - dev-util/cvsd-1.0.2 (masked by: <i>missing keyword</i>)
486 nightmorph 1.64 - games-fps/unreal-tournament-451 (masked by: <i>package.mask</i>)
487 swift 1.39 - sys-libs/glibc-2.3.2-r11 (masked by: <i>profile</i>)
488 swift 1.35 </pre>
489    
490 swift 1.3 <p>
491 swift 1.39 When you want to install a package that isn't available for your system, you
492     will receive this masking error. You should try installing a different
493     application that is available for your system or wait until the package is put
494     available. There is always a reason why a package is masked:
495 swift 1.3 </p>
496    
497 swift 1.35 <ul>
498     <li>
499 swift 1.39 <b>~arch keyword</b> means that the application is not tested sufficiently
500     to be put in the stable branch. Wait a few days or weeks and try again.
501 swift 1.35 </li>
502     <li>
503 swift 1.39 <b>-arch keyword</b> or <b>-* keyword</b> means that the application does
504     not work on your architecture. If you believe the package does work file
505     a bug at our <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> website.
506 swift 1.35 </li>
507     <li>
508 swift 1.39 <b>missing keyword</b> means that the application has not been tested on
509     your architecture yet. Ask the architecture porting team to test the package
510     or test it for them and report your findings on our <uri
511     link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> website.
512 swift 1.35 </li>
513     <li>
514 swift 1.39 <b>package.mask</b> means that the package has been found corrupt, unstable
515     or worse and has been deliberately marked as do-not-use.
516 swift 1.35 </li>
517     <li>
518 swift 1.39 <b>profile</b> means that the package has been found not suitable for your
519     profile. The application might break your system if you installed it or is
520     just not compatible with the profile you use.
521 swift 1.35 </li>
522     </ul>
523    
524 swift 1.1 </body>
525     </subsection>
526 swift 1.39 <subsection id="missingdependencies">
527     <title>Missing Dependencies</title>
528 swift 1.1 <body>
529    
530 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Portage warning about missing dependency">
531 neysx 1.48 emerge: there are no ebuilds to satisfy "&gt;=sys-devel/gcc-3.4.2-r4".
532 swift 1.3
533 swift 1.39 !!! Problem with ebuild sys-devel/gcc-3.4.2-r2
534     !!! Possibly a DEPEND/*DEPEND problem.
535 swift 1.3 </pre>
536    
537     <p>
538 swift 1.39 The application you are trying to install depends on another package that is not
539     available for your system. Please check <uri
540     link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> if the issue is known and if not,
541     please report it. Unless you are mixing branches this should not occur and is
542     therefore a bug.
543 swift 1.3 </p>
544    
545 swift 1.39 </body>
546     </subsection>
547     <subsection id="ambiguousebuild">
548     <title>Ambiguous Ebuild Name</title>
549     <body>
550 swift 1.3
551 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Portage warning about ambiguous ebuild names">
552     !!! The short ebuild name "aterm" is ambiguous. Please specify
553     !!! one of the following fully-qualified ebuild names instead:
554 swift 1.35
555 swift 1.39 dev-libs/aterm
556     x11-terms/aterm
557 swift 1.3 </pre>
558    
559     <p>
560 swift 1.39 The application you want to install has a name that corresponds with more than
561     one package. You need to supply the category name as well. Portage will inform
562     you of possible matches to choose from.
563 swift 1.35 </p>
564    
565 swift 1.39 </body>
566     </subsection>
567     <subsection id="circulardependencies">
568     <title>Circular Dependencies</title>
569     <body>
570 swift 1.35
571 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Portage warning about circular dependencies">
572     !!! Error: circular dependencies:
573 swift 1.35
574 swift 1.39 ebuild / net-print/cups-1.1.15-r2 depends on ebuild / app-text/ghostscript-7.05.3-r1
575     ebuild / app-text/ghostscript-7.05.3-r1 depends on ebuild / net-print/cups-1.1.15-r2
576 swift 1.35 </pre>
577    
578     <p>
579 swift 1.39 Two (or more) packages you want to install depend on each other and can
580     therefore not be installed. This is most likely a bug in the Portage tree.
581     Please resync after a while and try again. You can also check <uri
582     link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> if the issue is known and if not,
583     report it.
584 swift 1.3 </p>
585    
586 swift 1.39 </body>
587     </subsection>
588     <subsection id="fetchfailed">
589     <title>Fetch failed</title>
590     <body>
591 swift 1.29
592 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Portage warning about fetch failed">
593     !!! Fetch failed for sys-libs/ncurses-5.4-r5, continuing...
594     <comment>(...)</comment>
595     !!! Some fetch errors were encountered. Please see above for details.
596 swift 1.3 </pre>
597    
598 swift 1.35 <p>
599 swift 1.39 Portage was unable to download the sources for the given application and will
600     try to continue installing the other applications (if applicable). This failure
601     can be due to a mirror that has not synchronised correctly or because the ebuild
602     points to an incorrect location. The server where the sources reside can also be
603     down for some reason.
604 swift 1.35 </p>
605    
606     <p>
607 swift 1.39 Retry after one hour to see if the issue still persists.
608 swift 1.35 </p>
609    
610 swift 1.1 </body>
611     </subsection>
612 swift 1.39 <subsection id="profileprotect">
613     <title>System Profile Protection</title>
614 swift 1.1 <body>
615 swift 1.3
616 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Portage warning about profile-protected package">
617     !!! Trying to unmerge package(s) in system profile. 'sys-apps/portage'
618     !!! This could be damaging to your system.
619 swift 1.3 </pre>
620    
621     <p>
622 swift 1.39 You have asked to remove a package that is part of your system's core packages.
623     It is listed in your profile as required and should therefore not be removed
624     from the system.
625 swift 1.3 </p>
626    
627 swift 1.1 </body>
628     </subsection>
629 nightmorph 1.59 <subsection id="digesterror">
630 nightmorph 1.71 <title>Digest Verification Failures</title>
631 nightmorph 1.59 <body>
632    
633     <p>
634     Sometimes, when you attempt to emerge a package, it will fail with the message:
635     </p>
636    
637     <pre caption="Digest verification failure">
638 nightmorph 1.71 &gt;&gt;&gt; checking ebuild checksums
639 nightmorph 1.59 !!! Digest verification failed:
640     </pre>
641    
642     <p>
643     This is a sign that something is wrong with the Portage tree -- often, it is
644     because a developer may have made a mistake when committing a package to the
645     tree.
646     </p>
647    
648     <p>
649     When the digest verification fails, do <e>not</e> try to re-digest the package
650 nightmorph 1.72 yourself. Running <c>ebuild foo manifest</c> will not fix the problem; it will
651 nightmorph 1.59 almost certainly make it worse!
652     </p>
653    
654     <p>
655     Instead, wait an hour or two for the tree to settle down. It's likely that the
656     error was noticed right away, but it can take a little time for the fix to
657     trickle down the Portage tree. While you're waiting, check <uri
658     link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri> and see if anyone has reported
659     the problem yet. If not, go ahead and file a bug for the broken package.
660     </p>
661    
662     <p>
663     Once you see that the bug has been fixed, you may want to re-sync to pick up
664     the fixed digest.
665     </p>
666    
667     <impo>
668     This does <e>not</e> mean that you can re-sync your tree multiple times! As
669     stated in the rsync policy (when you run <c>emerge --sync</c>), users who sync
670     too often will be banned! In fact, it's better to just wait until your next
671     scheduled sync, so that you don't overload the rsync servers.
672     </impo>
673    
674     </body>
675     </subsection>
676 swift 1.1 </section>
677     </sections>

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