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Fix bug #326543 - Inform users about USE flag dependency error/warning by portage, thanks to Randy Curry for reporting

1 swift 1.18 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4 swift 1.1 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 fox2mike 1.55 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 swift 1.1
7 swift 1.76 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.75 2010/10/30 01:54:20 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10 swift 1.43
11 neysx 1.60 <abstract>
12     This chapter explains the "simple" steps a user definitely needs to know to
13     maintain the software on his system.
14     </abstract>
15    
16 swift 1.76 <version>3</version>
17     <date>2011-08-12</date>
18 swift 1.43
19 swift 1.1 <section>
20 swift 1.39 <title>Welcome to Portage</title>
21 swift 1.1 <body>
22    
23 swift 1.2 <p>
24 swift 1.39 Portage is probably Gentoo's most notable innovation in software management.
25     With its high flexibility and enormous amount of features it is frequently seen
26     as the best software management tool available for Linux.
27 swift 1.2 </p>
28    
29     <p>
30 swift 1.39 Portage is completely written in <uri link="http://www.python.org">Python</uri>
31     and <uri link="http://www.gnu.org/software/bash">Bash</uri> and therefore fully
32     visible to the users as both are scripting languages.
33 swift 1.2 </p>
34    
35     <p>
36 swift 1.39 Most users will work with Portage through the <c>emerge</c> tool. This chapter
37     is not meant to duplicate the information available from the emerge man page.
38     For a complete rundown of emerge's options, please consult the man page:
39 swift 1.2 </p>
40    
41 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Reading the emerge man page">
42     $ <i>man emerge</i>
43 swift 1.2 </pre>
44    
45     </body>
46 swift 1.1 </section>
47     <section>
48 swift 1.39 <title>The Portage Tree</title>
49 swift 1.1 <subsection>
50 swift 1.39 <title>Ebuilds</title>
51 swift 1.2 <body>
52    
53     <p>
54 swift 1.39 When we talk about packages, we often mean software titles that are available to
55     the Gentoo users through the Portage tree. The Portage tree is a collection of
56     <e>ebuilds</e>, files that contain all information Portage needs to maintain
57     software (install, search, query, ...). These ebuilds reside in
58     <path>/usr/portage</path> by default.
59 swift 1.2 </p>
60    
61     <p>
62 swift 1.39 Whenever you ask Portage to perform some action regarding software titles, it
63     will use the ebuilds on your system as a base. It is therefore important that
64     you regularly update the ebuilds on your system so Portage knows about new
65     software, security updates, etc.
66 swift 1.2 </p>
67    
68     </body>
69     </subsection>
70     <subsection>
71 swift 1.39 <title>Updating the Portage Tree</title>
72 swift 1.1 <body>
73 swift 1.2
74     <p>
75 swift 1.39 The Portage tree is usually updated with <uri
76 yoswink 1.50 link="http://rsync.samba.org/">rsync</uri>, a fast incremental file transfer
77 swift 1.39 utility. Updating is fairly simple as the <c>emerge</c> command provides a
78     front-end for rsync:
79 swift 1.2 </p>
80    
81 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
82 cam 1.38 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
83 swift 1.2 </pre>
84    
85     <p>
86 swift 1.39 If you are unable to rsync due to firewall restrictions you can still update
87 swift 1.40 your Portage tree by using our daily generated Portage tree snapshots. The
88 swift 1.39 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> tool automatically fetches and installs the latest
89     snapshot on your system:
90 swift 1.2 </p>
91    
92 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Running emerge-webrsync">
93 swift 1.2 # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
94     </pre>
95 swift 1.1
96     </body>
97     </subsection>
98     </section>
99     <section>
100     <title>Maintaining Software</title>
101     <subsection>
102 swift 1.39 <title>Searching for Software</title>
103 swift 1.1 <body>
104    
105 swift 1.3 <p>
106 swift 1.39 To search through the Portage tree after software titles, you can use
107 cam 1.47 <c>emerge</c> built-in search capabilities. By default, <c>emerge --search</c>
108 neysx 1.42 returns the names of packages whose title matches (either fully or partially)
109 swift 1.39 the given search term.
110 swift 1.3 </p>
111    
112     <p>
113 swift 1.39 For instance, to search for all packages who have "pdf" in their name:
114 swift 1.3 </p>
115    
116 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Searching for pdf-named packages">
117 cam 1.47 $ <i>emerge --search pdf</i>
118 swift 1.39 </pre>
119    
120 swift 1.3 <p>
121 swift 1.39 If you want to search through the descriptions as well you can use the
122     <c>--searchdesc</c> (or <c>-S</c>) switch:
123 swift 1.3 </p>
124    
125 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Searching for pdf-related packages">
126     $ <i>emerge --searchdesc pdf</i>
127     </pre>
128    
129 swift 1.3 <p>
130 swift 1.39 When you take a look at the output, you'll notice that it gives you a lot of
131     information. The fields are clearly labelled so we won't go further into their
132     meanings:
133 swift 1.3 </p>
134    
135 swift 1.49 <pre caption="Example 'emerge --search' output">
136 swift 1.39 * net-print/cups-pdf
137     Latest version available: 1.5.2
138     Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
139     Size of downloaded files: 15 kB
140     Homepage: http://cip.physik.uni-wuerzburg.de/~vrbehr/cups-pdf/
141     Description: Provides a virtual printer for CUPS to produce PDF files.
142     License: GPL-2
143     </pre>
144    
145 swift 1.3 </body>
146     </subsection>
147     <subsection>
148 swift 1.39 <title>Installing Software</title>
149 swift 1.3 <body>
150    
151     <p>
152 swift 1.39 Once you've found a software title to your liking, you can easily install it
153     with <c>emerge</c>: just add the package name. For instance, to install
154 swift 1.3 <c>gnumeric</c>:
155     </p>
156    
157 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Installing gnumeric">
158 swift 1.3 # <i>emerge gnumeric</i>
159     </pre>
160    
161     <p>
162 swift 1.39 Since many applications depend on each other, any attempt to install a certain
163     software package might result in the installation of several dependencies as
164     well. Don't worry, Portage handles dependencies well. If you want to find out
165     what Portage <e>would</e> install when you ask it to install a certain package,
166     add the <c>--pretend</c> switch. For instance:
167 swift 1.3 </p>
168    
169 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Pretend to install gnumeric">
170 swift 1.3 # <i>emerge --pretend gnumeric</i>
171     </pre>
172    
173     <p>
174 swift 1.39 When you ask Portage to install a package, it will download the necessary source
175     code from the internet (if necessary) and store it by default in
176     <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. After this it will unpack, compile and
177     install the package. If you want Portage to only download the sources without
178     installing them, add the <c>--fetchonly</c> option to the <c>emerge</c> command:
179 swift 1.3 </p>
180    
181 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Download the sourcecode for gnumeric">
182 swift 1.3 # <i>emerge --fetchonly gnumeric</i>
183     </pre>
184    
185     </body>
186     </subsection>
187     <subsection>
188 neysx 1.52 <title>Finding Installed Package Documentation</title>
189     <body>
190    
191     <p>
192     Many packages come with their own documentation. Sometimes, the <c>doc</c> USE
193     flag determines whether the package documentation should be installed or not.
194     You can check the existence of a <c>doc</c> USE flag with the <c>emerge -vp
195     &lt;package name&gt;</c> command.
196     </p>
197    
198     <pre caption="Checking the existence of a doc USE flag">
199     <comment>(alsa-lib is just an example, of course.)</comment>
200     # <i>emerge -vp alsa-lib</i>
201 nightmorph 1.62 [ebuild N ] media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1 -debug +doc 698 kB
202 neysx 1.52 </pre>
203    
204     <p>
205 jkt 1.67 The best way of enabling the <c>doc</c> USE flag is doing it on a per-package
206 nightmorph 1.68 basis via <path>/etc/portage/package.use</path>, so that you get documentation
207     only for packages that you are interested in. Enabling this flag globally is
208     known to cause problems with circular dependencies. For more information, please
209     read the <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE Flags</uri> chapter.
210 neysx 1.52 </p>
211    
212     <p>
213     Once the package installed, its documentation is generally found in a
214     subdirectory named after the package under the <path>/usr/share/doc</path>
215     directory. You can also list all installed files with the <c>equery</c> tool
216     which is part of the <c>app-portage/gentoolkit</c> <uri
217     link="/doc/en/gentoolkit.xml">package</uri>.
218     </p>
219    
220     <pre caption="Locating package documentation">
221 nightmorph 1.62 # <i>ls -l /usr/share/doc/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1</i>
222 neysx 1.52 total 28
223     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 669 May 17 21:54 ChangeLog.gz
224     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 9373 May 17 21:54 COPYING.gz
225     drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 8560 May 17 21:54 html
226     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 196 May 17 21:54 TODO.gz
227    
228     <comment>(Alternatively, use equery to locate interesting files:)</comment>
229     # <i>equery files alsa-lib | less</i>
230 nightmorph 1.62 media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1
231     * Contents of media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1:
232 neysx 1.52 /usr
233     /usr/bin
234     /usr/bin/alsalisp
235 neysx 1.53 <comment>(Output truncated)</comment>
236 neysx 1.52 </pre>
237    
238     </body>
239     </subsection>
240     <subsection>
241 swift 1.39 <title>Removing Software</title>
242 swift 1.3 <body>
243    
244     <p>
245 swift 1.39 When you want to remove a software package from your system, use <c>emerge
246 cam 1.47 --unmerge</c>. This will tell Portage to remove all files installed by that
247 swift 1.39 package from your system <e>except</e> the configuration files of that
248     application if you have altered those after the installation. Leaving the
249     configuration files allows you to continue working with the package if you ever
250     decide to install it again.
251 swift 1.3 </p>
252    
253     <p>
254 swift 1.39 However, a <brite>big warning</brite> applies: Portage will <e>not</e> check if
255     the package you want to remove is required by another package. It will however
256     warn you when you want to remove an important package that breaks your system
257     if you unmerge it.
258 swift 1.3 </p>
259    
260 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Removing gnumeric from the system">
261 cam 1.47 # <i>emerge --unmerge gnumeric</i>
262 swift 1.3 </pre>
263    
264     <p>
265 swift 1.39 When you remove a package from your system, the dependencies of that package
266     that were installed automatically when you installed the software are left. To
267     have Portage locate all dependencies that can now be removed, use
268 cam 1.47 <c>emerge</c>'s <c>--depclean</c> functionality. We will talk about this later
269     on.
270 swift 1.3 </p>
271    
272 swift 1.39 </body>
273     </subsection>
274     <subsection>
275     <title>Updating your System</title>
276     <body>
277 swift 1.32
278 swift 1.3 <p>
279 swift 1.39 To keep your system in perfect shape (and not to mention install the latest
280     security updates) you need to update your system regularly. Since Portage only
281     checks the ebuilds in your Portage tree you first have to update your Portage
282     tree. When your Portage tree is updated, you can update your system with
283 swift 1.57 <c>emerge --update world</c>. In the next example, we'll also use the
284     <c>--ask</c> switch which will tell Portage to display the list of packages it
285     wants to upgrade and ask you if you want to continue:
286 swift 1.3 </p>
287    
288 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Updating your system">
289 swift 1.57 # <i>emerge --update --ask world</i>
290 swift 1.3 </pre>
291    
292     <p>
293 swift 1.39 Portage will then search for newer version of the applications you have
294     installed. However, it will only verify the versions for the applications you
295 nightmorph 1.61 have <e>explicitly</e> installed (the applications listed in
296     <path>/var/lib/portage/world</path>) - it does not thoroughly check their
297     dependencies. If you want to update <e>every single package</e> on your system,
298     add the <c>--deep</c> argument:
299 swift 1.3 </p>
300    
301 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Updating your entire system">
302     # <i>emerge --update --deep world</i>
303 swift 1.3 </pre>
304    
305     <p>
306 swift 1.54 Since security updates also happen in packages you have not explicitly installed
307     on your system (but that are pulled in as dependencies of other programs), it
308     is recommended to run this command once in a while.
309     </p>
310    
311     <p>
312 swift 1.39 If you have altered any of your <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>
313     lately you might want to add <c>--newuse</c> as well. Portage will then verify
314     if the change requires the installation of new packages or recompilation of
315     existing ones:
316 swift 1.3 </p>
317    
318 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Performing a full update">
319     # <i>emerge --update --deep --newuse world</i>
320 swift 1.3 </pre>
321    
322 swift 1.1 </body>
323     </subsection>
324     <subsection>
325 neysx 1.51 <title>Metapackages</title>
326 swift 1.11 <body>
327    
328     <p>
329 swift 1.39 Some packages in the Portage tree don't have any real content but are used to
330 nightmorph 1.73 install a collection of packages. For instance, the <c>kde-meta</c> package will
331 swift 1.39 install a complete KDE environment on your system by pulling in various
332     KDE-related packages as dependencies.
333 swift 1.11 </p>
334    
335     <p>
336 swift 1.39 If you ever want to remove such a package from your system, running <c>emerge
337 cam 1.47 --unmerge</c> on the package won't have much effect as the dependencies remain
338     on the system.
339 swift 1.11 </p>
340    
341     <p>
342 swift 1.39 Portage has the functionality to remove orphaned dependencies as well, but since
343     the availability of software is dynamically dependent you first need to update
344     your entire system fully, including the new changes you applied when changing
345 cam 1.47 USE flags. After this you can run <c>emerge --depclean</c> to remove the
346     orphaned dependencies. When this is done, you need to rebuild the applications
347     that were dynamically linked to the now-removed software titles but don't
348     require them anymore.
349 swift 1.11 </p>
350    
351     <p>
352 swift 1.39 All this is handled with the following three commands:
353 swift 1.11 </p>
354    
355 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Removing orphaned dependencies">
356     # <i>emerge --update --deep --newuse world</i>
357 cam 1.47 # <i>emerge --depclean</i>
358 swift 1.39 # <i>revdep-rebuild</i>
359 swift 1.11 </pre>
360    
361 swift 1.34 <p>
362 swift 1.39 <c>revdep-rebuild</c> is provided by the <c>gentoolkit</c> package; don't forget
363     to emerge it first:
364 swift 1.34 </p>
365    
366 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Installing the gentoolkit package">
367     # <i>emerge gentoolkit</i>
368 swift 1.34 </pre>
369    
370 swift 1.11 </body>
371     </subsection>
372 swift 1.39 </section>
373 nightmorph 1.74 <section id="license">
374     <title>Licenses</title>
375     <subsection>
376     <body>
377    
378     <p>
379     Beginning with Portage version 2.1.7, you can accept or reject software
380     installation based on its license. All packages in the tree contain a
381     <c>LICENSE</c> entry in their ebuilds. Running <c>emerge --search
382     packagename</c> will tell you the package's license.
383     </p>
384    
385     <p>
386     By default, Portage permits all licenses, except End User License Agreements
387     (EULAs) that require reading and signing an acceptance agreement.
388     </p>
389    
390     <p>
391     The variable that controls permitted licenses is <c>ACCEPT_LICENSE</c>, which
392     can be set in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
393     </p>
394    
395     <pre caption="Default ACCEPT_LICENSE in /etc/make.conf">
396     ACCEPT_LICENSE="* -@EULA"
397     </pre>
398    
399     <p>
400     With this configuration, packages that require interaction during installation
401     to approve their EULA <e>will not</e> be installed. Packages without an EULA
402     <e>will</e> be installed.
403     </p>
404    
405     <p>
406     You can set <c>ACCEPT_LICENSE</c> globally in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, or
407     you can specify it on a per-package basis in
408     <path>/etc/portage/package.license</path>.
409     </p>
410    
411     <p>
412     For example, if you want to allow the <c>truecrypt-2.7</c> license for
413     <c>app-crypt/truecrypt</c>, add the following to
414     <path>/etc/portage/package.license</path>:
415     </p>
416    
417     <pre caption="Specifying a truecrypt license in package.license">
418     app-crypt/truecrypt truecrypt-2.7
419     </pre>
420    
421     <p>
422     This permits installation of truecrypt versions that have the
423     <c>truecrypt-2.7</c> license, but not versions with the <c>truecrypt-2.8</c>
424     license.
425     </p>
426    
427     <impo>
428     Licenses are stored in <path>/usr/portage/licenses</path>, and license groups
429 nightmorph 1.75 are kept in <path>/usr/portage/profiles/license_groups</path>. The first entry
430     of each line in CAPITAL letters is the name of the license group, and every
431     entry after that is an individual license.
432 nightmorph 1.74 </impo>
433    
434     <p>
435     License groups defined in <c>ACCEPT_LICENSE</c> are prefixed with an <b>@</b>
436     sign. Here's an example of a system that globally permits the GPL-compatible
437     license group, as well as a few other groups and individual licenses:
438     </p>
439    
440     <pre caption="ACCEPT_LICENSE in /etc/make.conf">
441     ACCEPT_LICENSE="@GPL-COMPATIBLE @OSI-APPROVED @EULA atheros-hal BitstreamVera"
442     </pre>
443    
444     <p>
445     If you want only free software and documentation on your system, you might use
446     the following setup:
447     </p>
448    
449     <pre caption="Use only free licenses">
450     ACCEPT_LICENSE="-* @FREE"
451     </pre>
452    
453     <p>
454     In this case, "free" is mostly defined by the <uri
455     link="http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/free-sw.html">FSF</uri> and <uri
456     link="http://www.opensource.org/docs/osd">OSI</uri>. Any package whose license
457     does not meet these requirements will not be installed on your system.
458     </p>
459    
460     </body>
461     </subsection>
462     </section>
463 swift 1.39 <section>
464     <title>When Portage is Complaining...</title>
465 swift 1.11 <subsection>
466 swift 1.39 <title>About SLOTs, Virtuals, Branches, Architectures and Profiles</title>
467 swift 1.1 <body>
468    
469 swift 1.3 <p>
470 swift 1.39 As we stated before, Portage is extremely powerful and supports many features
471     that other software management tools lack. To understand this, we explain a few
472 neysx 1.46 aspects of Portage without going into too much detail.
473 swift 1.3 </p>
474    
475     <p>
476 swift 1.39 With Portage different versions of a single package can coexist on a system.
477     While other distributions tend to name their package to those versions (like
478     <c>freetype</c> and <c>freetype2</c>) Portage uses a technology called
479     <e>SLOT</e>s. An ebuild declares a certain SLOT for its version. Ebuilds with
480     different SLOTs can coexist on the same system. For instance, the
481     <c>freetype</c> package has ebuilds with <c>SLOT="1"</c> and <c>SLOT="2"</c>.
482 swift 1.3 </p>
483    
484     <p>
485 swift 1.39 There are also packages that provide the same functionality but are implemented
486     differently. For instance, <c>metalogd</c>, <c>sysklogd</c> and <c>syslog-ng</c>
487     are all system loggers. Applications that rely on the availability of "a system
488     logger" cannot depend on, for instance, <c>metalogd</c>, as the other system
489     loggers are as good a choice as any. Portage allows for <e>virtuals</e>: each
490     system logger provides <c>virtual/syslog</c> so that applications can depend on
491     <c>virtual/syslog</c>.
492 swift 1.3 </p>
493    
494     <p>
495 swift 1.39 Software in the Portage tree can reside in different branches. By default your
496     system only accepts packages that Gentoo deems stable. Most new software titles,
497     when committed, are added to the testing branch, meaning more testing needs to
498     be done before it is marked as stable. Although you will see the ebuilds for
499     those software in the Portage tree, Portage will not update them before they are
500     placed in the stable branch.
501 swift 1.3 </p>
502    
503     <p>
504 swift 1.39 Some software is only available for a few architectures. Or the software doesn't
505     work on the other architectures, or it needs more testing, or the developer that
506     committed the software to the Portage tree is unable to verify if the package
507     works on different architectures.
508 swift 1.25 </p>
509    
510     <p>
511 swift 1.39 Each Gentoo installation adheres to a certain <c>profile</c> which contains,
512     amongst other information, the list of packages that are required for a system
513     to function normally.
514 swift 1.3 </p>
515    
516 swift 1.1 </body>
517     </subsection>
518 swift 1.39 <subsection id="blocked">
519     <title>Blocked Packages</title>
520 swift 1.1 <body>
521    
522 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (with --pretend)">
523 fox2mike 1.55 [blocks B ] mail-mta/ssmtp (is blocking mail-mta/postfix-2.2.2-r1)
524 swift 1.39 </pre>
525 swift 1.3
526 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (without --pretend)">
527 fox2mike 1.55 !!! Error: the mail-mta/postfix package conflicts with another package.
528 swift 1.39 !!! both can't be installed on the same system together.
529     !!! Please use 'emerge --pretend' to determine blockers.
530 swift 1.3 </pre>
531    
532     <p>
533 swift 1.41 Ebuilds contain specific fields that inform Portage about its dependencies.
534 swift 1.39 There are two possible dependencies: build dependencies, declared in
535     <c>DEPEND</c> and run-time dependencies, declared in <c>RDEPEND</c>. When one of
536     these dependencies explicitly marks a package or virtual as being <e>not</e>
537     compatible, it triggers a blockage.
538 swift 1.3 </p>
539    
540 swift 1.11 <p>
541 nightmorph 1.73 While recent versions of Portage are smart enough to work around minor blockages
542     without user intervention, occasionally you will need to fix it yourself, as
543     explained below.
544     </p>
545    
546     <p>
547 swift 1.39 To fix a blockage, you can choose to not install the package or unmerge the
548     conflicting package first. In the given example, you can opt not to install
549 fox2mike 1.55 <c>postfix</c> or to remove <c>ssmtp</c> first.
550 swift 1.11 </p>
551    
552 swift 1.56 <p>
553 nightmorph 1.63 You may also see blocking packages with specific atoms, such as
554 nightmorph 1.73 <b>&lt;</b>media-video/mplayer-1.0_rc1-r2. In this case, updating to a more
555 nightmorph 1.63 recent version of the blocking package would remove the block.
556     </p>
557    
558     <p>
559 swift 1.56 It is also possible that two packages that are yet to be installed are blocking
560     each other. In this rare case, you should find out why you need to install both.
561     In most cases you can do with one of the packages alone. If not, please file a
562     bug on <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">Gentoo's bugtracking system</uri>.
563     </p>
564    
565 swift 1.1 </body>
566     </subsection>
567 swift 1.39 <subsection id="masked">
568     <title>Masked Packages</title>
569 swift 1.1 <body>
570    
571 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Portage warning about masked packages">
572     !!! all ebuilds that could satisfy "bootsplash" have been masked.
573     </pre>
574    
575     <pre caption="Portage warning about masked packages - reason">
576     !!! possible candidates are:
577 swift 1.3
578 swift 1.39 - gnome-base/gnome-2.8.0_pre1 (masked by: <i>~x86 keyword</i>)
579     - lm-sensors/lm-sensors-2.8.7 (masked by: <i>-sparc keyword</i>)
580     - sys-libs/glibc-2.3.4.20040808 (masked by: <i>-* keyword</i>)
581     - dev-util/cvsd-1.0.2 (masked by: <i>missing keyword</i>)
582 nightmorph 1.64 - games-fps/unreal-tournament-451 (masked by: <i>package.mask</i>)
583 swift 1.39 - sys-libs/glibc-2.3.2-r11 (masked by: <i>profile</i>)
584 nightmorph 1.74 - net-im/skype-2.1.0.81 (masked by: skype-eula <i>license</i>(s))
585 swift 1.35 </pre>
586    
587 swift 1.3 <p>
588 swift 1.39 When you want to install a package that isn't available for your system, you
589     will receive this masking error. You should try installing a different
590     application that is available for your system or wait until the package is put
591     available. There is always a reason why a package is masked:
592 swift 1.3 </p>
593    
594 swift 1.35 <ul>
595     <li>
596 swift 1.39 <b>~arch keyword</b> means that the application is not tested sufficiently
597     to be put in the stable branch. Wait a few days or weeks and try again.
598 swift 1.35 </li>
599     <li>
600 swift 1.39 <b>-arch keyword</b> or <b>-* keyword</b> means that the application does
601     not work on your architecture. If you believe the package does work file
602     a bug at our <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> website.
603 swift 1.35 </li>
604     <li>
605 swift 1.39 <b>missing keyword</b> means that the application has not been tested on
606     your architecture yet. Ask the architecture porting team to test the package
607     or test it for them and report your findings on our <uri
608     link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> website.
609 swift 1.35 </li>
610     <li>
611 swift 1.39 <b>package.mask</b> means that the package has been found corrupt, unstable
612     or worse and has been deliberately marked as do-not-use.
613 swift 1.35 </li>
614     <li>
615 swift 1.39 <b>profile</b> means that the package has been found not suitable for your
616     profile. The application might break your system if you installed it or is
617     just not compatible with the profile you use.
618 swift 1.35 </li>
619 nightmorph 1.74 <li>
620     <b>license</b> means that the package's license is not compatible with your
621     <c>ACCEPT_LICENSE</c> setting. You must explicitly permit its license or
622     license group by setting it in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> or in
623     <path>/etc/portage/package.license</path>. Refer to <uri
624     link="#license">Licenses</uri> to learn how licenses work.
625     </li>
626 swift 1.35 </ul>
627    
628 swift 1.1 </body>
629     </subsection>
630 swift 1.76 <subsection id="USEdependency">
631     <title>Necessary USE Flag Changes</title>
632     <body>
633    
634     <pre caption="Portage warning about USE flag change requirement">
635     The following USE changes are necessary to proceed:
636     #required by app-text/happypackage-2.0, required by happypackage (argument)
637     >=app-text/feelings-1.0.0 test
638     </pre>
639    
640     <p>
641     The error message might also be displayed as follows, if <c>--autounmask</c>
642     isn't set:
643     </p>
644    
645     <pre caption="Portage error about USE flag change requirement">
646     emerge: there are no ebuilds built with USE flags to satisfy "app-text/feelings[test]".
647     !!! One of the following packages is required to complete your request:
648     - app-text/feelings-1.0.0 (Change USE: +test)
649     (dependency required by "app-text/happypackage-2.0" [ebuild])
650     (dependency required by "happypackage" [argument])
651     </pre>
652    
653     <p>
654     Such warning or error occurs when you want to install a package which not only
655     depends on another package, but also requires that that package is built with a
656     particular USE flag (or set of USE flags). In the given example, the package
657     <c>app-text/feelings</c> needs to be built with <c>USE="test"</c>, but this USE
658     flag is not set on the system.
659     </p>
660    
661     <p>
662     To resolve this, either add the requested USE flag to your global USE flags in
663     <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, or set it for the specific package in
664     <path>/etc/portage/package.use</path>.
665     </p>
666    
667     </body>
668     </subsection>
669 swift 1.39 <subsection id="missingdependencies">
670     <title>Missing Dependencies</title>
671 swift 1.1 <body>
672    
673 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Portage warning about missing dependency">
674 neysx 1.48 emerge: there are no ebuilds to satisfy "&gt;=sys-devel/gcc-3.4.2-r4".
675 swift 1.3
676 swift 1.39 !!! Problem with ebuild sys-devel/gcc-3.4.2-r2
677     !!! Possibly a DEPEND/*DEPEND problem.
678 swift 1.3 </pre>
679    
680     <p>
681 swift 1.39 The application you are trying to install depends on another package that is not
682     available for your system. Please check <uri
683     link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> if the issue is known and if not,
684     please report it. Unless you are mixing branches this should not occur and is
685     therefore a bug.
686 swift 1.3 </p>
687    
688 swift 1.39 </body>
689     </subsection>
690     <subsection id="ambiguousebuild">
691     <title>Ambiguous Ebuild Name</title>
692     <body>
693 swift 1.3
694 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Portage warning about ambiguous ebuild names">
695 nightmorph 1.73 [ Results for search key : listen ]
696     [ Applications found : 2 ]
697    
698     * dev-tinyos/listen [ Masked ]
699     Latest version available: 1.1.15
700     Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
701     Size of files: 10,032 kB
702     Homepage: http://www.tinyos.net/
703     Description: Raw listen for TinyOS
704     License: BSD
705    
706     * media-sound/listen [ Masked ]
707     Latest version available: 0.6.3
708     Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
709     Size of files: 859 kB
710     Homepage: http://www.listen-project.org
711     Description: A Music player and management for GNOME
712     License: GPL-2
713 swift 1.35
714 nightmorph 1.73 !!! The short ebuild name "listen" is ambiguous. Please specify
715     !!! one of the above fully-qualified ebuild names instead.
716 swift 1.3 </pre>
717    
718     <p>
719 swift 1.39 The application you want to install has a name that corresponds with more than
720     one package. You need to supply the category name as well. Portage will inform
721     you of possible matches to choose from.
722 swift 1.35 </p>
723    
724 swift 1.39 </body>
725     </subsection>
726     <subsection id="circulardependencies">
727     <title>Circular Dependencies</title>
728     <body>
729 swift 1.35
730 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Portage warning about circular dependencies">
731     !!! Error: circular dependencies:
732 swift 1.35
733 swift 1.39 ebuild / net-print/cups-1.1.15-r2 depends on ebuild / app-text/ghostscript-7.05.3-r1
734     ebuild / app-text/ghostscript-7.05.3-r1 depends on ebuild / net-print/cups-1.1.15-r2
735 swift 1.35 </pre>
736    
737     <p>
738 swift 1.39 Two (or more) packages you want to install depend on each other and can
739     therefore not be installed. This is most likely a bug in the Portage tree.
740     Please resync after a while and try again. You can also check <uri
741     link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> if the issue is known and if not,
742     report it.
743 swift 1.3 </p>
744    
745 swift 1.39 </body>
746     </subsection>
747     <subsection id="fetchfailed">
748     <title>Fetch failed</title>
749     <body>
750 swift 1.29
751 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Portage warning about fetch failed">
752     !!! Fetch failed for sys-libs/ncurses-5.4-r5, continuing...
753     <comment>(...)</comment>
754     !!! Some fetch errors were encountered. Please see above for details.
755 swift 1.3 </pre>
756    
757 swift 1.35 <p>
758 swift 1.39 Portage was unable to download the sources for the given application and will
759     try to continue installing the other applications (if applicable). This failure
760     can be due to a mirror that has not synchronised correctly or because the ebuild
761     points to an incorrect location. The server where the sources reside can also be
762     down for some reason.
763 swift 1.35 </p>
764    
765     <p>
766 swift 1.39 Retry after one hour to see if the issue still persists.
767 swift 1.35 </p>
768    
769 swift 1.1 </body>
770     </subsection>
771 swift 1.39 <subsection id="profileprotect">
772     <title>System Profile Protection</title>
773 swift 1.1 <body>
774 swift 1.3
775 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Portage warning about profile-protected package">
776     !!! Trying to unmerge package(s) in system profile. 'sys-apps/portage'
777     !!! This could be damaging to your system.
778 swift 1.3 </pre>
779    
780     <p>
781 swift 1.39 You have asked to remove a package that is part of your system's core packages.
782     It is listed in your profile as required and should therefore not be removed
783     from the system.
784 swift 1.3 </p>
785    
786 swift 1.1 </body>
787     </subsection>
788 nightmorph 1.59 <subsection id="digesterror">
789 nightmorph 1.71 <title>Digest Verification Failures</title>
790 nightmorph 1.59 <body>
791    
792     <p>
793     Sometimes, when you attempt to emerge a package, it will fail with the message:
794     </p>
795    
796     <pre caption="Digest verification failure">
797 nightmorph 1.71 &gt;&gt;&gt; checking ebuild checksums
798 nightmorph 1.59 !!! Digest verification failed:
799     </pre>
800    
801     <p>
802     This is a sign that something is wrong with the Portage tree -- often, it is
803     because a developer may have made a mistake when committing a package to the
804     tree.
805     </p>
806    
807     <p>
808     When the digest verification fails, do <e>not</e> try to re-digest the package
809 nightmorph 1.72 yourself. Running <c>ebuild foo manifest</c> will not fix the problem; it will
810 nightmorph 1.59 almost certainly make it worse!
811     </p>
812    
813     <p>
814     Instead, wait an hour or two for the tree to settle down. It's likely that the
815     error was noticed right away, but it can take a little time for the fix to
816     trickle down the Portage tree. While you're waiting, check <uri
817     link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri> and see if anyone has reported
818     the problem yet. If not, go ahead and file a bug for the broken package.
819     </p>
820    
821     <p>
822     Once you see that the bug has been fixed, you may want to re-sync to pick up
823     the fixed digest.
824     </p>
825    
826     <impo>
827     This does <e>not</e> mean that you can re-sync your tree multiple times! As
828     stated in the rsync policy (when you run <c>emerge --sync</c>), users who sync
829     too often will be banned! In fact, it's better to just wait until your next
830     scheduled sync, so that you don't overload the rsync servers.
831     </impo>
832    
833     </body>
834     </subsection>
835 swift 1.1 </section>
836     </sections>

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