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Add information on --with-bdeps as per discussion on gentoo-dev

1 swift 1.18 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4 swift 1.1 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 fox2mike 1.55 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 swift 1.1
7 swift 1.77 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.76 2011/08/12 19:24:18 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10 swift 1.43
11 neysx 1.60 <abstract>
12     This chapter explains the "simple" steps a user definitely needs to know to
13     maintain the software on his system.
14     </abstract>
15    
16 swift 1.76 <version>3</version>
17     <date>2011-08-12</date>
18 swift 1.43
19 swift 1.1 <section>
20 swift 1.39 <title>Welcome to Portage</title>
21 swift 1.1 <body>
22    
23 swift 1.2 <p>
24 swift 1.39 Portage is probably Gentoo's most notable innovation in software management.
25     With its high flexibility and enormous amount of features it is frequently seen
26     as the best software management tool available for Linux.
27 swift 1.2 </p>
28    
29     <p>
30 swift 1.39 Portage is completely written in <uri link="http://www.python.org">Python</uri>
31     and <uri link="http://www.gnu.org/software/bash">Bash</uri> and therefore fully
32     visible to the users as both are scripting languages.
33 swift 1.2 </p>
34    
35     <p>
36 swift 1.39 Most users will work with Portage through the <c>emerge</c> tool. This chapter
37     is not meant to duplicate the information available from the emerge man page.
38     For a complete rundown of emerge's options, please consult the man page:
39 swift 1.2 </p>
40    
41 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Reading the emerge man page">
42     $ <i>man emerge</i>
43 swift 1.2 </pre>
44    
45     </body>
46 swift 1.1 </section>
47     <section>
48 swift 1.39 <title>The Portage Tree</title>
49 swift 1.1 <subsection>
50 swift 1.39 <title>Ebuilds</title>
51 swift 1.2 <body>
52    
53     <p>
54 swift 1.39 When we talk about packages, we often mean software titles that are available to
55     the Gentoo users through the Portage tree. The Portage tree is a collection of
56     <e>ebuilds</e>, files that contain all information Portage needs to maintain
57     software (install, search, query, ...). These ebuilds reside in
58     <path>/usr/portage</path> by default.
59 swift 1.2 </p>
60    
61     <p>
62 swift 1.39 Whenever you ask Portage to perform some action regarding software titles, it
63     will use the ebuilds on your system as a base. It is therefore important that
64     you regularly update the ebuilds on your system so Portage knows about new
65     software, security updates, etc.
66 swift 1.2 </p>
67    
68     </body>
69     </subsection>
70     <subsection>
71 swift 1.39 <title>Updating the Portage Tree</title>
72 swift 1.1 <body>
73 swift 1.2
74     <p>
75 swift 1.39 The Portage tree is usually updated with <uri
76 yoswink 1.50 link="http://rsync.samba.org/">rsync</uri>, a fast incremental file transfer
77 swift 1.39 utility. Updating is fairly simple as the <c>emerge</c> command provides a
78     front-end for rsync:
79 swift 1.2 </p>
80    
81 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
82 cam 1.38 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
83 swift 1.2 </pre>
84    
85     <p>
86 swift 1.39 If you are unable to rsync due to firewall restrictions you can still update
87 swift 1.40 your Portage tree by using our daily generated Portage tree snapshots. The
88 swift 1.39 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> tool automatically fetches and installs the latest
89     snapshot on your system:
90 swift 1.2 </p>
91    
92 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Running emerge-webrsync">
93 swift 1.2 # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
94     </pre>
95 swift 1.1
96     </body>
97     </subsection>
98     </section>
99     <section>
100     <title>Maintaining Software</title>
101     <subsection>
102 swift 1.39 <title>Searching for Software</title>
103 swift 1.1 <body>
104    
105 swift 1.3 <p>
106 swift 1.39 To search through the Portage tree after software titles, you can use
107 cam 1.47 <c>emerge</c> built-in search capabilities. By default, <c>emerge --search</c>
108 neysx 1.42 returns the names of packages whose title matches (either fully or partially)
109 swift 1.39 the given search term.
110 swift 1.3 </p>
111    
112     <p>
113 swift 1.39 For instance, to search for all packages who have "pdf" in their name:
114 swift 1.3 </p>
115    
116 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Searching for pdf-named packages">
117 cam 1.47 $ <i>emerge --search pdf</i>
118 swift 1.39 </pre>
119    
120 swift 1.3 <p>
121 swift 1.39 If you want to search through the descriptions as well you can use the
122     <c>--searchdesc</c> (or <c>-S</c>) switch:
123 swift 1.3 </p>
124    
125 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Searching for pdf-related packages">
126     $ <i>emerge --searchdesc pdf</i>
127     </pre>
128    
129 swift 1.3 <p>
130 swift 1.39 When you take a look at the output, you'll notice that it gives you a lot of
131     information. The fields are clearly labelled so we won't go further into their
132     meanings:
133 swift 1.3 </p>
134    
135 swift 1.49 <pre caption="Example 'emerge --search' output">
136 swift 1.39 * net-print/cups-pdf
137     Latest version available: 1.5.2
138     Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
139     Size of downloaded files: 15 kB
140     Homepage: http://cip.physik.uni-wuerzburg.de/~vrbehr/cups-pdf/
141     Description: Provides a virtual printer for CUPS to produce PDF files.
142     License: GPL-2
143     </pre>
144    
145 swift 1.3 </body>
146     </subsection>
147     <subsection>
148 swift 1.39 <title>Installing Software</title>
149 swift 1.3 <body>
150    
151     <p>
152 swift 1.39 Once you've found a software title to your liking, you can easily install it
153     with <c>emerge</c>: just add the package name. For instance, to install
154 swift 1.3 <c>gnumeric</c>:
155     </p>
156    
157 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Installing gnumeric">
158 swift 1.3 # <i>emerge gnumeric</i>
159     </pre>
160    
161     <p>
162 swift 1.39 Since many applications depend on each other, any attempt to install a certain
163     software package might result in the installation of several dependencies as
164     well. Don't worry, Portage handles dependencies well. If you want to find out
165     what Portage <e>would</e> install when you ask it to install a certain package,
166     add the <c>--pretend</c> switch. For instance:
167 swift 1.3 </p>
168    
169 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Pretend to install gnumeric">
170 swift 1.3 # <i>emerge --pretend gnumeric</i>
171     </pre>
172    
173     <p>
174 swift 1.39 When you ask Portage to install a package, it will download the necessary source
175     code from the internet (if necessary) and store it by default in
176     <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. After this it will unpack, compile and
177     install the package. If you want Portage to only download the sources without
178     installing them, add the <c>--fetchonly</c> option to the <c>emerge</c> command:
179 swift 1.3 </p>
180    
181 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Download the sourcecode for gnumeric">
182 swift 1.3 # <i>emerge --fetchonly gnumeric</i>
183     </pre>
184    
185     </body>
186     </subsection>
187     <subsection>
188 neysx 1.52 <title>Finding Installed Package Documentation</title>
189     <body>
190    
191     <p>
192     Many packages come with their own documentation. Sometimes, the <c>doc</c> USE
193     flag determines whether the package documentation should be installed or not.
194     You can check the existence of a <c>doc</c> USE flag with the <c>emerge -vp
195     &lt;package name&gt;</c> command.
196     </p>
197    
198     <pre caption="Checking the existence of a doc USE flag">
199     <comment>(alsa-lib is just an example, of course.)</comment>
200     # <i>emerge -vp alsa-lib</i>
201 nightmorph 1.62 [ebuild N ] media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1 -debug +doc 698 kB
202 neysx 1.52 </pre>
203    
204     <p>
205 jkt 1.67 The best way of enabling the <c>doc</c> USE flag is doing it on a per-package
206 nightmorph 1.68 basis via <path>/etc/portage/package.use</path>, so that you get documentation
207     only for packages that you are interested in. Enabling this flag globally is
208     known to cause problems with circular dependencies. For more information, please
209     read the <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE Flags</uri> chapter.
210 neysx 1.52 </p>
211    
212     <p>
213     Once the package installed, its documentation is generally found in a
214     subdirectory named after the package under the <path>/usr/share/doc</path>
215     directory. You can also list all installed files with the <c>equery</c> tool
216     which is part of the <c>app-portage/gentoolkit</c> <uri
217     link="/doc/en/gentoolkit.xml">package</uri>.
218     </p>
219    
220     <pre caption="Locating package documentation">
221 nightmorph 1.62 # <i>ls -l /usr/share/doc/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1</i>
222 neysx 1.52 total 28
223     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 669 May 17 21:54 ChangeLog.gz
224     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 9373 May 17 21:54 COPYING.gz
225     drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 8560 May 17 21:54 html
226     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 196 May 17 21:54 TODO.gz
227    
228     <comment>(Alternatively, use equery to locate interesting files:)</comment>
229     # <i>equery files alsa-lib | less</i>
230 nightmorph 1.62 media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1
231     * Contents of media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1:
232 neysx 1.52 /usr
233     /usr/bin
234     /usr/bin/alsalisp
235 neysx 1.53 <comment>(Output truncated)</comment>
236 neysx 1.52 </pre>
237    
238     </body>
239     </subsection>
240     <subsection>
241 swift 1.39 <title>Removing Software</title>
242 swift 1.3 <body>
243    
244     <p>
245 swift 1.39 When you want to remove a software package from your system, use <c>emerge
246 cam 1.47 --unmerge</c>. This will tell Portage to remove all files installed by that
247 swift 1.39 package from your system <e>except</e> the configuration files of that
248     application if you have altered those after the installation. Leaving the
249     configuration files allows you to continue working with the package if you ever
250     decide to install it again.
251 swift 1.3 </p>
252    
253     <p>
254 swift 1.39 However, a <brite>big warning</brite> applies: Portage will <e>not</e> check if
255     the package you want to remove is required by another package. It will however
256     warn you when you want to remove an important package that breaks your system
257     if you unmerge it.
258 swift 1.3 </p>
259    
260 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Removing gnumeric from the system">
261 cam 1.47 # <i>emerge --unmerge gnumeric</i>
262 swift 1.3 </pre>
263    
264     <p>
265 swift 1.39 When you remove a package from your system, the dependencies of that package
266     that were installed automatically when you installed the software are left. To
267     have Portage locate all dependencies that can now be removed, use
268 cam 1.47 <c>emerge</c>'s <c>--depclean</c> functionality. We will talk about this later
269     on.
270 swift 1.3 </p>
271    
272 swift 1.39 </body>
273     </subsection>
274     <subsection>
275     <title>Updating your System</title>
276     <body>
277 swift 1.32
278 swift 1.3 <p>
279 swift 1.39 To keep your system in perfect shape (and not to mention install the latest
280     security updates) you need to update your system regularly. Since Portage only
281     checks the ebuilds in your Portage tree you first have to update your Portage
282     tree. When your Portage tree is updated, you can update your system with
283 swift 1.57 <c>emerge --update world</c>. In the next example, we'll also use the
284     <c>--ask</c> switch which will tell Portage to display the list of packages it
285     wants to upgrade and ask you if you want to continue:
286 swift 1.3 </p>
287    
288 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Updating your system">
289 swift 1.57 # <i>emerge --update --ask world</i>
290 swift 1.3 </pre>
291    
292     <p>
293 swift 1.39 Portage will then search for newer version of the applications you have
294     installed. However, it will only verify the versions for the applications you
295 nightmorph 1.61 have <e>explicitly</e> installed (the applications listed in
296     <path>/var/lib/portage/world</path>) - it does not thoroughly check their
297 swift 1.77 dependencies. If you want to update the dependencies of those packages as well,
298 nightmorph 1.61 add the <c>--deep</c> argument:
299 swift 1.3 </p>
300    
301 swift 1.77 <pre caption="Updating your system with dependencies">
302     # <i>emerge --update --deep world</i>
303     </pre>
304    
305     <p>
306     Still, this doesn't mean <e>all packages</e>: some packages on your system are
307     needed during the compile and build process of packages, but once that package
308     is installed, these dependencies are no longer required. Portage calls those
309     <e>build dependencies</e>. To include those in an update cycle, add
310     <c>--with-bdeps=y</c>:
311     </p>
312    
313 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Updating your entire system">
314 swift 1.77 # <i>emerge --update --deep --with-bdeps=y world</i>
315 swift 1.3 </pre>
316    
317     <p>
318 swift 1.54 Since security updates also happen in packages you have not explicitly installed
319     on your system (but that are pulled in as dependencies of other programs), it
320     is recommended to run this command once in a while.
321     </p>
322    
323     <p>
324 swift 1.39 If you have altered any of your <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>
325     lately you might want to add <c>--newuse</c> as well. Portage will then verify
326     if the change requires the installation of new packages or recompilation of
327     existing ones:
328 swift 1.3 </p>
329    
330 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Performing a full update">
331 swift 1.77 # <i>emerge --update --deep --with-bdeps=y --newuse world</i>
332 swift 1.3 </pre>
333    
334 swift 1.1 </body>
335     </subsection>
336     <subsection>
337 neysx 1.51 <title>Metapackages</title>
338 swift 1.11 <body>
339    
340     <p>
341 swift 1.39 Some packages in the Portage tree don't have any real content but are used to
342 nightmorph 1.73 install a collection of packages. For instance, the <c>kde-meta</c> package will
343 swift 1.39 install a complete KDE environment on your system by pulling in various
344     KDE-related packages as dependencies.
345 swift 1.11 </p>
346    
347     <p>
348 swift 1.39 If you ever want to remove such a package from your system, running <c>emerge
349 cam 1.47 --unmerge</c> on the package won't have much effect as the dependencies remain
350     on the system.
351 swift 1.11 </p>
352    
353     <p>
354 swift 1.39 Portage has the functionality to remove orphaned dependencies as well, but since
355     the availability of software is dynamically dependent you first need to update
356     your entire system fully, including the new changes you applied when changing
357 cam 1.47 USE flags. After this you can run <c>emerge --depclean</c> to remove the
358     orphaned dependencies. When this is done, you need to rebuild the applications
359     that were dynamically linked to the now-removed software titles but don't
360     require them anymore.
361 swift 1.11 </p>
362    
363     <p>
364 swift 1.39 All this is handled with the following three commands:
365 swift 1.11 </p>
366    
367 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Removing orphaned dependencies">
368     # <i>emerge --update --deep --newuse world</i>
369 cam 1.47 # <i>emerge --depclean</i>
370 swift 1.39 # <i>revdep-rebuild</i>
371 swift 1.11 </pre>
372    
373 swift 1.34 <p>
374 swift 1.39 <c>revdep-rebuild</c> is provided by the <c>gentoolkit</c> package; don't forget
375     to emerge it first:
376 swift 1.34 </p>
377    
378 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Installing the gentoolkit package">
379     # <i>emerge gentoolkit</i>
380 swift 1.34 </pre>
381    
382 swift 1.11 </body>
383     </subsection>
384 swift 1.39 </section>
385 nightmorph 1.74 <section id="license">
386     <title>Licenses</title>
387     <subsection>
388     <body>
389    
390     <p>
391     Beginning with Portage version 2.1.7, you can accept or reject software
392     installation based on its license. All packages in the tree contain a
393     <c>LICENSE</c> entry in their ebuilds. Running <c>emerge --search
394     packagename</c> will tell you the package's license.
395     </p>
396    
397     <p>
398     By default, Portage permits all licenses, except End User License Agreements
399     (EULAs) that require reading and signing an acceptance agreement.
400     </p>
401    
402     <p>
403     The variable that controls permitted licenses is <c>ACCEPT_LICENSE</c>, which
404     can be set in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
405     </p>
406    
407     <pre caption="Default ACCEPT_LICENSE in /etc/make.conf">
408     ACCEPT_LICENSE="* -@EULA"
409     </pre>
410    
411     <p>
412     With this configuration, packages that require interaction during installation
413     to approve their EULA <e>will not</e> be installed. Packages without an EULA
414     <e>will</e> be installed.
415     </p>
416    
417     <p>
418     You can set <c>ACCEPT_LICENSE</c> globally in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, or
419     you can specify it on a per-package basis in
420     <path>/etc/portage/package.license</path>.
421     </p>
422    
423     <p>
424     For example, if you want to allow the <c>truecrypt-2.7</c> license for
425     <c>app-crypt/truecrypt</c>, add the following to
426     <path>/etc/portage/package.license</path>:
427     </p>
428    
429     <pre caption="Specifying a truecrypt license in package.license">
430     app-crypt/truecrypt truecrypt-2.7
431     </pre>
432    
433     <p>
434     This permits installation of truecrypt versions that have the
435     <c>truecrypt-2.7</c> license, but not versions with the <c>truecrypt-2.8</c>
436     license.
437     </p>
438    
439     <impo>
440     Licenses are stored in <path>/usr/portage/licenses</path>, and license groups
441 nightmorph 1.75 are kept in <path>/usr/portage/profiles/license_groups</path>. The first entry
442     of each line in CAPITAL letters is the name of the license group, and every
443     entry after that is an individual license.
444 nightmorph 1.74 </impo>
445    
446     <p>
447     License groups defined in <c>ACCEPT_LICENSE</c> are prefixed with an <b>@</b>
448     sign. Here's an example of a system that globally permits the GPL-compatible
449     license group, as well as a few other groups and individual licenses:
450     </p>
451    
452     <pre caption="ACCEPT_LICENSE in /etc/make.conf">
453     ACCEPT_LICENSE="@GPL-COMPATIBLE @OSI-APPROVED @EULA atheros-hal BitstreamVera"
454     </pre>
455    
456     <p>
457     If you want only free software and documentation on your system, you might use
458     the following setup:
459     </p>
460    
461     <pre caption="Use only free licenses">
462     ACCEPT_LICENSE="-* @FREE"
463     </pre>
464    
465     <p>
466     In this case, "free" is mostly defined by the <uri
467     link="http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/free-sw.html">FSF</uri> and <uri
468     link="http://www.opensource.org/docs/osd">OSI</uri>. Any package whose license
469     does not meet these requirements will not be installed on your system.
470     </p>
471    
472     </body>
473     </subsection>
474     </section>
475 swift 1.39 <section>
476     <title>When Portage is Complaining...</title>
477 swift 1.11 <subsection>
478 swift 1.39 <title>About SLOTs, Virtuals, Branches, Architectures and Profiles</title>
479 swift 1.1 <body>
480    
481 swift 1.3 <p>
482 swift 1.39 As we stated before, Portage is extremely powerful and supports many features
483     that other software management tools lack. To understand this, we explain a few
484 neysx 1.46 aspects of Portage without going into too much detail.
485 swift 1.3 </p>
486    
487     <p>
488 swift 1.39 With Portage different versions of a single package can coexist on a system.
489     While other distributions tend to name their package to those versions (like
490     <c>freetype</c> and <c>freetype2</c>) Portage uses a technology called
491     <e>SLOT</e>s. An ebuild declares a certain SLOT for its version. Ebuilds with
492     different SLOTs can coexist on the same system. For instance, the
493     <c>freetype</c> package has ebuilds with <c>SLOT="1"</c> and <c>SLOT="2"</c>.
494 swift 1.3 </p>
495    
496     <p>
497 swift 1.39 There are also packages that provide the same functionality but are implemented
498     differently. For instance, <c>metalogd</c>, <c>sysklogd</c> and <c>syslog-ng</c>
499     are all system loggers. Applications that rely on the availability of "a system
500     logger" cannot depend on, for instance, <c>metalogd</c>, as the other system
501     loggers are as good a choice as any. Portage allows for <e>virtuals</e>: each
502     system logger provides <c>virtual/syslog</c> so that applications can depend on
503     <c>virtual/syslog</c>.
504 swift 1.3 </p>
505    
506     <p>
507 swift 1.39 Software in the Portage tree can reside in different branches. By default your
508     system only accepts packages that Gentoo deems stable. Most new software titles,
509     when committed, are added to the testing branch, meaning more testing needs to
510     be done before it is marked as stable. Although you will see the ebuilds for
511     those software in the Portage tree, Portage will not update them before they are
512     placed in the stable branch.
513 swift 1.3 </p>
514    
515     <p>
516 swift 1.39 Some software is only available for a few architectures. Or the software doesn't
517     work on the other architectures, or it needs more testing, or the developer that
518     committed the software to the Portage tree is unable to verify if the package
519     works on different architectures.
520 swift 1.25 </p>
521    
522     <p>
523 swift 1.39 Each Gentoo installation adheres to a certain <c>profile</c> which contains,
524     amongst other information, the list of packages that are required for a system
525     to function normally.
526 swift 1.3 </p>
527    
528 swift 1.1 </body>
529     </subsection>
530 swift 1.39 <subsection id="blocked">
531     <title>Blocked Packages</title>
532 swift 1.1 <body>
533    
534 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (with --pretend)">
535 fox2mike 1.55 [blocks B ] mail-mta/ssmtp (is blocking mail-mta/postfix-2.2.2-r1)
536 swift 1.39 </pre>
537 swift 1.3
538 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (without --pretend)">
539 fox2mike 1.55 !!! Error: the mail-mta/postfix package conflicts with another package.
540 swift 1.39 !!! both can't be installed on the same system together.
541     !!! Please use 'emerge --pretend' to determine blockers.
542 swift 1.3 </pre>
543    
544     <p>
545 swift 1.41 Ebuilds contain specific fields that inform Portage about its dependencies.
546 swift 1.39 There are two possible dependencies: build dependencies, declared in
547     <c>DEPEND</c> and run-time dependencies, declared in <c>RDEPEND</c>. When one of
548     these dependencies explicitly marks a package or virtual as being <e>not</e>
549     compatible, it triggers a blockage.
550 swift 1.3 </p>
551    
552 swift 1.11 <p>
553 nightmorph 1.73 While recent versions of Portage are smart enough to work around minor blockages
554     without user intervention, occasionally you will need to fix it yourself, as
555     explained below.
556     </p>
557    
558     <p>
559 swift 1.39 To fix a blockage, you can choose to not install the package or unmerge the
560     conflicting package first. In the given example, you can opt not to install
561 fox2mike 1.55 <c>postfix</c> or to remove <c>ssmtp</c> first.
562 swift 1.11 </p>
563    
564 swift 1.56 <p>
565 nightmorph 1.63 You may also see blocking packages with specific atoms, such as
566 nightmorph 1.73 <b>&lt;</b>media-video/mplayer-1.0_rc1-r2. In this case, updating to a more
567 nightmorph 1.63 recent version of the blocking package would remove the block.
568     </p>
569    
570     <p>
571 swift 1.56 It is also possible that two packages that are yet to be installed are blocking
572     each other. In this rare case, you should find out why you need to install both.
573     In most cases you can do with one of the packages alone. If not, please file a
574     bug on <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">Gentoo's bugtracking system</uri>.
575     </p>
576    
577 swift 1.1 </body>
578     </subsection>
579 swift 1.39 <subsection id="masked">
580     <title>Masked Packages</title>
581 swift 1.1 <body>
582    
583 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Portage warning about masked packages">
584     !!! all ebuilds that could satisfy "bootsplash" have been masked.
585     </pre>
586    
587     <pre caption="Portage warning about masked packages - reason">
588     !!! possible candidates are:
589 swift 1.3
590 swift 1.39 - gnome-base/gnome-2.8.0_pre1 (masked by: <i>~x86 keyword</i>)
591     - lm-sensors/lm-sensors-2.8.7 (masked by: <i>-sparc keyword</i>)
592     - sys-libs/glibc-2.3.4.20040808 (masked by: <i>-* keyword</i>)
593     - dev-util/cvsd-1.0.2 (masked by: <i>missing keyword</i>)
594 nightmorph 1.64 - games-fps/unreal-tournament-451 (masked by: <i>package.mask</i>)
595 swift 1.39 - sys-libs/glibc-2.3.2-r11 (masked by: <i>profile</i>)
596 nightmorph 1.74 - net-im/skype-2.1.0.81 (masked by: skype-eula <i>license</i>(s))
597 swift 1.35 </pre>
598    
599 swift 1.3 <p>
600 swift 1.39 When you want to install a package that isn't available for your system, you
601     will receive this masking error. You should try installing a different
602     application that is available for your system or wait until the package is put
603     available. There is always a reason why a package is masked:
604 swift 1.3 </p>
605    
606 swift 1.35 <ul>
607     <li>
608 swift 1.39 <b>~arch keyword</b> means that the application is not tested sufficiently
609     to be put in the stable branch. Wait a few days or weeks and try again.
610 swift 1.35 </li>
611     <li>
612 swift 1.39 <b>-arch keyword</b> or <b>-* keyword</b> means that the application does
613     not work on your architecture. If you believe the package does work file
614     a bug at our <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> website.
615 swift 1.35 </li>
616     <li>
617 swift 1.39 <b>missing keyword</b> means that the application has not been tested on
618     your architecture yet. Ask the architecture porting team to test the package
619     or test it for them and report your findings on our <uri
620     link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> website.
621 swift 1.35 </li>
622     <li>
623 swift 1.39 <b>package.mask</b> means that the package has been found corrupt, unstable
624     or worse and has been deliberately marked as do-not-use.
625 swift 1.35 </li>
626     <li>
627 swift 1.39 <b>profile</b> means that the package has been found not suitable for your
628     profile. The application might break your system if you installed it or is
629     just not compatible with the profile you use.
630 swift 1.35 </li>
631 nightmorph 1.74 <li>
632     <b>license</b> means that the package's license is not compatible with your
633     <c>ACCEPT_LICENSE</c> setting. You must explicitly permit its license or
634     license group by setting it in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> or in
635     <path>/etc/portage/package.license</path>. Refer to <uri
636     link="#license">Licenses</uri> to learn how licenses work.
637     </li>
638 swift 1.35 </ul>
639    
640 swift 1.1 </body>
641     </subsection>
642 swift 1.76 <subsection id="USEdependency">
643     <title>Necessary USE Flag Changes</title>
644     <body>
645    
646     <pre caption="Portage warning about USE flag change requirement">
647     The following USE changes are necessary to proceed:
648     #required by app-text/happypackage-2.0, required by happypackage (argument)
649     >=app-text/feelings-1.0.0 test
650     </pre>
651    
652     <p>
653     The error message might also be displayed as follows, if <c>--autounmask</c>
654     isn't set:
655     </p>
656    
657     <pre caption="Portage error about USE flag change requirement">
658     emerge: there are no ebuilds built with USE flags to satisfy "app-text/feelings[test]".
659     !!! One of the following packages is required to complete your request:
660     - app-text/feelings-1.0.0 (Change USE: +test)
661     (dependency required by "app-text/happypackage-2.0" [ebuild])
662     (dependency required by "happypackage" [argument])
663     </pre>
664    
665     <p>
666     Such warning or error occurs when you want to install a package which not only
667     depends on another package, but also requires that that package is built with a
668     particular USE flag (or set of USE flags). In the given example, the package
669     <c>app-text/feelings</c> needs to be built with <c>USE="test"</c>, but this USE
670     flag is not set on the system.
671     </p>
672    
673     <p>
674     To resolve this, either add the requested USE flag to your global USE flags in
675     <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, or set it for the specific package in
676     <path>/etc/portage/package.use</path>.
677     </p>
678    
679     </body>
680     </subsection>
681 swift 1.39 <subsection id="missingdependencies">
682     <title>Missing Dependencies</title>
683 swift 1.1 <body>
684    
685 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Portage warning about missing dependency">
686 neysx 1.48 emerge: there are no ebuilds to satisfy "&gt;=sys-devel/gcc-3.4.2-r4".
687 swift 1.3
688 swift 1.39 !!! Problem with ebuild sys-devel/gcc-3.4.2-r2
689     !!! Possibly a DEPEND/*DEPEND problem.
690 swift 1.3 </pre>
691    
692     <p>
693 swift 1.39 The application you are trying to install depends on another package that is not
694     available for your system. Please check <uri
695     link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> if the issue is known and if not,
696     please report it. Unless you are mixing branches this should not occur and is
697     therefore a bug.
698 swift 1.3 </p>
699    
700 swift 1.39 </body>
701     </subsection>
702     <subsection id="ambiguousebuild">
703     <title>Ambiguous Ebuild Name</title>
704     <body>
705 swift 1.3
706 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Portage warning about ambiguous ebuild names">
707 nightmorph 1.73 [ Results for search key : listen ]
708     [ Applications found : 2 ]
709    
710     * dev-tinyos/listen [ Masked ]
711     Latest version available: 1.1.15
712     Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
713     Size of files: 10,032 kB
714     Homepage: http://www.tinyos.net/
715     Description: Raw listen for TinyOS
716     License: BSD
717    
718     * media-sound/listen [ Masked ]
719     Latest version available: 0.6.3
720     Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
721     Size of files: 859 kB
722     Homepage: http://www.listen-project.org
723     Description: A Music player and management for GNOME
724     License: GPL-2
725 swift 1.35
726 nightmorph 1.73 !!! The short ebuild name "listen" is ambiguous. Please specify
727     !!! one of the above fully-qualified ebuild names instead.
728 swift 1.3 </pre>
729    
730     <p>
731 swift 1.39 The application you want to install has a name that corresponds with more than
732     one package. You need to supply the category name as well. Portage will inform
733     you of possible matches to choose from.
734 swift 1.35 </p>
735    
736 swift 1.39 </body>
737     </subsection>
738     <subsection id="circulardependencies">
739     <title>Circular Dependencies</title>
740     <body>
741 swift 1.35
742 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Portage warning about circular dependencies">
743     !!! Error: circular dependencies:
744 swift 1.35
745 swift 1.39 ebuild / net-print/cups-1.1.15-r2 depends on ebuild / app-text/ghostscript-7.05.3-r1
746     ebuild / app-text/ghostscript-7.05.3-r1 depends on ebuild / net-print/cups-1.1.15-r2
747 swift 1.35 </pre>
748    
749     <p>
750 swift 1.39 Two (or more) packages you want to install depend on each other and can
751     therefore not be installed. This is most likely a bug in the Portage tree.
752     Please resync after a while and try again. You can also check <uri
753     link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> if the issue is known and if not,
754     report it.
755 swift 1.3 </p>
756    
757 swift 1.39 </body>
758     </subsection>
759     <subsection id="fetchfailed">
760     <title>Fetch failed</title>
761     <body>
762 swift 1.29
763 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Portage warning about fetch failed">
764     !!! Fetch failed for sys-libs/ncurses-5.4-r5, continuing...
765     <comment>(...)</comment>
766     !!! Some fetch errors were encountered. Please see above for details.
767 swift 1.3 </pre>
768    
769 swift 1.35 <p>
770 swift 1.39 Portage was unable to download the sources for the given application and will
771     try to continue installing the other applications (if applicable). This failure
772     can be due to a mirror that has not synchronised correctly or because the ebuild
773     points to an incorrect location. The server where the sources reside can also be
774     down for some reason.
775 swift 1.35 </p>
776    
777     <p>
778 swift 1.39 Retry after one hour to see if the issue still persists.
779 swift 1.35 </p>
780    
781 swift 1.1 </body>
782     </subsection>
783 swift 1.39 <subsection id="profileprotect">
784     <title>System Profile Protection</title>
785 swift 1.1 <body>
786 swift 1.3
787 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Portage warning about profile-protected package">
788     !!! Trying to unmerge package(s) in system profile. 'sys-apps/portage'
789     !!! This could be damaging to your system.
790 swift 1.3 </pre>
791    
792     <p>
793 swift 1.39 You have asked to remove a package that is part of your system's core packages.
794     It is listed in your profile as required and should therefore not be removed
795     from the system.
796 swift 1.3 </p>
797    
798 swift 1.1 </body>
799     </subsection>
800 nightmorph 1.59 <subsection id="digesterror">
801 nightmorph 1.71 <title>Digest Verification Failures</title>
802 nightmorph 1.59 <body>
803    
804     <p>
805     Sometimes, when you attempt to emerge a package, it will fail with the message:
806     </p>
807    
808     <pre caption="Digest verification failure">
809 nightmorph 1.71 &gt;&gt;&gt; checking ebuild checksums
810 nightmorph 1.59 !!! Digest verification failed:
811     </pre>
812    
813     <p>
814     This is a sign that something is wrong with the Portage tree -- often, it is
815     because a developer may have made a mistake when committing a package to the
816     tree.
817     </p>
818    
819     <p>
820     When the digest verification fails, do <e>not</e> try to re-digest the package
821 nightmorph 1.72 yourself. Running <c>ebuild foo manifest</c> will not fix the problem; it will
822 nightmorph 1.59 almost certainly make it worse!
823     </p>
824    
825     <p>
826     Instead, wait an hour or two for the tree to settle down. It's likely that the
827     error was noticed right away, but it can take a little time for the fix to
828     trickle down the Portage tree. While you're waiting, check <uri
829     link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri> and see if anyone has reported
830     the problem yet. If not, go ahead and file a bug for the broken package.
831     </p>
832    
833     <p>
834     Once you see that the bug has been fixed, you may want to re-sync to pick up
835     the fixed digest.
836     </p>
837    
838     <impo>
839     This does <e>not</e> mean that you can re-sync your tree multiple times! As
840     stated in the rsync policy (when you run <c>emerge --sync</c>), users who sync
841     too often will be banned! In fact, it's better to just wait until your next
842     scheduled sync, so that you don't overload the rsync servers.
843     </impo>
844    
845     </body>
846     </subsection>
847 swift 1.1 </section>
848     </sections>

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