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5
6 <sections>
7 <section>
8 <title>Obtaining Package Information</title>
9 <subsection>
10 <title>The Lord of All Tools: emerge</title>
11 <body>
12
13 <p>
14 The main Portage tool that most users will use is <c>emerge</c>. We have already
15 used it during the Gentoo installation and in the previous chapter, but we just
16 briefly explained how to use it. This chapter will elaborate on <c>emerge</c>
17 and teach you how to use <c>emerge</c> to fix all your software-related needs.
18 </p>
19
20 <p>
21 <c>emerge</c> is the command used to install, remove, query and maintain
22 software packages. It is a front-end for <c>ebuild</c>; people interested in
23 becoming Gentoo professionals will learn how to use <c>ebuild</c> later on. For
24 now, we will focus on <c>emerge</c> as it has functionality that <c>ebuild</c>
25 lacks (such as resolving dependencies, searching the Portage tree, etc.).
26 </p>
27
28 <p>
29 Since <c>emerge</c> is the most important tool for Gentoo users, it has an
30 extensive manpage you can read by issuing <c>man emerge</c>. You can also view
31 the in-command help by running <c>emerge --help</c>.
32 </p>
33
34 <pre caption="Retrieving help for emerge">
35 # <i>man emerge</i>
36 # <i>emerge --help</i>
37 </pre>
38
39 </body>
40 </subsection>
41 <subsection>
42 <title>The Portage Tree</title>
43 <body>
44
45 <p>
46 Before we continue describing <c>emerge</c>, let us first take a look at the
47 Portage Tree. Go to <path>/usr/portage</path> and do a listing of the available
48 directories. We use <c>ls --classify</c> to list the contents of a
49 directory as it will show directories with a trailing "/".
50 </p>
51
52 <pre caption="Viewing the Portage Tree">
53 # <i>cd /usr/portage; ls --classify</i>
54 app-admin/ dev-ml/ gnome-libs/ net-print/
55 app-arch/ dev-perl/ gnome-office/ net-wireless/
56 app-benchmarks/ dev-php/ header.txt net-www/
57 app-cdr/ dev-python/ incoming/ net-zope/
58 app-crypt/ dev-ruby/ jython/ packages/
59 app-dicts/ dev-tcltk/ kde-apps/ profiles/
60 app-doc/ dev-tex/ kde-base/ releases/
61 app-editors/ dev-util/ kde-i18n/ scripts/
62 app-emacs/ distfiles/ kde-libs/ sec-policy/
63 app-emulation/ eclass/ licenses/ skel.ChangeLog
64 app-games/ experimental/ media-fonts/ skel.ebuild
65 app-gnustep/ files/ media-gfx/ skel.metadata.xml
66 app-i18n/ fresco-base/ media-libs/ snapshots/
67 app-misc/ games-action/ media-plugins/ sys-apps/
68 app-office/ games-arcade/ media-radio/ sys-build/
69 app-pda/ games-board/ media-sound/ sys-cluster/
70 app-portage/ games-emulation/ media-tv/ sys-devel/
71 app-sci/ games-engines/ media-video/ sys-fs/
72 app-shells/ games-fps/ metadata/ sys-kernel/
73 app-text/ games-kids/ net-analyzer/ sys-kmods/
74 app-vim/ games-misc/ net-apache/ sys-libs/
75 app-xemacs/ games-mud/ net-dialup/ unix2tcp/
76 berlin-base/ games-puzzle/ net-dns/ x11-base/
77 dev-ada/ games-roguelike/ net-firewall/ x11-libs/
78 dev-cpp/ games-rpg/ net-fs/ x11-misc/
79 dev-db/ games-server/ net-ftp/ x11-plugins/
80 dev-dotnet/ games-simulation/ net-im/ x11-terms/
81 dev-embedded/ games-sports/ net-irc/ x11-themes/
82 dev-games/ games-strategy/ net-libs/ x11-wm/
83 dev-haskell/ games-util/ net-mail/ xfce-base/
84 dev-java/ glep/ net-misc/ xfce-extra/
85 dev-lang/ gnome-apps/ net-nds/
86 dev-libs/ gnome-base/ net-news/
87 dev-lisp/ gnome-extra/ net-p2p/
88 </pre>
89
90 <p>
91 As you can see, the Portage tree has several subdirectories. Most of them are
92 the <e>categories</e> in which the Gentoo packages, called <e>ebuilds</e>,
93 reside. Take a look at, for instance, <path>app-office</path>:
94 </p>
95
96 <pre caption="Viewing a category">
97 # <i>cd app-office; ls --classify</i>
98 abiword/ gnotime/ kmymoney2/ ooodi/ plan/ timestamp.x
99 dia/ gnucash/ koffice/ oooqs/ qhacc/
100 dia2code/ gnumeric/ lxbank/ openoffice/ sc/
101 facturalux/ ical/ lyx/ openoffice-bin/ scribus/
102 gaby/ kbudget/ mdbtools/ openoffice-ximian/ siag/
103 gnofin/ khacc/ mrproject/ phprojekt/ texmacs/
104 </pre>
105
106 <p>
107 Inside a category you will find the packages belonging to that category, with a
108 separate directory for each package. Let us take a look at the <c>openoffice</c>
109 package:
110 </p>
111
112 <pre caption="Viewing a package">
113 # <i>cd openoffice; ls --classify</i>
114 ChangeLog files/ openoffice-1.0.3-r1.ebuild openoffice-1.1.0-r2.ebuild
115 Manifest metadata.xml openoffice-1.1.0-r1.ebuild openoffice-1.1.0.ebuild
116 </pre>
117
118 <p>
119 Remember that we told you that a Gentoo package is called an ebuild? Well, in
120 the example directory four of such ebuilds are stored. Their naming is
121 almost identical: they only differ in the version name.
122 You are free to view the contents of such a package: they are plain scripts. We
123 will not discuss it right now as it isn't important to know if you plan on just
124 using Gentoo.
125 </p>
126
127 <p>
128 The other files are the <path>ChangeLog</path> (which contains a listing of all
129 the changes done to the ebuilds), <path>Manifest</path> (which contains the
130 checksums and permissions of all the files in the directory) and
131 <path>metadata.xml</path> (which contains more information about the package,
132 such as the responsible development group -- called <e>herd</e> -- and a more
133 extensive description).
134 </p>
135
136 <p>
137 Inside the <path>files</path> directory you will find extra files, needed by
138 Portage: digests (checksums and permissions of the files needed by a single
139 version of the package), patches, example configuration files, etc.
140 </p>
141
142 <pre caption="Viewing the extra files">
143 # <i>cd files; ls --classify</i>
144 1.0.3/ digest-openoffice-1.0.3-r1 digest-openoffice-1.1.0-r1
145 1.1.0/ digest-openoffice-1.1.0 digest-openoffice-1.1.0-r2
146 # <i>cd 1.1.0; ls --classify</i>
147 fixed-gcc.patch ooffice-wrapper-1.3
148 newstlportfix.patch openoffice-1.1.0-linux-2.6-fix.patch
149 no-mozab.patch openoffice-1.1.0-sparc64-fix.patch
150 nptl.patch
151 </pre>
152
153 <p>
154 If you go back to the root of the Portage tree (<path>/usr/portage</path>) you
155 will notice that there are other, non-category directories too. We will discuss
156 those later in this chapter.
157 </p>
158
159 </body>
160 </subsection>
161 <subsection>
162 <title>Search for a Package</title>
163 <body>
164
165 <p>
166 If you are new to Linux or Gentoo, you might not know what tool you need for
167 what job. To facilitate searching, <c>emerge</c> provides you with a way to
168 search through the available packages on your system. There are two ways you can
169 search through packages: by <e>name</e>, or by <e>name</e> and
170 <e>description</e>.
171 </p>
172
173 <p>
174 To search through the Portage tree by name, use <c>emerge search</c>. For
175 instance, to find out more about <c>mozilla</c>:
176 </p>
177
178 <pre caption="Showing information about mozilla">
179 # <i>emerge search mozilla</i>
180 Searching...
181 [ Results for search key : mozilla ]
182 [ Applications found : 5 ]
183 <comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
184 * net-www/mozilla
185 Latest version available: 1.5-r1
186 Latest version installed: 1.4-r3
187 Size of downloaded files: 29,153 kB
188 Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org
189 Description: The Mozilla Web Browser
190
191 * net-www/mozilla-firebird
192 Latest version available: 0.7
193 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
194 Size of downloaded files: 37,850 kB
195 Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org/projects/firebird/
196 Description: The Mozilla Firebird Web Browser
197 <comment>(...)</comment>
198 </pre>
199
200 <p>
201 If you want to include a search through the descriptions too, use the
202 <c>--searchdesc</c> argument:
203 </p>
204
205 <pre caption="Search through the descriptions too">
206 # <i>emerge --searchdesc mozilla</i>
207 Searching...
208 [ Results for search key : mozilla ]
209 [ Applications found : 10 ]
210 <comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
211 * dev-libs/nss-3.8
212 Latest version available: 3.8
213 Latest version installed: 3.8
214 Size of downloaded files: 2,782 kB
215 Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org/projects/security/pki/nss/
216 Description: Mozilla's Netscape Security Services Library that implements PKI support
217 </pre>
218
219 <p>
220 As you can see, the output of <c>emerge</c> informs you about the category and
221 name of the package, the available version, the currently installed version,
222 the size of the downloaded files, the homepage and the small description.
223 </p>
224
225 <p>
226 You see something new? Yes, <e>downloaded files</e>. When you tell Portage to
227 install a package, it of course needs to have the necessary sources (or
228 precompiled packages) available. It therefore checks the contents of
229 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> (for sourcecode) or
230 <path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> (for precompiled packages) to see if the
231 necessary files are already available. If not, it downloads the necessary files
232 and places them in those directories.
233 </p>
234
235 <note>
236 Searching the Portage Tree, especially when using <c>--searchdesc</c>, is very
237 time consuming. There are other, more performant tools available. We will
238 describe those in the chapter on <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=7">Gentoolkit and
239 Other Tools</uri>.
240 </note>
241
242 </body>
243 </subsection>
244 <subsection>
245 <title>Viewing the ChangeLog</title>
246 <body>
247
248 <p>
249 While browsing through the Portage Tree, you saw that there was a ChangeLog for
250 each package. You can view this ChangeLog with <c>emerge</c> too. Use the
251 <c>--pretend --changelog</c> (<c>-pl</c> in short) options. As an example we
252 will view the ChangeLog entries for <c>gnumeric</c>:
253 </p>
254
255 <pre caption="Viewing the ChangeLog entries for gnumeric">
256 # <i>emerge --pretend --changelog gnumeric</i>
257 </pre>
258
259 </body>
260 </subsection>
261 </section>
262 <section>
263 <title>Updating Portage</title>
264 <subsection>
265 <title>Introduction</title>
266 <body>
267
268 <p>
269 Searching through Portage is nice, but if you don't update your Portage Tree
270 regularly, you will be stuck with the packages and versions available on your
271 system. This means that your system will get outdated pretty soon and that
272 you will be missing bugfixes and remedies for possible security problems.
273 </p>
274
275 <p>
276 There are several ways to update your Portage Tree. The most popular method is
277 by using one of our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">rsync mirrors</uri>.
278 Another one is by using a Portage snapshot (in case a firewall or unavailability
279 of a network prohibits the use of the rsync server).
280 </p>
281
282 </body>
283 </subsection>
284 <subsection>
285 <title>Selecting a Mirror for rsync</title>
286 <body>
287
288 <p>
289 It is adviseable to first select a fast <uri
290 link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror</uri> close to you. You can do this manually
291 (by setting the <c>SYNC</c> variable in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>) or use
292 <c>mirrorselect</c> to do this for you automatically. As the <c>SYNC</c>
293 variable will be discussed later on, we will focus on using <c>mirrorselect</c>.
294 First install <c>mirrorselect</c> by emerging it:
295 </p>
296
297 <pre caption="Installing mirrorselect">
298 # <i>emerge --usepkg mirrorselect</i>
299 </pre>
300
301 <p>
302 Now run <c>mirrorselect</c> to automatically select mirrors for you (it will
303 also setup Portage to use a mirror for the sourcecode):
304 </p>
305
306 <pre caption="Running mirrorselect">
307 # <i>mirrorselect -a -s3</i>
308 </pre>
309
310 </body>
311 </subsection>
312 <subsection>
313 <title>Updating Portage</title>
314 <body>
315
316 <p>
317 To update Portage using rsync, simply run <c>emerge sync</c>:
318 </p>
319
320 <pre caption="Updating Portage using emerge sync">
321 # <i>emerge sync</i>
322 </pre>
323
324 <p>
325 If this fails (due to network problems, or a firewall), you can try using
326 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will download a Portage Tree snapshot using
327 <c>wget</c>. This also means that you can use proxies if you want. We discussed
328 how to setup your system to use proxies during the Gentoo installation.
329 </p>
330
331 <pre caption="Updating Portage using emerge-webrsync">
332 # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
333 </pre>
334
335 </body>
336 </subsection>
337 </section>
338 <section>
339 <title>Maintaining Software</title>
340 <subsection>
341 <title>Building or Prebuilt?</title>
342 <body>
343
344 <p>
345 Gentoo provides ebuilds, the Gentoo packages if you like. But when you want to
346 install such an ebuild, you can choose between <e>building</e> the package, or
347 using a <e>prebuilt</e> package. But what are the advantages/disadvantages of
348 both approaches, and can they be used next to each other?
349 </p>
350
351 <p>
352 As you probably have guessed, building packages takes a lot of time (especially
353 if you have little resources or want to build big packages, such as <uri
354 link="http://www.kde.org">KDE</uri>, <uri
355 link="http://www.openoffice.org">OpenOffice.org</uri>, etc.). By building the
356 package, you can use the <c>USE</c> setting to tweak the package to your system.
357 Of course, you can also define high optimization options (in the <c>CFLAGS</c>
358 and <c>CXXFLAGS</c> variables) to compile the package with.
359 </p>
360
361 <p>
362 Using prebuilt packages improves the installation time (as no more compilation
363 is needed), but you will lose the advantages of the <c>USE</c> setting and the
364 <c>CFLAGS</c> &amp; <c>CXXFLAGS</c> variables.
365 </p>
366
367 <p>
368 As previously stated, prebuilt packages are stored in the
369 <path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> directory, while the sourcecode of the
370 packages are placed in <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. If you have finished
371 installing a package you can remove the package or sourcecode from the
372 respective directory. However, you might want to keep the package/sourcecode of
373 the latest version, just in case you want to reinstall the package (so you don't
374 have to redownload it).
375 </p>
376
377 </body>
378 </subsection>
379 <subsection>
380 <title>Installing Software from Sources</title>
381 <body>
382
383 <p>
384 Okay, enough talking, let's cut to the chase. To install a package, you will use
385 the <c>emerge</c> command. If you don't want to use any prebuilt packages, you
386 can just use <c>emerge &lt;package-name&gt;</c> or <c>emerge
387 &lt;category&gt;/&lt;package-name&gt;</c>. As an example we'll install
388 <c>gnumeric</c>:
389 </p>
390
391 <pre caption="Building gnumeric">
392 # <i>emerge gnumeric</i>
393 </pre>
394
395 <p>
396 This will download the sourcecode for you and unpacks, compiles and installs the
397 package on your system. It will also do the same for all the dependencies. If
398 you want to see what dependencies will be installed with it, use the
399 <c>--pretend</c> option (<c>-p</c> in short):
400 </p>
401
402 <pre caption="Pretending to build gnumeric">
403 # <i>emerge --pretend gnumeric</i>
404 </pre>
405
406 <p>
407 If you want to download the sourcecode of the package and its dependencies,
408 but don't want to build the package, use the <c>--fetchonly</c> option
409 (<c>-f</c> in short):
410 </p>
411
412 <pre caption="Fetching sources for gnumeric">
413 # <i>emerge --fetchonly gnumeric</i>
414 </pre>
415
416 <p>
417 If you want to see where <c>emerge</c> downloads the sources from, combine the
418 <c>--fetchonly</c> and <c>--pretend</c> options:
419 </p>
420
421 <pre caption="Showing URLs of the sources for gnumeric">
422 # <i>emerge --fetchonly --pretend gnumeric</i>
423 </pre>
424
425 <p>
426 You can also opt to install a specific version of a package.
427 For instance, if you want to install a gnumeric version older than 1.2 -- for
428 any reason whatsoever :) you would type:
429 </p>
430
431 <pre caption="Installing a specific gnumeric version">
432 # <i>emerge "&lt;gnumeric-1.2"</i>
433 </pre>
434
435 <p>
436 Other possibilities are of course "&gt;" (later version) and "=" (the exact
437 version).
438 </p>
439
440 </body>
441 </subsection>
442 <subsection>
443 <title>Installing Prebuilt Packages</title>
444 <body>
445
446 <p>
447 When you want to install a prebuilt package, you should use the <c>--usepkg</c>
448 option (<c>-k</c> in short). This will use the binary package available in
449 <path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> <e>if</e> the package and the version of
450 the application you want to install match.
451 </p>
452
453 <pre caption="Installing a prebuilt package for gnumeric">
454 # <i>emerge --usepkg gnumeric</i>
455 </pre>
456
457 <p>
458 If you want to use the binary package, even if the versions don't match, use
459 <c>--usepkgonly</c> (<c>-K</c> in short).
460 </p>
461
462 <pre caption="Installing the prebuilt package for gnumeric">
463 # <i>emerge --usepkgonly gnumeric</i>
464 </pre>
465
466 <p>
467 If you don't have the prebuilt package on your system yet, you can have
468 <c>emerge</c> download it from a mirror, defined in the <c>PORTAGE_BINHOST</c>
469 variable declared in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>.
470 </p>
471
472 <p>
473 To download the binary package in case this package doesn't exist on
474 your system already, use <c>--getbinpkg</c> (<c>-g</c> in short):
475 </p>
476
477 <pre caption="Downloading and installing a prebuilt package for gnumeric">
478 # <i>emerge --getbinpkg gnumeric</i>
479 </pre>
480
481 <p>
482 This will download the package and the package-related information for you and
483 install it on your system, together with the dependencies. If you want to see
484 what dependencies will be installed with it, use the <c>--pretend</c> option
485 (<c>-p</c> in short):
486 </p>
487
488 <pre caption="Pretending to download the prebuilt packages for gnumeric">
489 # <i>emerge --getbinpkg --pretend gnumeric</i>
490 </pre>
491
492 <p>
493 You can also opt to download the prebuilt package (and the package-related
494 information) <e>without</e> checking the information on your local system and
495 <e>without</e> using the prebuilt package already on your system (if
496 applicable), use the <c>--getbinpkgonly</c> option (<c>-G</c> in short):
497 </p>
498
499 <pre caption="Installing a prebuilt package without using local information">
500 # <i>emerge --getbinpkgonly gnumeric</i>
501 </pre>
502
503 <p>
504 You can also opt to install a specific version of a package.
505 For instance, if you want to install a gnumeric version older than 1.2 -- for
506 any reason whatsoever :) you would type:
507 </p>
508
509 <pre caption="Installing a specific gnumeric version">
510 # <i>emerge --usepkg "&lt;gnumeric-1.2"</i>
511 </pre>
512
513 <p>
514 Other possibilities are of course "&gt;" (later version) and "=" (the exact
515 version).
516 </p>
517
518
519 </body>
520 </subsection>
521 <subsection>
522 <title>Working with Dependencies</title>
523 <body>
524
525 <p>
526 Portage has an extensive support for dependency handling. Although you usually
527 don't need to even think about this (as dependencies are automatically handled
528 by Portage) some users might want to know how you can work with <c>emerge</c>
529 and dependencies.
530 </p>
531
532 <p>
533 For instance, if you want Portage to pretend that none of the dependencies of a
534 package are installed, you can use <c>--emptytree</c> (<c>-e</c> in short). This
535 is useful with <c>--pretend</c> to display a complete tree of dependencies for
536 any particular package. Without <c>--pretend</c>, <c>emerge</c> will (re)compile
537 all listed packages. However, <c>glibc</c> will <e>not</e> be listed as
538 dependency for safety reasons.
539 </p>
540
541 <pre caption="Show all dependencies of gnumeric">
542 # <i>emerge --emptytree --pretend gnumeric</i>
543 </pre>
544
545 <p>
546 Another argument is <c>--nodeps</c>, which will ask Portage to try install the
547 given package without taking care of the dependencies. It is trivial that this
548 can lead to failures.
549 </p>
550
551 <pre caption="Installing gnumeric without taking care of the dependencies">
552 # <i>emerge --nodeps gnumeric</i>
553 </pre>
554
555 <p>
556 To opposite of <c>--nodeps</c> is <c>--onlydeps</c>, which will have Portage
557 install all dependencies of a given package, but not the package itself:
558 </p>
559
560 <pre caption="Installing the dependencies of gnumeric">
561 # <i>emerge --onlydeps gnumeric</i>
562 </pre>
563
564 </body>
565 </subsection>
566 <subsection>
567 <title>Updating your System</title>
568 <body>
569
570 <p>
571 Portage knows two special tags to denote a set of software packages:
572 <e>system</e> and <e>world</e>. You have already seen the former while
573 installing Gentoo if you didn't use a <e>stage3</e> installation. To refresh
574 things: <e>system</e> is the collection of <e>core</e> packages, necessary to
575 have a working Gentoo system.
576 </p>
577
578 <p>
579 The <e>world</e> tag consists of all software you have installed yourself on
580 your system plus the <e>system</e> information. In other words, every time you
581 emerge a package using <c>emerge &lt;package-name&gt;</c>, the
582 <c>&lt;package-name&gt;</c> is registered in the <e>world</e> file
583 (<path>/var/cache/edb/world</path>). Dependencies are <e>not</e> part of the
584 <e>world</e> file, but we will get to that later.
585 </p>
586
587 <p>
588 If you want to update the system packages, use the <c>--update</c> option
589 (<c>-u</c> in short):
590 </p>
591
592 <pre caption="Updating the system packages">
593 # <i>emerge --update system</i>
594 </pre>
595
596 <p>
597 An identical approach can be used for the world packages:
598 </p>
599
600 <pre caption="Updating your entire system">
601 # <i>emerge --update world</i>
602 </pre>
603
604 <p>
605 Again, if you want to see what <c>emerge</c> wants to update, use the
606 <c>--pretend</c> option together with the <c>--update</c> option:
607 </p>
608
609 <pre caption="Pretending to update your entire system">
610 # <i>emerge --pretend --update world</i>
611 <comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
612 [ebuild U ] net-misc/wget-1.9-r1 [1.9]
613 [ebuild UD] media-video/dvdauthor-0.5.0 [0.5.3]
614 [ebuild U ] net-analyzer/ethereal-0.9.16 [0.9.14]
615 </pre>
616
617 <p>
618 Right next to the word "ebuild" you will notice a letter (or combination of
619 letters) which gives you more information about the package:
620 </p>
621
622 <ul>
623 <li>
624 <e>B</e> (blocks) The package listed to the left is blocking the emerge of
625 the package listed to the right
626 </li>
627 <li>
628 <e>N</e> (new) The package is new to your system and will be emerged for the
629 first time
630 </li>
631 <li>
632 <e>R</e> (reemerge) The package isn't new, but needs to be reemerged
633 </li>
634 <li>
635 <e>F</e> (fetch) The package requires that you download the sourcecode
636 manually (for instance due to licencing issues)
637 </li>
638 <li>
639 <e>U</e> (update) The package already exists on your system but will be
640 upgraded
641 </li>
642 <li>
643 <e>UD</e> (downgrade) The package already exists on your system but will be
644 downgraded
645 </li>
646 <li>
647 <e>U-</e> (slot warning) The package you have installed on your system
648 is listed as a package that can not coexist with a different version, but
649 your update does. The update will be installed and the older version will be
650 removed.
651 </li>
652 </ul>
653
654 <p>
655 In certain cases, an update may mean a downgrade (i.e. install an older version
656 instead of a newer version). If you don't want this to happen, use the
657 <c>--upgradeonly</c> option (<c>-U</c> in short):
658 </p>
659
660 <pre caption="Upgrading your entire system">
661 # <i>emerge --update --upgradeonly world</i>
662 </pre>
663
664 <p>
665 Of course, we are talking here about <e>system</e> and <e>world</e>, but you can
666 perform the same actions for individual software packages.
667 </p>
668
669 </body>
670 </subsection>
671 <subsection>
672 <title>Removing Software</title>
673 <body>
674
675 <p>
676 If you want to remove software from your system, you can use the <c>unmerge</c>
677 option (<c>-C</c> - capital C - in short):
678 </p>
679
680 <pre caption="Uninstalling software">
681 # <i>emerge unmerge gnumeric</i>
682 </pre>
683
684 <p>
685 If you want to test a removal (but not perform it), you can use <c>--pretend</c>
686 again:
687 </p>
688
689 <pre caption="Pretending to uninstall software">
690 # <i>emerge --pretend unmerge gnumeric</i>
691 </pre>
692
693 <warn>
694 Portage doesn't verify if a package is a dependency for another
695 installed package. It also doesn't warn you if the package is part of
696 <e>system</e>, i.e. a core application necessary for the correct functioning of
697 your system!
698 </warn>
699
700 <p>
701 Once the unmerge begins you will see a long list of filenames belonging to the
702 package. Some of these filenames will have a flag displayed to the
703 left of the filename. The flags <c>!mtime</c>, <c>!empty</c>, and <c>cfgpro</c>
704 specify reasons why certain files are not being removed while the package is.
705 Files listed without any of these three flags are removed from the
706 filesystem successfully. The three flags specify the following reasons:
707 </p>
708
709 <ul>
710 <li>
711 <c>!mtime</c> : The listed file has been changed since it was installed,
712 probably by you or some tool
713 </li>
714 <li>
715 <c>!empty</c> : The listed directory is not empty
716 </li>
717 <li>
718 <c>cfgpro</c> : Another already installed package claims to own this file
719 </li>
720 </ul>
721
722 </body>
723 </subsection>
724 </section>
725 <section>
726 <title>Software Availability</title>
727 <subsection>
728 <title>ARCH or not?</title>
729 <body>
730
731 <p>
732 Gentoo places its packages in two possible stadia called <e>ARCH</e> and
733 <e>~ARCH</e>. Don't take this literally: the stadia depend on the architecture
734 you are using. In other words, for x86-based systems you have <e>x86</e> and
735 <e>~x86</e>, for ppc-based systems you have <e>ppc</e> and <e>~ppc</e> etc.
736 </p>
737
738 <p>
739 The <e>~ARCH</e> stadium means that the package works for the developer in
740 charge of the package, but that the package hasn't been tested thoroughly enough
741 by the community to be placed in <e>ARCH</e>. <e>~ARCH</e> packages usually go
742 to <e>ARCH</e> after being bugfree for a sufficient amount of time.
743 </p>
744
745 <p>
746 Your system will use <e>ARCH</e> packages per default. If you want to live on
747 the edge, don't mind having a broken package once in a while, and you like
748 submitting bugreports to <uri
749 link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugs.gentoo.org</uri>, then you can opt to use
750 <e>~ARCH</e> packages. To "move" your system to a <e>~ARCH</e>-using system,
751 edit the <c>ACCEPT_KEYWORDS</c> variable in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so that
752 it reads <e>~ARCH</e> (again: for x86-based systems: <e>~x86</e>, etc.).
753 </p>
754
755 <p>
756 If you want to update your system now, you will notice that <e>a lot</e> of
757 packages will be updated!
758 </p>
759
760 </body>
761 </subsection>
762 <subsection>
763 <title>Masked Packages</title>
764 <body>
765
766 <p>
767 When you want to install a package, you might come across the following message:
768 </p>
769
770 <pre caption="Message about masked packages">
771 Calculating dependencies
772 !!! <comment>all ebuilds that could satisfy </comment>&lt;your package&gt;<comment> have been masked.</comment>
773 </pre>
774
775 <p>
776 A package can be masked due to two reasons:
777 </p>
778
779 <ol>
780 <li>The package is in <e>~ARCH</e> while you use <e>ARCH</e></li>
781 <li>The package is hard-masked explicitly</li>
782 </ol>
783
784 <p>
785 If the package is masked because of the first reason, and you <e>really</e> want
786 to install it (knowing that there <e>is</e> a reason why it isn't available in
787 <e>ARCH</e>), you can temporarily accept <e>~ARCH</e> packages:
788 </p>
789
790 <pre caption="Temporarily accepting ~ARCH packages">
791 # <i>ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~x86" emerge gnumeric</i>
792 </pre>
793
794 <p>
795 A package is hardmasked if it is listed in
796 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path>. If you read this file, you
797 will also read the reason why the package is hardmasked (it is usually added as
798 a comment). If you want to install the package nevertheless (despite all the
799 possible warnings we could ever throw at your head about "breaking your system",
800 "breaks other packages", or "badly needs testing"), create the
801 <path>/etc/portage/package.unmask</path> file and list the package in it (use
802 the same format as is used in <path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path>).
803 </p>
804
805 <p>
806 Do <e>not</e> alter the <path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path> file as
807 all changes are undone the next time you update your Portage tree.
808 </p>
809
810 <p>
811 Another trick to circumvent the "masked package" problem is to install the
812 package using the full path. This will ignore both the <c>ACCEPT_KEYWORD</c>
813 settings and the <path>package.mask</path> listing.
814 </p>
815
816 <pre caption="Installing a package without checking for stadium / masking">
817 # <i>emerge /usr/portage/app-office/gnumeric/gnumeric-1.2.0.ebuild</i>
818 </pre>
819
820 </body>
821 </subsection>
822 <subsection>
823 <title>Blocked Packages</title>
824 <body>
825
826 <p>
827 You have a situation when you receive the following error on your screen:
828 </p>
829
830 <pre caption="Blocking package">
831 [blocks B ] gnome-base/bonobo-activation (from pkg gnome-base/libbonobo-2.4.0)
832 </pre>
833
834 <p>
835 In the above example, the package <c>bonobo-activation</c> is blocking the
836 emerge of <c>libbonobo</c>. To resolve this issue, remove the
837 <c>bonobo-activation</c> package and continue:
838 </p>
839
840 <pre caption="Resolving a blocking situation">
841 # <i>emerge unmerge bonobo-activation</i>
842 </pre>
843
844 </body>
845 </subsection>
846 </section>
847 </sections>

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