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1 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
2 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
3
4 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.14 2003/12/16 17:59:46 swift Exp $ -->
5
6 <sections>
7 <section>
8 <title>Obtaining Package Information</title>
9 <subsection>
10 <title>The Lord of All Tools: emerge</title>
11 <body>
12
13 <p>
14 The main Portage tool that most users will use is <c>emerge</c>. We have already
15 used it during the Gentoo installation and in the previous chapter, but we just
16 briefly explained how to use it. This chapter will elaborate on <c>emerge</c>
17 and teach you how to use <c>emerge</c> to fix all your software-related needs.
18 </p>
19
20 <p>
21 <c>emerge</c> is the command used to install, remove, query and maintain
22 software packages. It is a front-end for <c>ebuild</c>; people interested in
23 becoming Gentoo professionals will learn how to use <c>ebuild</c> later on. For
24 now, we will focus on <c>emerge</c> as it has functionality that <c>ebuild</c>
25 lacks (such as resolving dependencies, searching the Portage tree, etc.).
26 </p>
27
28 <p>
29 Since <c>emerge</c> is the most important tool for Gentoo users, it has an
30 extensive manpage you can read by issuing <c>man emerge</c>. You can also view
31 the in-command help by running <c>emerge --help</c>.
32 </p>
33
34 <pre caption="Retrieving help for emerge">
35 # <i>man emerge</i>
36 # <i>emerge --help</i>
37 </pre>
38
39 </body>
40 </subsection>
41 <subsection>
42 <title>The Portage Tree</title>
43 <body>
44
45 <p>
46 Before we continue describing <c>emerge</c>, let us first take a look at the
47 Portage Tree. Go to <path>/usr/portage</path> and do a listing of the available
48 directories. We use <c>ls --classify</c> to list the contents of a
49 directory as it will show directories with a trailing "/".
50 </p>
51
52 <pre caption="Viewing the Portage Tree">
53 # <i>cd /usr/portage; ls --classify</i>
54 app-admin/ dev-ml/ gnome-libs/ net-print/
55 app-arch/ dev-perl/ gnome-office/ net-wireless/
56 app-benchmarks/ dev-php/ header.txt net-www/
57 app-cdr/ dev-python/ incoming/ net-zope/
58 app-crypt/ dev-ruby/ jython/ packages/
59 app-dicts/ dev-tcltk/ kde-apps/ profiles/
60 app-doc/ dev-tex/ kde-base/ releases/
61 app-editors/ dev-util/ kde-i18n/ scripts/
62 app-emacs/ distfiles/ kde-libs/ sec-policy/
63 app-emulation/ eclass/ licenses/ skel.ChangeLog
64 app-games/ experimental/ media-fonts/ skel.ebuild
65 app-gnustep/ files/ media-gfx/ skel.metadata.xml
66 app-i18n/ fresco-base/ media-libs/ snapshots/
67 app-misc/ games-action/ media-plugins/ sys-apps/
68 app-office/ games-arcade/ media-radio/ sys-build/
69 app-pda/ games-board/ media-sound/ sys-cluster/
70 app-portage/ games-emulation/ media-tv/ sys-devel/
71 app-sci/ games-engines/ media-video/ sys-fs/
72 app-shells/ games-fps/ metadata/ sys-kernel/
73 app-text/ games-kids/ net-analyzer/ sys-kmods/
74 app-vim/ games-misc/ net-apache/ sys-libs/
75 app-xemacs/ games-mud/ net-dialup/ unix2tcp/
76 berlin-base/ games-puzzle/ net-dns/ x11-base/
77 dev-ada/ games-roguelike/ net-firewall/ x11-libs/
78 dev-cpp/ games-rpg/ net-fs/ x11-misc/
79 dev-db/ games-server/ net-ftp/ x11-plugins/
80 dev-dotnet/ games-simulation/ net-im/ x11-terms/
81 dev-embedded/ games-sports/ net-irc/ x11-themes/
82 dev-games/ games-strategy/ net-libs/ x11-wm/
83 dev-haskell/ games-util/ net-mail/ xfce-base/
84 dev-java/ glep/ net-misc/ xfce-extra/
85 dev-lang/ gnome-apps/ net-nds/
86 dev-libs/ gnome-base/ net-news/
87 dev-lisp/ gnome-extra/ net-p2p/
88 </pre>
89
90 <p>
91 As you can see, the Portage tree has several subdirectories. Most of them are
92 the <e>categories</e> in which the Gentoo packages, called <e>ebuilds</e>,
93 reside. Take a look at, for instance, <path>app-office</path>:
94 </p>
95
96 <pre caption="Viewing a category">
97 # <i>cd app-office; ls --classify</i>
98 abiword/ gnotime/ kmymoney2/ ooodi/ plan/ timestamp.x
99 dia/ gnucash/ koffice/ oooqs/ qhacc/
100 dia2code/ gnumeric/ lxbank/ openoffice/ sc/
101 facturalux/ ical/ lyx/ openoffice-bin/ scribus/
102 gaby/ kbudget/ mdbtools/ openoffice-ximian/ siag/
103 gnofin/ khacc/ mrproject/ phprojekt/ texmacs/
104 </pre>
105
106 <p>
107 Inside a category you will find the packages belonging to that category, with a
108 separate directory for each package. Let us take a look at the <c>openoffice</c>
109 package:
110 </p>
111
112 <pre caption="Viewing a package">
113 # <i>cd openoffice; ls --classify</i>
114 ChangeLog files/ openoffice-1.0.3-r1.ebuild openoffice-1.1.0-r2.ebuild
115 Manifest metadata.xml openoffice-1.1.0-r1.ebuild openoffice-1.1.0.ebuild
116 </pre>
117
118 <p>
119 Remember that we told you that a Gentoo package is called an ebuild? Well, in
120 the example directory four of such ebuilds are stored. Their naming is
121 almost identical: they only differ in the version name.
122 You are free to view the contents of such a package: they are plain scripts. We
123 will not discuss it right now as it isn't important to know if you plan on just
124 using Gentoo.
125 </p>
126
127 <p>
128 The other files are the <path>ChangeLog</path> (which contains a listing of all
129 the changes done to the ebuilds), <path>Manifest</path> (which contains the
130 checksums and permissions of all the files in the directory) and
131 <path>metadata.xml</path> (which contains more information about the package,
132 such as the responsible development group -- called <e>herd</e> -- and a more
133 extensive description).
134 </p>
135
136 <p>
137 Inside the <path>files</path> directory you will find extra files, needed by
138 Portage: digests (checksums and permissions of the files needed by a single
139 version of the package), patches, example configuration files, etc.
140 </p>
141
142 <pre caption="Viewing the extra files">
143 # <i>cd files; ls --classify</i>
144 1.0.3/ digest-openoffice-1.0.3-r1 digest-openoffice-1.1.0-r1
145 1.1.0/ digest-openoffice-1.1.0 digest-openoffice-1.1.0-r2
146 # <i>cd 1.1.0; ls --classify</i>
147 fixed-gcc.patch ooffice-wrapper-1.3
148 newstlportfix.patch openoffice-1.1.0-linux-2.6-fix.patch
149 no-mozab.patch openoffice-1.1.0-sparc64-fix.patch
150 nptl.patch
151 </pre>
152
153 <p>
154 If you go back to the root of the Portage tree (<path>/usr/portage</path>) you
155 will notice that there are other, non-category directories too. We will discuss
156 those later in this chapter.
157 </p>
158
159 </body>
160 </subsection>
161 <subsection>
162 <title>Search for a Package</title>
163 <body>
164
165 <p>
166 If you are new to Linux or Gentoo, you might not know what tool you need for
167 what job. To facilitate searching, <c>emerge</c> provides you with a way to
168 search through the available packages on your system. There are two ways you can
169 search through packages: by <e>name</e>, or by <e>name</e> and
170 <e>description</e>.
171 </p>
172
173 <p>
174 To search through the Portage tree by name, use <c>emerge search</c>. For
175 instance, to find out more about <c>mozilla</c>:
176 </p>
177
178 <pre caption="Showing information about mozilla">
179 # <i>emerge search mozilla</i>
180 Searching...
181 [ Results for search key : mozilla ]
182 [ Applications found : 5 ]
183 <comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
184 * net-www/mozilla
185 Latest version available: 1.5-r1
186 Latest version installed: 1.4-r3
187 Size of downloaded files: 29,153 kB
188 Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org
189 Description: The Mozilla Web Browser
190
191 * net-www/mozilla-firebird
192 Latest version available: 0.7
193 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
194 Size of downloaded files: 37,850 kB
195 Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org/projects/firebird/
196 Description: The Mozilla Firebird Web Browser
197 <comment>(...)</comment>
198 </pre>
199
200 <p>
201 If you want to include a search through the descriptions too, use the
202 <c>--searchdesc</c> argument:
203 </p>
204
205 <pre caption="Search through the descriptions too">
206 # <i>emerge --searchdesc mozilla</i>
207 Searching...
208 [ Results for search key : mozilla ]
209 [ Applications found : 10 ]
210 <comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
211 * dev-libs/nss-3.8
212 Latest version available: 3.8
213 Latest version installed: 3.8
214 Size of downloaded files: 2,782 kB
215 Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org/projects/security/pki/nss/
216 Description: Mozilla's Netscape Security Services Library that implements PKI support
217 </pre>
218
219 <p>
220 As you can see, the output of <c>emerge</c> informs you about the category and
221 name of the package, the available version, the currently installed version,
222 the size of the downloaded files, the homepage and the small description.
223 </p>
224
225 <p>
226 You see something new? Yes, <e>downloaded files</e>. When you tell Portage to
227 install a package, it of course needs to have the necessary sources (or
228 precompiled packages) available. It therefore checks the contents of
229 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> (for source code) or
230 <path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> (for precompiled packages) to see if the
231 necessary files are already available. If not, it downloads the necessary files
232 and places them in those directories.
233 </p>
234
235 <!--
236 <note>
237 Searching the Portage Tree, especially when using <c>- -searchdesc</c>, is very
238 time consuming. There are other, more performant tools available. We will
239 describe those in the chapter on <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=7">Gentoolkit and
240 Other Tools</uri>.
241 </note>
242 -->
243
244 </body>
245 </subsection>
246 <subsection>
247 <title>Viewing the ChangeLog</title>
248 <body>
249
250 <p>
251 While browsing through the Portage Tree, you saw that there was a ChangeLog for
252 each package. You can view this ChangeLog with <c>emerge</c> too. Use the
253 <c>--pretend --changelog</c> (<c>-pl</c> in short) options. As an example we
254 will view the ChangeLog entries for <c>gnumeric</c>:
255 </p>
256
257 <pre caption="Viewing the ChangeLog entries for gnumeric">
258 # <i>emerge --pretend --changelog gnumeric</i>
259 </pre>
260
261 </body>
262 </subsection>
263 </section>
264 <section>
265 <title>Updating Portage</title>
266 <subsection>
267 <title>Introduction</title>
268 <body>
269
270 <p>
271 Searching through Portage is nice, but if you don't update your Portage Tree
272 regularly, you will be stuck with the packages and versions available on your
273 system. This means that your system will get outdated pretty soon and that
274 you will be missing bugfixes and remedies for possible security problems.
275 </p>
276
277 <p>
278 There are several ways to update your Portage Tree. The most popular method is
279 by using one of our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">rsync mirrors</uri>.
280 Another one is by using a Portage snapshot (in case a firewall or unavailability
281 of a network prohibits the use of the rsync server).
282 </p>
283
284 </body>
285 </subsection>
286 <subsection>
287 <title>Selecting a Mirror for rsync</title>
288 <body>
289
290 <p>
291 It is adviseable to first select a fast <uri
292 link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror</uri> close to you. You can do this manually
293 (by setting the <c>SYNC</c> variable in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>) or use
294 <c>mirrorselect</c> to do this for you automatically. As the <c>SYNC</c>
295 variable will be discussed later on, we will focus on using <c>mirrorselect</c>.
296 First install <c>mirrorselect</c> by emerging it:
297 </p>
298
299 <pre caption="Installing mirrorselect">
300 # <i>emerge --usepkg mirrorselect</i>
301 </pre>
302
303 <p>
304 Now run <c>mirrorselect</c> to automatically select mirrors for you (it will
305 also setup Portage to use a mirror for the source code):
306 </p>
307
308 <pre caption="Running mirrorselect">
309 # <i>mirrorselect -a -s3</i>
310 </pre>
311
312 </body>
313 </subsection>
314 <subsection>
315 <title>Updating Portage</title>
316 <body>
317
318 <p>
319 To update Portage using rsync, simply run <c>emerge sync</c>:
320 </p>
321
322 <pre caption="Updating Portage using emerge sync">
323 # <i>emerge sync</i>
324 </pre>
325
326 <p>
327 If this fails (due to network problems, or a firewall), you can try using
328 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will download a Portage Tree snapshot using
329 <c>wget</c>. This also means that you can use proxies if you want. We discussed
330 how to setup your system to use proxies during the Gentoo installation.
331 </p>
332
333 <pre caption="Updating Portage using emerge-webrsync">
334 # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
335 </pre>
336
337 </body>
338 </subsection>
339 </section>
340 <section>
341 <title>Maintaining Software</title>
342 <subsection>
343 <title>Building or Prebuilt?</title>
344 <body>
345
346 <p>
347 Gentoo provides ebuilds, the Gentoo packages if you like. But when you want to
348 install such an ebuild, you can choose between <e>building</e> the package and
349 using a <e>prebuilt</e> package. But what are the advantages/disadvantages of
350 both approaches, and can they be used next to each other?
351 </p>
352
353 <p>
354 As you probably have guessed, building packages takes a lot of time (especially
355 if you have little resources or want to build big packages, such as <uri
356 link="http://www.kde.org">KDE</uri>, <uri
357 link="http://www.openoffice.org">OpenOffice.org</uri>, etc.). By building the
358 package, you can use the <c>USE</c> setting to tweak the package to your system.
359 Of course, you can also define high optimization options (in the <c>CFLAGS</c>
360 and <c>CXXFLAGS</c> variables) to compile the package with.
361 </p>
362
363 <p>
364 Using prebuilt packages improves the installation time (as no more compilation
365 is needed), but you will lose the advantages of the <c>USE</c> setting and the
366 <c>CFLAGS</c> &amp; <c>CXXFLAGS</c> variables.
367 </p>
368
369 <p>
370 As previously stated, prebuilt packages are stored in the
371 <path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> directory, while the source code of the
372 packages is placed in <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. If you have finished
373 installing a package you can remove the package or source code from the
374 respective directory. However, you might want to keep the package/source code of
375 the latest version, just in case you want to reinstall the package (so you don't
376 have to redownload it).
377 </p>
378
379 </body>
380 </subsection>
381 <subsection>
382 <title>Installing Software from Sources</title>
383 <body>
384
385 <p>
386 Okay, enough talking, let's cut to the chase. To install a package, you will use
387 the <c>emerge</c> command. If you don't want to use any prebuilt packages, you
388 can just use <c>emerge &lt;package-name&gt;</c> or <c>emerge
389 &lt;category&gt;/&lt;package-name&gt;</c>. As an example we'll install
390 <c>gnumeric</c>:
391 </p>
392
393 <pre caption="Building gnumeric">
394 # <i>emerge gnumeric</i>
395 </pre>
396
397 <p>
398 This will download the source code for you and unpacks, compiles and installs
399 the package on your system. It will also do the same for all the dependencies.
400 If you want to see what dependencies will be installed with it, use the
401 <c>--pretend</c> option (<c>-p</c> in short):
402 </p>
403
404 <pre caption="Pretending to build gnumeric">
405 # <i>emerge --pretend gnumeric</i>
406 </pre>
407
408 <p>
409 If you want to download the source code of the package and its dependencies,
410 but don't want to build the package, use the <c>--fetchonly</c> option
411 (<c>-f</c> in short):
412 </p>
413
414 <pre caption="Fetching sources for gnumeric">
415 # <i>emerge --fetchonly gnumeric</i>
416 </pre>
417
418 <p>
419 If you want to see where <c>emerge</c> downloads the sources from, combine the
420 <c>--fetchonly</c> and <c>--pretend</c> options:
421 </p>
422
423 <pre caption="Showing URLs of the sources for gnumeric">
424 # <i>emerge --fetchonly --pretend gnumeric</i>
425 </pre>
426
427 <p>
428 You can also opt to install a specific version of a package.
429 For instance, if you want to install a gnumeric version older than 1.2 -- for
430 any reason whatsoever :) you would type:
431 </p>
432
433 <pre caption="Installing a specific gnumeric version">
434 # <i>emerge "&lt;gnumeric-1.2"</i>
435 </pre>
436
437 <p>
438 Other possibilities are of course "&gt;" (later version) and "=" (the exact
439 version).
440 </p>
441
442 </body>
443 </subsection>
444 <subsection>
445 <title>Installing Prebuilt Packages</title>
446 <body>
447
448 <p>
449 When you want to install a prebuilt package, you should use the <c>--usepkg</c>
450 option (<c>-k</c> in short). This will use the binary package available in
451 <path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> <e>if</e> the package and the version of
452 the application you want to install match.
453 </p>
454
455 <pre caption="Installing a prebuilt package for gnumeric">
456 # <i>emerge --usepkg gnumeric</i>
457 </pre>
458
459 <p>
460 If you want to use the binary package, even if the versions don't match, use
461 <c>--usepkgonly</c> (<c>-K</c> in short).
462 </p>
463
464 <pre caption="Installing the prebuilt package for gnumeric">
465 # <i>emerge --usepkgonly gnumeric</i>
466 </pre>
467
468 <p>
469 If you don't have the prebuilt package on your system yet, you can have
470 <c>emerge</c> download it from a mirror, defined in the <c>PORTAGE_BINHOST</c>
471 variable declared in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>.
472 </p>
473
474 <p>
475 To download the binary package in case this package doesn't exist on
476 your system already, use <c>--getbinpkg</c> (<c>-g</c> in short):
477 </p>
478
479 <pre caption="Downloading and installing a prebuilt package for gnumeric">
480 # <i>emerge --getbinpkg gnumeric</i>
481 </pre>
482
483 <p>
484 This will download the package and the package-related information for you and
485 install it on your system, together with the dependencies. If you want to see
486 what dependencies will be installed with it, use the <c>--pretend</c> option
487 (<c>-p</c> in short):
488 </p>
489
490 <pre caption="Pretending to download the prebuilt packages for gnumeric">
491 # <i>emerge --getbinpkg --pretend gnumeric</i>
492 </pre>
493
494 <p>
495 You can also opt to download the prebuilt package (and the package-related
496 information) <e>without</e> checking the information on your local system and
497 <e>without</e> using the prebuilt package already on your system (if
498 applicable), use the <c>--getbinpkgonly</c> option (<c>-G</c> in short):
499 </p>
500
501 <pre caption="Installing a prebuilt package without using local information">
502 # <i>emerge --getbinpkgonly gnumeric</i>
503 </pre>
504
505 <p>
506 You can also opt to install a specific version of a package.
507 For instance, if you want to install a gnumeric version older than 1.2 -- for
508 any reason whatsoever :) you would type:
509 </p>
510
511 <pre caption="Installing a specific gnumeric version">
512 # <i>emerge --usepkg "&lt;gnumeric-1.2"</i>
513 </pre>
514
515 <p>
516 Other possibilities are of course "&gt;" (later version) and "=" (the exact
517 version).
518 </p>
519
520
521 </body>
522 </subsection>
523 <subsection>
524 <title>Working with Dependencies</title>
525 <body>
526
527 <p>
528 Portage has an extensive support for dependency handling. Although you usually
529 don't need to even think about this (as dependencies are automatically handled
530 by Portage) some users might want to know how you can work with <c>emerge</c>
531 and dependencies.
532 </p>
533
534 <p>
535 For instance, if you want Portage to pretend that none of the dependencies of a
536 package are installed, you can use <c>--emptytree</c> (<c>-e</c> in short). This
537 is useful with <c>--pretend</c> to display a complete tree of dependencies for
538 any particular package. Without <c>--pretend</c>, <c>emerge</c> will (re)compile
539 all listed packages. However, <c>glibc</c> will <e>not</e> be listed as
540 dependency for safety reasons.
541 </p>
542
543 <pre caption="Show all dependencies of gnumeric">
544 # <i>emerge --emptytree --pretend gnumeric</i>
545 </pre>
546
547 <p>
548 Another argument is <c>--nodeps</c>, which will ask Portage to try install the
549 given package without taking care of the dependencies. It is trivial that this
550 can lead to failures.
551 </p>
552
553 <pre caption="Installing gnumeric without taking care of the dependencies">
554 # <i>emerge --nodeps gnumeric</i>
555 </pre>
556
557 <p>
558 The opposite of <c>--nodeps</c> is <c>--onlydeps</c>, which will have Portage
559 install all dependencies of a given package, but not the package itself:
560 </p>
561
562 <pre caption="Installing the dependencies of gnumeric">
563 # <i>emerge --onlydeps gnumeric</i>
564 </pre>
565
566 </body>
567 </subsection>
568 <subsection>
569 <title>Updating your System</title>
570 <body>
571
572 <p>
573 Portage knows two special tags to denote a set of software packages:
574 <e>system</e> and <e>world</e>. You have already seen the former while
575 installing Gentoo if you didn't use a <e>stage3</e> installation. To refresh
576 things: <e>system</e> is the collection of <e>core</e> packages, necessary to
577 have a working Gentoo system.
578 </p>
579
580 <p>
581 The <e>world</e> tag consists of all software you have installed yourself on
582 your system plus the <e>system</e> information. In other words, every time you
583 emerge a package using <c>emerge &lt;package-name&gt;</c>, the
584 <c>&lt;package-name&gt;</c> is registered in the <e>world</e> file
585 (<path>/var/cache/edb/world</path>). Dependencies are <e>not</e> part of the
586 <e>world</e> file, but we will get to that later.
587 </p>
588
589 <p>
590 If you want to update the system packages, use the <c>--update</c> option
591 (<c>-u</c> in short):
592 </p>
593
594 <pre caption="Updating the system packages">
595 # <i>emerge --update system</i>
596 </pre>
597
598 <p>
599 An identical approach can be used for the world packages:
600 </p>
601
602 <pre caption="Updating your entire system">
603 # <i>emerge --update world</i>
604 </pre>
605
606 <p>
607 Again, if you want to see what <c>emerge</c> wants to update, use the
608 <c>--pretend</c> option together with the <c>--update</c> option:
609 </p>
610
611 <pre caption="Pretending to update your entire system">
612 # <i>emerge --pretend --update world</i>
613 <comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
614 [ebuild U ] net-misc/wget-1.9-r1 [1.9]
615 [ebuild UD] media-video/dvdauthor-0.5.0 [0.5.3]
616 [ebuild U ] net-analyzer/ethereal-0.9.16 [0.9.14]
617 </pre>
618
619 <p>
620 Right next to the word "ebuild" you will notice a letter (or combination of
621 letters) which gives you more information about the package:
622 </p>
623
624 <ul>
625 <li>
626 <e>B</e> (blocks) The package listed to the left is blocking the emerge of
627 the package listed to the right
628 </li>
629 <li>
630 <e>N</e> (new) The package is new to your system and will be emerged for the
631 first time
632 </li>
633 <li>
634 <e>R</e> (reemerge) The package isn't new, but needs to be reemerged
635 </li>
636 <li>
637 <e>F</e> (fetch) The package requires that you download the source code
638 manually (for instance due to licencing issues)
639 </li>
640 <li>
641 <e>U</e> (update) The package already exists on your system but will be
642 upgraded
643 </li>
644 <li>
645 <e>UD</e> (downgrade) The package already exists on your system but will be
646 downgraded
647 </li>
648 <li>
649 <e>U-</e> (slot warning) The package you have installed on your system
650 is listed as a package that can not coexist with a different version, but
651 your update does. The update will be installed and the older version will be
652 removed.
653 </li>
654 </ul>
655
656 <p>
657 In certain cases, an update may mean a downgrade (i.e. install an older version
658 instead of a newer version). If you don't want this to happen, use the
659 <c>--upgradeonly</c> option (<c>-U</c> in short):
660 </p>
661
662 <pre caption="Upgrading your entire system">
663 # <i>emerge --update --upgradeonly world</i>
664 </pre>
665
666 <p>
667 Of course, we are talking here about <e>system</e> and <e>world</e>, but you can
668 perform the same actions for individual software packages.
669 </p>
670
671 </body>
672 </subsection>
673 <subsection>
674 <title>Removing Software</title>
675 <body>
676
677 <p>
678 If you want to remove software from your system, you can use the <c>unmerge</c>
679 option (<c>-C</c> - capital C - in short):
680 </p>
681
682 <pre caption="Uninstalling software">
683 # <i>emerge unmerge gnumeric</i>
684 </pre>
685
686 <p>
687 If you want to test a removal (but not perform it), you can use <c>--pretend</c>
688 again:
689 </p>
690
691 <pre caption="Pretending to uninstall software">
692 # <i>emerge --pretend unmerge gnumeric</i>
693 </pre>
694
695 <warn>
696 Portage doesn't verify if a package is a dependency for another
697 installed package. It also doesn't warn you if the package is part of
698 <e>system</e>, i.e. a core application necessary for the correct functioning of
699 your system!
700 </warn>
701
702 <p>
703 Once the unmerge begins you will see a long list of filenames belonging to the
704 package. Some of these filenames will have a flag displayed to the
705 left of the filename. The flags <c>!mtime</c>, <c>!empty</c>, and <c>cfgpro</c>
706 specify reasons why certain files are not being removed while the package is.
707 Files listed without any of these three flags are removed from the
708 filesystem successfully. The three flags specify the following reasons:
709 </p>
710
711 <ul>
712 <li>
713 <c>!mtime</c> : The listed file has been changed since it was installed,
714 probably by you or some tool
715 </li>
716 <li>
717 <c>!empty</c> : The listed directory is not empty
718 </li>
719 <li>
720 <c>cfgpro</c> : Another already installed package claims to own this file
721 </li>
722 </ul>
723
724 </body>
725 </subsection>
726 </section>
727 <section>
728 <title>Software Availability</title>
729 <subsection>
730 <title>ARCH or not?</title>
731 <body>
732
733 <p>
734 Gentoo places its packages in two possible stadia called <e>ARCH</e> and
735 <e>~ARCH</e>. Don't take this literally: the stadia depend on the architecture
736 you are using. In other words, for x86-based systems you have <e>x86</e> and
737 <e>~x86</e>, for ppc-based systems you have <e>ppc</e> and <e>~ppc</e> etc.
738 </p>
739
740 <p>
741 The <e>~ARCH</e> stadium means that the package works for the developer in
742 charge of the package, but that the package hasn't been tested thoroughly enough
743 by the community to be placed in <e>ARCH</e>. <e>~ARCH</e> packages usually go
744 to <e>ARCH</e> after being bugfree for a sufficient amount of time.
745 </p>
746
747 <p>
748 Your system will use <e>ARCH</e> packages per default. If you want to live on
749 the edge, don't mind having a broken package once in a while, and you like
750 submitting bugreports to <uri
751 link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugs.gentoo.org</uri>, then you can opt to use
752 <e>~ARCH</e> packages. To "move" your system to a <e>~ARCH</e>-using system,
753 edit the <c>ACCEPT_KEYWORDS</c> variable in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so that
754 it reads <e>~ARCH</e> (again: for x86-based systems: <e>~x86</e>, etc.).
755 </p>
756
757 <p>
758 If you want to update your system now, you will notice that <e>a lot</e> of
759 packages will be updated!
760 </p>
761
762 </body>
763 </subsection>
764 <subsection>
765 <title>Masked Packages</title>
766 <body>
767
768 <p>
769 When you want to install a package, you might come across the following message:
770 </p>
771
772 <pre caption="Message about masked packages">
773 Calculating dependencies
774 !!! <comment>all ebuilds that could satisfy </comment>&lt;your package&gt;<comment> have been masked.</comment>
775 </pre>
776
777 <p>
778 A package can be masked due to two reasons:
779 </p>
780
781 <ol>
782 <li>The package is in <e>~ARCH</e> while you use <e>ARCH</e></li>
783 <li>The package is hard-masked explicitly</li>
784 </ol>
785
786 <p>
787 If the package is masked because of the first reason, and you <e>really</e> want
788 to install it (knowing that there <e>is</e> a reason why it isn't available in
789 <e>ARCH</e>), you can temporarily accept <e>~ARCH</e> packages:
790 </p>
791
792 <pre caption="Temporarily accepting ~ARCH packages">
793 # <i>ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~x86" emerge gnumeric</i>
794 </pre>
795
796 <p>
797 A package is hardmasked if it is listed in
798 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path>. If you read this file, you
799 will also read the reason why the package is hardmasked (it is usually added as
800 a comment). If you want to install the package nevertheless (despite all the
801 possible warnings we could ever throw at your head about "breaking your system",
802 "breaks other packages", or "badly needs testing"), create the
803 <path>/etc/portage/package.unmask</path> file and list the package in it (use
804 the same format as is used in <path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path>).
805 </p>
806
807 <p>
808 Do <e>not</e> alter the <path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path> file as
809 all changes are undone the next time you update your Portage tree.
810 </p>
811
812 <p>
813 Another trick to circumvent the "masked package" problem is to install the
814 package using the full path. This will ignore both the <c>ACCEPT_KEYWORD</c>
815 settings and the <path>package.mask</path> listing.
816 </p>
817
818 <pre caption="Installing a package without checking for stadium / masking">
819 # <i>emerge /usr/portage/app-office/gnumeric/gnumeric-1.2.0.ebuild</i>
820 </pre>
821
822 </body>
823 </subsection>
824 <subsection>
825 <title>Blocked Packages</title>
826 <body>
827
828 <p>
829 You have a situation when you receive the following error on your screen:
830 </p>
831
832 <pre caption="Blocking package">
833 [blocks B ] gnome-base/bonobo-activation (from pkg gnome-base/libbonobo-2.4.0)
834 </pre>
835
836 <p>
837 In the above example, the package <c>bonobo-activation</c> is blocking the
838 emerge of <c>libbonobo</c>. To resolve this issue, remove the
839 <c>bonobo-activation</c> package and continue:
840 </p>
841
842 <pre caption="Resolving a blocking situation">
843 # <i>emerge unmerge bonobo-activation</i>
844 </pre>
845
846 </body>
847 </subsection>
848 </section>
849 </sections>

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