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1 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
2 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
3
4 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.16 2004/01/06 15:39:48 swift Exp $ -->
5
6 <sections>
7 <section>
8 <title>Obtaining Package Information</title>
9 <subsection>
10 <title>The Lord of All Tools: emerge</title>
11 <body>
12
13 <p>
14 The main Portage tool that most users will use is <c>emerge</c>. We have already
15 used it during the Gentoo installation and in the previous chapter, but we just
16 briefly explained how to use it. This chapter will elaborate on <c>emerge</c>
17 and teach you how to use <c>emerge</c> to fix all your software-related needs.
18 </p>
19
20 <p>
21 <c>emerge</c> is the command used to install, remove, query and maintain
22 software packages. It is a front-end for <c>ebuild</c>; people interested in
23 becoming Gentoo professionals will learn how to use <c>ebuild</c> later on. For
24 now, we will focus on <c>emerge</c> as it has functionality that <c>ebuild</c>
25 lacks (such as resolving dependencies, searching the Portage tree, etc.).
26 </p>
27
28 <p>
29 Since <c>emerge</c> is the most important tool for Gentoo users, it has an
30 extensive manpage you can read by issuing <c>man emerge</c>. You can also view
31 the in-command help by running <c>emerge --help</c>.
32 </p>
33
34 <pre caption="Retrieving help for emerge">
35 # <i>man emerge</i>
36 # <i>emerge --help</i>
37 </pre>
38
39 </body>
40 </subsection>
41 <subsection>
42 <title>The Portage Tree</title>
43 <body>
44
45 <p>
46 Before we continue describing <c>emerge</c>, let us first take a look at the
47 Portage Tree. Go to <path>/usr/portage</path> and do a listing of the available
48 directories. We use <c>ls --classify</c> to list the contents of a
49 directory as it will show directories with a trailing "/".
50 </p>
51
52 <pre caption="Viewing the Portage Tree">
53 # <i>cd /usr/portage; ls --classify</i>
54 app-admin/ dev-ml/ gnome-libs/ net-print/
55 app-arch/ dev-perl/ gnome-office/ net-wireless/
56 app-benchmarks/ dev-php/ header.txt net-www/
57 app-cdr/ dev-python/ incoming/ net-zope/
58 app-crypt/ dev-ruby/ jython/ packages/
59 app-dicts/ dev-tcltk/ kde-apps/ profiles/
60 app-doc/ dev-tex/ kde-base/ releases/
61 app-editors/ dev-util/ kde-i18n/ scripts/
62 app-emacs/ distfiles/ kde-libs/ sec-policy/
63 app-emulation/ eclass/ licenses/ skel.ChangeLog
64 app-games/ experimental/ media-fonts/ skel.ebuild
65 app-gnustep/ files/ media-gfx/ skel.metadata.xml
66 app-i18n/ fresco-base/ media-libs/ snapshots/
67 app-misc/ games-action/ media-plugins/ sys-apps/
68 app-office/ games-arcade/ media-radio/ sys-build/
69 app-pda/ games-board/ media-sound/ sys-cluster/
70 app-portage/ games-emulation/ media-tv/ sys-devel/
71 app-sci/ games-engines/ media-video/ sys-fs/
72 app-shells/ games-fps/ metadata/ sys-kernel/
73 app-text/ games-kids/ net-analyzer/ sys-kmods/
74 app-vim/ games-misc/ net-apache/ sys-libs/
75 app-xemacs/ games-mud/ net-dialup/ unix2tcp/
76 berlin-base/ games-puzzle/ net-dns/ x11-base/
77 dev-ada/ games-roguelike/ net-firewall/ x11-libs/
78 dev-cpp/ games-rpg/ net-fs/ x11-misc/
79 dev-db/ games-server/ net-ftp/ x11-plugins/
80 dev-dotnet/ games-simulation/ net-im/ x11-terms/
81 dev-embedded/ games-sports/ net-irc/ x11-themes/
82 dev-games/ games-strategy/ net-libs/ x11-wm/
83 dev-haskell/ games-util/ net-mail/ xfce-base/
84 dev-java/ glep/ net-misc/ xfce-extra/
85 dev-lang/ gnome-apps/ net-nds/
86 dev-libs/ gnome-base/ net-news/
87 dev-lisp/ gnome-extra/ net-p2p/
88 </pre>
89
90 <p>
91 As you can see, the Portage tree has several subdirectories. Most of them are
92 the <e>categories</e> in which the Gentoo packages, called <e>ebuilds</e>,
93 reside. Take a look at, for instance, <path>app-office</path>:
94 </p>
95
96 <pre caption="Viewing a category">
97 # <i>cd app-office; ls --classify</i>
98 abiword/ gnotime/ kmymoney2/ ooodi/ plan/ timestamp.x
99 dia/ gnucash/ koffice/ oooqs/ qhacc/
100 dia2code/ gnumeric/ lxbank/ openoffice/ sc/
101 facturalux/ ical/ lyx/ openoffice-bin/ scribus/
102 gaby/ kbudget/ mdbtools/ openoffice-ximian/ siag/
103 gnofin/ khacc/ mrproject/ phprojekt/ texmacs/
104 </pre>
105
106 <p>
107 Inside a category you will find the packages belonging to that category, with a
108 separate directory for each package. Let us take a look at the <c>openoffice</c>
109 package:
110 </p>
111
112 <pre caption="Viewing a package">
113 # <i>cd openoffice; ls --classify</i>
114 ChangeLog files/ openoffice-1.0.3-r1.ebuild openoffice-1.1.0-r2.ebuild
115 Manifest metadata.xml openoffice-1.1.0-r1.ebuild openoffice-1.1.0.ebuild
116 </pre>
117
118 <p>
119 Remember that we told you that a Gentoo package is called an ebuild? Well, in
120 the example directory four of such ebuilds are stored. Their naming is
121 almost identical: they only differ in the version name.
122 You are free to view the contents of such a package: they are plain scripts. We
123 will not discuss it right now as it isn't important to know if you plan on just
124 using Gentoo.
125 </p>
126
127 <p>
128 The other files are the <path>ChangeLog</path> (which contains a listing of all
129 the changes done to the ebuilds), <path>Manifest</path> (which contains the
130 checksums and permissions of all the files in the directory) and
131 <path>metadata.xml</path> (which contains more information about the package,
132 such as the responsible development group -- called <e>herd</e> -- and a more
133 extensive description).
134 </p>
135
136 <p>
137 Inside the <path>files</path> directory you will find extra files, needed by
138 Portage: digests (checksums and permissions of the files needed by a single
139 version of the package), patches, example configuration files, etc.
140 </p>
141
142 <pre caption="Viewing the extra files">
143 # <i>cd files; ls --classify</i>
144 1.0.3/ digest-openoffice-1.0.3-r1 digest-openoffice-1.1.0-r1
145 1.1.0/ digest-openoffice-1.1.0 digest-openoffice-1.1.0-r2
146 # <i>cd 1.1.0; ls --classify</i>
147 fixed-gcc.patch ooffice-wrapper-1.3
148 newstlportfix.patch openoffice-1.1.0-linux-2.6-fix.patch
149 no-mozab.patch openoffice-1.1.0-sparc64-fix.patch
150 nptl.patch
151 </pre>
152
153 <p>
154 If you go back to the root of the Portage tree (<path>/usr/portage</path>) you
155 will notice that there are other, non-category directories too. We will discuss
156 those later in this chapter.
157 </p>
158
159 </body>
160 </subsection>
161 <subsection>
162 <title>Search for a Package</title>
163 <body>
164
165 <p>
166 If you are new to Linux or Gentoo, you might not know what tool you need for
167 what job. To facilitate searching, <c>emerge</c> provides you with a way to
168 search through the available packages on your system. There are two ways you can
169 search through packages: by <e>name</e>, or by <e>name</e> and
170 <e>description</e>.
171 </p>
172
173 <p>
174 To search through the Portage tree by name, use <c>emerge search</c>. For
175 instance, to find out more about <c>mozilla</c>:
176 </p>
177
178 <pre caption="Showing information about mozilla">
179 # <i>emerge search mozilla</i>
180 Searching...
181 [ Results for search key : mozilla ]
182 [ Applications found : 5 ]
183 <comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
184 * net-www/mozilla
185 Latest version available: 1.5-r1
186 Latest version installed: 1.4-r3
187 Size of downloaded files: 29,153 kB
188 Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org
189 Description: The Mozilla Web Browser
190
191 * net-www/mozilla-firebird
192 Latest version available: 0.7
193 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
194 Size of downloaded files: 37,850 kB
195 Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org/projects/firebird/
196 Description: The Mozilla Firebird Web Browser
197 <comment>(...)</comment>
198 </pre>
199
200 <p>
201 If you want to include a search through the descriptions too, use the
202 <c>--searchdesc</c> argument:
203 </p>
204
205 <pre caption="Search through the descriptions too">
206 # <i>emerge --searchdesc mozilla</i>
207 Searching...
208 [ Results for search key : mozilla ]
209 [ Applications found : 10 ]
210 <comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
211 * dev-libs/nss-3.8
212 Latest version available: 3.8
213 Latest version installed: 3.8
214 Size of downloaded files: 2,782 kB
215 Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org/projects/security/pki/nss/
216 Description: Mozilla's Netscape Security Services Library that implements PKI support
217 </pre>
218
219 <p>
220 As you can see, the output of <c>emerge</c> informs you about the category and
221 name of the package, the available version, the currently installed version,
222 the size of the downloaded files, the homepage and the small description.
223 </p>
224
225 <p>
226 You see something new? Yes, <e>downloaded files</e>. When you tell Portage to
227 install a package, it of course needs to have the necessary sources (or
228 precompiled packages) available. It therefore checks the contents of
229 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> (for source code) or
230 <path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> (for precompiled packages) to see if the
231 necessary files are already available. If not, it downloads the necessary files
232 and places them in those directories.
233 </p>
234
235 <!--
236 <note>
237 Searching the Portage Tree, especially when using <c>- -searchdesc</c>, is very
238 time consuming. There are other, more performant tools available. We will
239 describe those in the chapter on <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=7">Gentoolkit and
240 Other Tools</uri>.
241 </note>
242 -->
243
244 </body>
245 </subsection>
246 <subsection>
247 <title>Viewing the ChangeLog</title>
248 <body>
249
250 <p>
251 While browsing through the Portage Tree, you saw that there was a ChangeLog for
252 each package. You can view the ChangeLog entries between the available version
253 and the installed version with <c>emerge</c> too. Use the
254 <c>--pretend --changelog</c> (<c>-pl</c> in short) options. As an example we
255 will view the ChangeLog entries for <c>gnumeric</c>:
256 </p>
257
258 <pre caption="Viewing the ChangeLog entries for gnumeric">
259 # <i>emerge --pretend --changelog gnumeric</i>
260 <comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
261 *gnumeric-1.2.2
262
263 27 Nov 2003; foser &lt;foser@gentoo.org&gt; gnumeric-1.2.2.ebuild :
264 New release, requested in #34492
265 updated deps
266
267 12 Nov 2003; Jason Wever &lt;weeve@gentoo.org&gt; gnumeric-1.2.0.ebuild:
268 Marked stable on sparc, fixes bug #32405.
269
270 14 Oct 2003; Jason Wever &lt;weeve@gentoo.org&gt; gnumeric-1.0.8.ebuild:
271 Added ~sparc keyword. Fixes bug #31150.
272 </pre>
273
274 </body>
275 </subsection>
276 </section>
277 <section>
278 <title>Updating Portage</title>
279 <subsection>
280 <title>Introduction</title>
281 <body>
282
283 <p>
284 Searching through Portage is nice, but if you don't update your Portage Tree
285 regularly, you will be stuck with the packages and versions available on your
286 system. This means that your system will get outdated pretty soon and that
287 you will be missing bugfixes and remedies for possible security problems.
288 </p>
289
290 <p>
291 There are several ways to update your Portage Tree. The most popular method is
292 by using one of our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">rsync mirrors</uri>.
293 Another one is by using a Portage snapshot (in case a firewall or unavailability
294 of a network prohibits the use of the rsync server).
295 </p>
296
297 </body>
298 </subsection>
299 <subsection>
300 <title>Selecting a Mirror for rsync</title>
301 <body>
302
303 <p>
304 It is adviseable to first select a fast <uri
305 link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror</uri> close to you. You can do this manually
306 (by setting the <c>SYNC</c> variable in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>) or use
307 <c>mirrorselect</c> to do this for you automatically. As the <c>SYNC</c>
308 variable will be discussed later on, we will focus on using <c>mirrorselect</c>.
309 First install <c>mirrorselect</c> by emerging it:
310 </p>
311
312 <pre caption="Installing mirrorselect">
313 # <i>emerge --usepkg mirrorselect</i>
314 </pre>
315
316 <p>
317 Now run <c>mirrorselect</c> to automatically select mirrors for you (it will
318 also setup Portage to use a mirror for the source code):
319 </p>
320
321 <pre caption="Running mirrorselect">
322 # <i>mirrorselect -a -s3</i>
323 </pre>
324
325 </body>
326 </subsection>
327 <subsection>
328 <title>Updating Portage</title>
329 <body>
330
331 <p>
332 To update Portage using rsync, simply run <c>emerge sync</c>:
333 </p>
334
335 <pre caption="Updating Portage using emerge sync">
336 # <i>emerge sync</i>
337 </pre>
338
339 <p>
340 If this fails (due to network problems, or a firewall), you can try using
341 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will download a Portage Tree snapshot using
342 <c>wget</c>. This also means that you can use proxies if you want. We discussed
343 how to setup your system to use proxies during the Gentoo installation.
344 </p>
345
346 <pre caption="Updating Portage using emerge-webrsync">
347 # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
348 </pre>
349
350 </body>
351 </subsection>
352 </section>
353 <section>
354 <title>Maintaining Software</title>
355 <subsection>
356 <title>Building or Prebuilt?</title>
357 <body>
358
359 <p>
360 Gentoo provides ebuilds, the Gentoo packages if you like. But when you want to
361 install such an ebuild, you can choose between <e>building</e> the package and
362 using a <e>prebuilt</e> package. But what are the advantages/disadvantages of
363 both approaches, and can they be used next to each other?
364 </p>
365
366 <p>
367 As you probably have guessed, building packages takes a lot of time (especially
368 if you have little resources or want to build big packages, such as <uri
369 link="http://www.kde.org">KDE</uri>, <uri
370 link="http://www.openoffice.org">OpenOffice.org</uri>, etc.). By building the
371 package, you can use the <c>USE</c> setting to tweak the package to your system.
372 Of course, you can also define high optimization options (in the <c>CFLAGS</c>
373 and <c>CXXFLAGS</c> variables) to compile the package with.
374 </p>
375
376 <p>
377 Using prebuilt packages improves the installation time (as no more compilation
378 is needed), but you will lose the advantages of the <c>USE</c> setting and the
379 <c>CFLAGS</c> &amp; <c>CXXFLAGS</c> variables.
380 </p>
381
382 <p>
383 As previously stated, prebuilt packages are stored in the
384 <path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> directory, while the source code of the
385 packages is placed in <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. If you have finished
386 installing a package you can remove the package or source code from the
387 respective directory. However, you might want to keep the package/source code of
388 the latest version, just in case you want to reinstall the package (so you don't
389 have to redownload it).
390 </p>
391
392 </body>
393 </subsection>
394 <subsection>
395 <title>Installing Software from Sources</title>
396 <body>
397
398 <p>
399 Okay, enough talking, let's cut to the chase. To install a package, you will use
400 the <c>emerge</c> command. If you don't want to use any prebuilt packages, you
401 can just use <c>emerge &lt;package-name&gt;</c> or <c>emerge
402 &lt;category&gt;/&lt;package-name&gt;</c>. As an example we'll install
403 <c>gnumeric</c>:
404 </p>
405
406 <pre caption="Building gnumeric">
407 # <i>emerge gnumeric</i>
408 </pre>
409
410 <p>
411 This will download the source code for you and unpacks, compiles and installs
412 the package on your system. It will also do the same for all the dependencies.
413 If you want to see what dependencies will be installed with it, use the
414 <c>--pretend</c> option (<c>-p</c> in short):
415 </p>
416
417 <pre caption="Pretending to build gnumeric">
418 # <i>emerge --pretend gnumeric</i>
419 </pre>
420
421 <p>
422 If you want to download the source code of the package and its dependencies,
423 but don't want to build the package, use the <c>--fetchonly</c> option
424 (<c>-f</c> in short):
425 </p>
426
427 <pre caption="Fetching sources for gnumeric">
428 # <i>emerge --fetchonly gnumeric</i>
429 </pre>
430
431 <p>
432 If you want to see where <c>emerge</c> downloads the sources from, combine the
433 <c>--fetchonly</c> and <c>--pretend</c> options:
434 </p>
435
436 <pre caption="Showing URLs of the sources for gnumeric">
437 # <i>emerge --fetchonly --pretend gnumeric</i>
438 </pre>
439
440 <p>
441 You can also opt to install a specific version of a package.
442 For instance, if you want to install a gnumeric version older than 1.2 -- for
443 any reason whatsoever :) you would type:
444 </p>
445
446 <pre caption="Installing a specific gnumeric version">
447 # <i>emerge "&lt;gnumeric-1.2"</i>
448 </pre>
449
450 <p>
451 Other possibilities are of course "&gt;" (later version) and "=" (the exact
452 version).
453 </p>
454
455 </body>
456 </subsection>
457 <subsection>
458 <title>Installing Prebuilt Packages</title>
459 <body>
460
461 <p>
462 When you want to install a prebuilt package, you should use the <c>--usepkg</c>
463 option (<c>-k</c> in short). This will use the binary package available in
464 <path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> <e>if</e> the package and the version of
465 the application you want to install match.
466 </p>
467
468 <pre caption="Installing a prebuilt package for gnumeric">
469 # <i>emerge --usepkg gnumeric</i>
470 </pre>
471
472 <p>
473 If you want to use the binary package, even if the versions don't match, use
474 <c>--usepkgonly</c> (<c>-K</c> in short).
475 </p>
476
477 <pre caption="Installing the prebuilt package for gnumeric">
478 # <i>emerge --usepkgonly gnumeric</i>
479 </pre>
480
481 <p>
482 If you don't have the prebuilt package on your system yet, you can have
483 <c>emerge</c> download it from a mirror, defined in the <c>PORTAGE_BINHOST</c>
484 variable declared in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>.
485 </p>
486
487 <p>
488 To download the binary package in case this package doesn't exist on
489 your system already, use <c>--getbinpkg</c> (<c>-g</c> in short):
490 </p>
491
492 <pre caption="Downloading and installing a prebuilt package for gnumeric">
493 # <i>emerge --getbinpkg gnumeric</i>
494 </pre>
495
496 <p>
497 This will download the package and the package-related information for you and
498 install it on your system, together with the dependencies. If you want to see
499 what dependencies will be installed with it, use the <c>--pretend</c> option
500 (<c>-p</c> in short):
501 </p>
502
503 <pre caption="Pretending to download the prebuilt packages for gnumeric">
504 # <i>emerge --getbinpkg --pretend gnumeric</i>
505 </pre>
506
507 <p>
508 You can also opt to download the prebuilt package (and the package-related
509 information) <e>without</e> checking the information on your local system and
510 <e>without</e> using the prebuilt package already on your system (if
511 applicable), use the <c>--getbinpkgonly</c> option (<c>-G</c> in short):
512 </p>
513
514 <pre caption="Installing a prebuilt package without using local information">
515 # <i>emerge --getbinpkgonly gnumeric</i>
516 </pre>
517
518 <p>
519 You can also opt to install a specific version of a package.
520 For instance, if you want to install a gnumeric version older than 1.2 -- for
521 any reason whatsoever :) you would type:
522 </p>
523
524 <pre caption="Installing a specific gnumeric version">
525 # <i>emerge --usepkg "&lt;gnumeric-1.2"</i>
526 </pre>
527
528 <p>
529 Other possibilities are of course "&gt;" (later version) and "=" (the exact
530 version).
531 </p>
532
533
534 </body>
535 </subsection>
536 <subsection>
537 <title>Working with Dependencies</title>
538 <body>
539
540 <p>
541 Portage has an extensive support for dependency handling. Although you usually
542 don't need to even think about this (as dependencies are automatically handled
543 by Portage) some users might want to know how you can work with <c>emerge</c>
544 and dependencies.
545 </p>
546
547 <p>
548 For instance, if you want Portage to pretend that none of the dependencies of a
549 package are installed, you can use <c>--emptytree</c> (<c>-e</c> in short). This
550 is useful with <c>--pretend</c> to display a complete tree of dependencies for
551 any particular package. Without <c>--pretend</c>, <c>emerge</c> will (re)compile
552 all listed packages. However, <c>glibc</c> will <e>not</e> be listed as
553 dependency for safety reasons.
554 </p>
555
556 <pre caption="Show all dependencies of gnumeric">
557 # <i>emerge --emptytree --pretend gnumeric</i>
558 </pre>
559
560 <p>
561 Another argument is <c>--nodeps</c>, which will ask Portage to try install the
562 given package without taking care of the dependencies. It is trivial that this
563 can lead to failures.
564 </p>
565
566 <pre caption="Installing gnumeric without taking care of the dependencies">
567 # <i>emerge --nodeps gnumeric</i>
568 </pre>
569
570 <p>
571 The opposite of <c>--nodeps</c> is <c>--onlydeps</c>, which will have Portage
572 install all dependencies of a given package, but not the package itself:
573 </p>
574
575 <pre caption="Installing the dependencies of gnumeric">
576 # <i>emerge --onlydeps gnumeric</i>
577 </pre>
578
579 </body>
580 </subsection>
581 <subsection>
582 <title>Updating your System</title>
583 <body>
584
585 <p>
586 Portage knows two special tags to denote a set of software packages:
587 <e>system</e> and <e>world</e>. You have already seen the former while
588 installing Gentoo if you didn't use a <e>stage3</e> installation. To refresh
589 things: <e>system</e> is the collection of <e>core</e> packages, necessary to
590 have a working Gentoo system.
591 </p>
592
593 <p>
594 The <e>world</e> tag consists of all software you have installed yourself on
595 your system plus the <e>system</e> information. In other words, every time you
596 emerge a package using <c>emerge &lt;package-name&gt;</c>, the
597 <c>&lt;package-name&gt;</c> is registered in the <e>world</e> file
598 (<path>/var/cache/edb/world</path>). Dependencies are <e>not</e> part of the
599 <e>world</e> file, but we will get to that later.
600 </p>
601
602 <p>
603 If you want to update the system packages, use the <c>--update</c> option
604 (<c>-u</c> in short):
605 </p>
606
607 <pre caption="Updating the system packages">
608 # <i>emerge --update system</i>
609 </pre>
610
611 <p>
612 An identical approach can be used for the world packages:
613 </p>
614
615 <pre caption="Updating your entire system">
616 # <i>emerge --update world</i>
617 </pre>
618
619 <p>
620 Again, if you want to see what <c>emerge</c> wants to update, use the
621 <c>--pretend</c> option together with the <c>--update</c> option:
622 </p>
623
624 <pre caption="Pretending to update your entire system">
625 # <i>emerge --pretend --update world</i>
626 <comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
627 [ebuild U ] net-misc/wget-1.9-r1 [1.9]
628 [ebuild UD] media-video/dvdauthor-0.5.0 [0.5.3]
629 [ebuild U ] net-analyzer/ethereal-0.9.16 [0.9.14]
630 </pre>
631
632 <p>
633 Right next to the word "ebuild" you will notice a letter (or combination of
634 letters) which gives you more information about the package:
635 </p>
636
637 <ul>
638 <li>
639 <e>B</e> (blocks) The package listed to the left is blocking the emerge of
640 the package listed to the right
641 </li>
642 <li>
643 <e>N</e> (new) The package is new to your system and will be emerged for the
644 first time
645 </li>
646 <li>
647 <e>R</e> (reemerge) The package isn't new, but needs to be reemerged
648 </li>
649 <li>
650 <e>F</e> (fetch) The package requires that you download the source code
651 manually (for instance due to licencing issues)
652 </li>
653 <li>
654 <e>U</e> (update) The package already exists on your system but will be
655 upgraded
656 </li>
657 <li>
658 <e>UD</e> (downgrade) The package already exists on your system but will be
659 downgraded
660 </li>
661 <li>
662 <e>U-</e> (slot warning) The package you have installed on your system
663 is listed as a package that can not coexist with a different version, but
664 your update does. The update will be installed and the older version will be
665 removed.
666 </li>
667 </ul>
668
669 <p>
670 In certain cases, an update may mean a downgrade (i.e. install an older version
671 instead of a newer version). If you don't want this to happen, use the
672 <c>--upgradeonly</c> option (<c>-U</c> in short):
673 </p>
674
675 <pre caption="Upgrading your entire system">
676 # <i>emerge --update --upgradeonly world</i>
677 </pre>
678
679 <p>
680 Of course, we are talking here about <e>system</e> and <e>world</e>, but you can
681 perform the same actions for individual software packages.
682 </p>
683
684 </body>
685 </subsection>
686 <subsection>
687 <title>Removing Software</title>
688 <body>
689
690 <p>
691 If you want to remove software from your system, you can use the <c>unmerge</c>
692 option (<c>-C</c> - capital C - in short):
693 </p>
694
695 <pre caption="Uninstalling software">
696 # <i>emerge unmerge gnumeric</i>
697 </pre>
698
699 <p>
700 If you want to test a removal (but not perform it), you can use <c>--pretend</c>
701 again:
702 </p>
703
704 <pre caption="Pretending to uninstall software">
705 # <i>emerge --pretend unmerge gnumeric</i>
706 </pre>
707
708 <warn>
709 Portage doesn't verify if a package is a dependency for another
710 installed package. It also doesn't warn you if the package is part of
711 <e>system</e>, i.e. a core application necessary for the correct functioning of
712 your system!
713 </warn>
714
715 <p>
716 Once the unmerge begins you will see a long list of filenames belonging to the
717 package. Some of these filenames will have a flag displayed to the
718 left of the filename. The flags <c>!mtime</c>, <c>!empty</c>, and <c>cfgpro</c>
719 specify reasons why certain files are not being removed while the package is.
720 Files listed without any of these three flags are removed from the
721 filesystem successfully. The three flags specify the following reasons:
722 </p>
723
724 <ul>
725 <li>
726 <c>!mtime</c> : The listed file has been changed since it was installed,
727 probably by you or some tool
728 </li>
729 <li>
730 <c>!empty</c> : The listed directory is not empty
731 </li>
732 <li>
733 <c>cfgpro</c> : This file is located inside a protected directory and will
734 not be touched for safety
735 </li>
736 </ul>
737
738 </body>
739 </subsection>
740 </section>
741 <section>
742 <title>Software Availability</title>
743 <subsection>
744 <title>ARCH or not?</title>
745 <body>
746
747 <p>
748 Gentoo places its packages in two possible stadia called <e>ARCH</e> and
749 <e>~ARCH</e>. Don't take this literally: the stadia depend on the architecture
750 you are using. In other words, for x86-based systems you have <e>x86</e> and
751 <e>~x86</e>, for ppc-based systems you have <e>ppc</e> and <e>~ppc</e> etc.
752 </p>
753
754 <p>
755 The <e>~ARCH</e> stadium means that the package works for the developer in
756 charge of the package, but that the package hasn't been tested thoroughly enough
757 by the community to be placed in <e>ARCH</e>. <e>~ARCH</e> packages usually go
758 to <e>ARCH</e> after being bugfree for a sufficient amount of time.
759 </p>
760
761 <p>
762 Your system will use <e>ARCH</e> packages per default. If you want to live on
763 the edge, don't mind having a broken package once in a while, and you like
764 submitting bugreports to <uri
765 link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugs.gentoo.org</uri>, then you can opt to use
766 <e>~ARCH</e> packages. To "move" your system to a <e>~ARCH</e>-using system,
767 edit the <c>ACCEPT_KEYWORDS</c> variable in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so that
768 it reads <e>~ARCH</e> (again: for x86-based systems: <e>~x86</e>, etc.).
769 </p>
770
771 <p>
772 If you want to update your system now, you will notice that <e>a lot</e> of
773 packages will be updated!
774 </p>
775
776 </body>
777 </subsection>
778 <subsection>
779 <title>Masked Packages</title>
780 <body>
781
782 <p>
783 When you want to install a package, you might come across the following message:
784 </p>
785
786 <pre caption="Message about masked packages">
787 Calculating dependencies
788 !!! <comment>all ebuilds that could satisfy </comment>&lt;your package&gt;<comment> have been masked.</comment>
789 </pre>
790
791 <p>
792 A package can be masked due to two reasons:
793 </p>
794
795 <ol>
796 <li>The package is in <e>~ARCH</e> while you use <e>ARCH</e></li>
797 <li>The package is hard-masked explicitly</li>
798 </ol>
799
800 <p>
801 If the package is masked because of the first reason, and you <e>really</e> want
802 to install it (knowing that there <e>is</e> a reason why it isn't available in
803 <e>ARCH</e>), you can temporarily accept <e>~ARCH</e> packages:
804 </p>
805
806 <pre caption="Temporarily accepting ~ARCH packages">
807 # <i>ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~x86" emerge gnumeric</i>
808 </pre>
809
810 <p>
811 A package is hardmasked if it is listed in
812 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path>. If you read this file, you
813 will also read the reason why the package is hardmasked (it is usually added as
814 a comment). If you want to install the package nevertheless (despite all the
815 possible warnings we could ever throw at your head about "breaking your system",
816 "breaks other packages", or "badly needs testing"), create the
817 <path>/etc/portage/package.unmask</path> file and list the package in it (use
818 the same format as is used in <path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path>).
819 </p>
820
821 <p>
822 Do <e>not</e> alter the <path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path> file as
823 all changes are undone the next time you update your Portage tree.
824 </p>
825
826 <p>
827 Another trick to circumvent the "masked package" problem is to install the
828 package using the full path. This will ignore both the <c>ACCEPT_KEYWORD</c>
829 settings and the <path>package.mask</path> listing.
830 </p>
831
832 <pre caption="Installing a package without checking for stadium / masking">
833 # <i>emerge /usr/portage/app-office/gnumeric/gnumeric-1.2.0.ebuild</i>
834 </pre>
835
836 </body>
837 </subsection>
838 <subsection>
839 <title>Blocked Packages</title>
840 <body>
841
842 <p>
843 You have a situation when you receive the following error on your screen:
844 </p>
845
846 <pre caption="Blocking package">
847 [blocks B ] gnome-base/bonobo-activation (from pkg gnome-base/libbonobo-2.4.0)
848 </pre>
849
850 <p>
851 In the above example, the package <c>bonobo-activation</c> is blocking the
852 emerge of <c>libbonobo</c>. To resolve this issue, remove the
853 <c>bonobo-activation</c> package and continue:
854 </p>
855
856 <pre caption="Resolving a blocking situation">
857 # <i>emerge unmerge bonobo-activation</i>
858 </pre>
859
860 </body>
861 </subsection>
862 </section>
863 </sections>

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