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1 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
2 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
3
4 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.1 2003/11/20 10:52:35 swift Exp $ -->
5
6 <sections>
7 <section>
8 <title>Obtaining Package Information</title>
9 <subsection>
10 <title>The Lord of All Tools: emerge</title>
11 <body>
12
13 <p>
14 We have briefly encountered <c>emerge</c> in the previous chapter, but not to
15 the extent that you are now able to work with it to its fullest potential. We
16 will fix that right now ;-)
17 </p>
18
19 <p>
20 <c>emerge</c> is the command used to install, remove, query and maintain
21 software packages. It is a front-end for <c>ebuild</c>; people interested in
22 becoming Gentoo professionals will learn how to use <c>ebuild</c> later on. For
23 now, we will focus on <c>emerge</c> as it has functionality that <c>ebuild</c>
24 lacks (such as resolving dependencies, searching the Portage tree, etc.).
25 </p>
26
27 <p>
28 Since <c>emerge</c> is the most important tool for Gentoo users, it has an
29 extensive manpage you can read by issuing <c>man emerge</c>. You can also view
30 the in-command help by running <c>emerge --help</c>.
31 </p>
32
33 <pre caption="Retrieving help for emerge">
34 # <i>man emerge</i>
35 # <i>emerge --help</i>
36 </pre>
37
38 </body>
39 </subsection>
40 <subsection>
41 <title>The Portage Tree</title>
42 <body>
43
44 <p>
45 Before we continue describing <c>emerge</c>, let us first take a look at the
46 Portage Tree. Go to <path>/usr/portage</path> and do a listing of the available
47 directories.
48 </p>
49
50 <pre caption="Viewing the Portage Tree">
51 # <i>cd /usr/portage; ls --classify</i>
52 <comment>(The --classify will append a special character to note the filetype)</comment>
53 app-admin/ dev-ml/ gnome-libs/ net-print/
54 app-arch/ dev-perl/ gnome-office/ net-wireless/
55 app-benchmarks/ dev-php/ header.txt net-www/
56 app-cdr/ dev-python/ incoming/ net-zope/
57 app-crypt/ dev-ruby/ jython/ packages/
58 app-dicts/ dev-tcltk/ kde-apps/ profiles/
59 app-doc/ dev-tex/ kde-base/ releases/
60 app-editors/ dev-util/ kde-i18n/ scripts/
61 app-emacs/ distfiles/ kde-libs/ sec-policy/
62 app-emulation/ eclass/ licenses/ skel.ChangeLog
63 app-games/ experimental/ media-fonts/ skel.ebuild
64 app-gnustep/ files/ media-gfx/ skel.metadata.xml
65 app-i18n/ fresco-base/ media-libs/ snapshots/
66 app-misc/ games-action/ media-plugins/ sys-apps/
67 app-office/ games-arcade/ media-radio/ sys-build/
68 app-pda/ games-board/ media-sound/ sys-cluster/
69 app-portage/ games-emulation/ media-tv/ sys-devel/
70 app-sci/ games-engines/ media-video/ sys-fs/
71 app-shells/ games-fps/ metadata/ sys-kernel/
72 app-text/ games-kids/ net-analyzer/ sys-kmods/
73 app-vim/ games-misc/ net-apache/ sys-libs/
74 app-xemacs/ games-mud/ net-dialup/ unix2tcp/
75 berlin-base/ games-puzzle/ net-dns/ x11-base/
76 dev-ada/ games-roguelike/ net-firewall/ x11-libs/
77 dev-cpp/ games-rpg/ net-fs/ x11-misc/
78 dev-db/ games-server/ net-ftp/ x11-plugins/
79 dev-dotnet/ games-simulation/ net-im/ x11-terms/
80 dev-embedded/ games-sports/ net-irc/ x11-themes/
81 dev-games/ games-strategy/ net-libs/ x11-wm/
82 dev-haskell/ games-util/ net-mail/ xfce-base/
83 dev-java/ glep/ net-misc/ xfce-extra/
84 dev-lang/ gnome-apps/ net-nds/
85 dev-libs/ gnome-base/ net-news/
86 dev-lisp/ gnome-extra/ net-p2p/
87 </pre>
88
89 <p>
90 As you can see, the Portage tree has several subdirectories. Most of them are
91 the <e>categories</e> in which the Gentoo packages, called <e>ebuilds</e>,
92 reside. Take a look at, for instance, <path>app-office</path>:
93 </p>
94
95 <pre caption="Viewing a category">
96 # <i>cd app-office; ls --classify</i>
97 abiword/ gnotime/ kmymoney2/ ooodi/ plan/ timestamp.x
98 dia/ gnucash/ koffice/ oooqs/ qhacc/
99 dia2code/ gnumeric/ lxbank/ openoffice/ sc/
100 facturalux/ ical/ lyx/ openoffice-bin/ scribus/
101 gaby/ kbudget/ mdbtools/ openoffice-ximian/ siag/
102 gnofin/ khacc/ mrproject/ phprojekt/ texmacs/
103 </pre>
104
105 <p>
106 Inside a category you will find the packages belonging to that category, with a
107 seperate directory for each package. Let us take a look at the <c>openoffice</c>
108 package:
109 </p>
110
111 <pre caption="Viewing a package">
112 # <i>cd openoffice; ls --classify</i>
113 ChangeLog files/ openoffice-1.0.3-r1.ebuild openoffice-1.1.0-r2.ebuild
114 Manifest metadata.xml openoffice-1.1.0-r1.ebuild openoffice-1.1.0.ebuild
115 </pre>
116
117 <p>
118 Remember that we told you that a Gentoo package is called an ebuild? Well, in
119 the example directory four of such ebuilds are stored. Their naming is
120 almost identical: they only differ in the version name.
121 You are free to view the contents of such a package: they are plain scripts. We
122 will not discuss it right now as it isn't important to know if you plan on just
123 using Gentoo.
124 </p>
125
126 <p>
127 The other files are the <path>ChangeLog</path> (which contains a listing of all
128 the changes done to the ebuilds), <path>Manifest</path> (which contains the
129 checksums and permissions of all the files in the directory) and
130 <path>metadata.xml</path> (which contains more information about the package,
131 such as the responsible development group -- called <e>herd</e> and a more
132 extensive description).
133 </p>
134
135 <p>
136 Inside the <path>files</path> directory you will find extra files, needed by
137 Portage: digests (checksums and permissions of the files needed by a single
138 version of the package), patches, example configuration files, etc.
139 </p>
140
141 <pre caption="Viewing the extra files">
142 # <i>cd files; ls --classify</i>
143 1.0.3/ digest-openoffice-1.0.3-r1 digest-openoffice-1.1.0-r1
144 1.1.0/ digest-openoffice-1.1.0 digest-openoffice-1.1.0-r2
145 # <i>cd 1.1.0; ls --classify</i>
146 fixed-gcc.patch ooffice-wrapper-1.3
147 newstlportfix.patch openoffice-1.1.0-linux-2.6-fix.patch
148 no-mozab.patch openoffice-1.1.0-sparc64-fix.patch
149 nptl.patch
150 </pre>
151
152 <p>
153 If you go back to the root of the Portage tree (<path>/usr/portage</path>) you
154 will notice that there are other, non-category directories too. We will discuss
155 those later in this chapter.
156 </p>
157
158 </body>
159 </subsection>
160 <subsection>
161 <title>Search for a Package</title>
162 <body>
163
164 <p>
165 If you are new to Linux or Gentoo, you might not know what tool you need for
166 what job. To facilitate searching, <c>emerge</c> provides you with a way to
167 search through the available packages on your system. There are two ways you can
168 search through packages: by <e>name</e>, or by <e>name</e> and
169 <e>description</e>.
170 </p>
171
172 <p>
173 To search through the Portage tree by name, use <c>emerge search</c>. For
174 instance, to find out more about <c>mozilla</c>:
175 </p>
176
177 <pre caption="Showing information about mozilla">
178 # <i>emerge search mozilla</i>
179 Searching...
180 [ Results for search key : mozilla ]
181 [ Applications found : 5 ]
182 <comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
183 * net-www/mozilla
184 Latest version available: 1.5-r1
185 Latest version installed: 1.4-r3
186 Size of downloaded files: 29,153 kB
187 Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org
188 Description: The Mozilla Web Browser
189
190 * net-www/mozilla-firebird
191 Latest version available: 0.7
192 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
193 Size of downloaded files: 37,850 kB
194 Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org/projects/firebird/
195 Description: The Mozilla Firebird Web Browser
196 <comment>(...)</comment>
197 </pre>
198
199 <p>
200 If you want to include a search through the descriptions too, use the
201 <c>--searchdesc</c> argument:
202 </p>
203
204 <pre caption="Search through the descriptions too">
205 # <i>emerge --searchdesc mozilla</i>
206 Searching...
207 [ Results for search key : mozilla ]
208 [ Applications found : 10 ]
209 <comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
210 * dev-libs/nss-3.8
211 Latest version available: 3.8
212 Latest version installed: 3.8
213 Size of downloaded files: 2,782 kB
214 Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org/projects/security/pki/nss/
215 Description: Mozilla's Netscape Security Services Library that implements PKI support
216 </pre>
217
218 <p>
219 As you can see, the output of <c>emerge</c> informs you about the category and
220 name of the package, the available version, the currently installed version,
221 the size of the downloaded files, the homepage and the small description.
222 </p>
223
224 <p>
225 You see something new? Yes, <e>downloaded files</e>. When you tell Portage to
226 install a package, it ofcourse needs to have the necessary sources (or
227 precompiled packages) available. It therefor checks the contents of
228 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> (for sourcecode) or
229 <path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> (for precompiled packages) to see if the
230 necessary files are already available. If not, it downloads the necessary files
231 and places them in those directories.
232 </p>
233
234 <note>
235 Searching the Portage Tree, especially when using <c>--searchdesc</c>, is very
236 time consuming. There are other, more performant tools available. We will
237 describe those in the chapter on <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=7">Gentoolkit and
238 Other Tools</uri>.
239 </note>
240
241 </body>
242 </subsection>
243 </section>
244 <section>
245 <title>Updating Portage</title>
246 <subsection>
247 <title>Introduction</title>
248 <body>
249
250 <p>
251 Searching through Portage is nice, but if you don't update your Portage Tree
252 regularly, you will be stuck with the packages and versions available on your
253 system. This means that your system will get outdated pretty soon, and that
254 packages with possible security problems will remain on your system.
255 </p>
256
257 <p>
258 There are several ways to update your Portage Tree. The most popular method is
259 by using one of our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">rsync mirrors</uri>.
260 Another one is by using a Portage snapshot (in case a firewall or unavailability
261 of a network prohibits the use of the rsync server).
262 </p>
263
264 </body>
265 </subsection>
266 <subsection>
267 <title>Selecting a Mirror for rsync</title>
268 <body>
269
270 <p>
271 It is adviseable to first select a fast <uri
272 link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror</uri> close to you. You can do this manually
273 (by setting the <c>SYNC</c> variable in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>) or use
274 <c>mirrorselect</c> to do this for you automatically. As the <c>SYNC</c>
275 variable will be discussed later on, we will focus on using <c>mirrorselect</c>.
276 First install <c>mirrorselect</c> by emerging it:
277 </p>
278
279 <pre caption="Installing mirrorselect">
280 # <i>emerge --usepkg mirrorselect</i>
281 </pre>
282
283 <p>
284 Now run <c>mirrorselect</c> to automatically select mirrors for you (it will
285 also setup Portage to use a mirror for the sourcecode):
286 </p>
287
288 <pre caption="Running mirrorselect">
289 # <i>mirrorselect -a -s3</i>
290 </pre>
291
292 </body>
293 </subsection>
294 <subsection>
295 <title>Updating Portage</title>
296 <body>
297
298 <p>
299 To update Portage using rsync, simply run <c>emerge sync</c>:
300 </p>
301
302 <pre caption="Updating Portage using emerge sync">
303 # <i>emerge sync</i>
304 </pre>
305
306 <p>
307 If this fails (due to network problems, or a firewall), you can try using
308 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will download a Portage Tree snapshot using
309 <c>wget</c>. This also means that you can use proxies if you want. We discussed
310 how to setup your system to use proxies during the Gentoo installation.
311 </p>
312
313 <pre caption="Updating Portage using emerge-webrsync">
314 # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
315 </pre>
316
317 </body>
318 </subsection>
319 </section>
320 <section>
321 <title>Maintaining Software</title>
322 <subsection>
323 <title>Installing Software</title>
324 <body>
325
326 </body>
327 </subsection>
328 <subsection>
329 <title>Updating Software</title>
330 <body>
331
332 </body>
333 </subsection>
334 <subsection>
335 <title>Removing Software</title>
336 <body>
337
338 </body>
339 </subsection>
340 </section>
341 <section>
342 <title>Software Availability</title>
343 <subsection>
344 <title>ARCH or not?</title>
345 <body>
346
347 </body>
348 </subsection>
349 <subsection>
350 <title>Masked Packages</title>
351 <body>
352
353 </body>
354 </subsection>
355 <subsection>
356 <title>Blocked Packages</title>
357 <body>
358
359 </body>
360 </subsection>
361 </section>
362 </sections>

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