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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.27 2004/07/18 10:41:51 neysx Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10 <section>
11 <title>Obtaining Package Information</title>
12 <subsection>
13 <title>The Lord of All Tools: emerge</title>
14 <body>
15
16 <p>
17 The main Portage tool that most users will use is <c>emerge</c>. We have already
18 used it during the Gentoo installation and in the previous chapter, but we just
19 briefly explained how to use it. This chapter will elaborate on <c>emerge</c>
20 and teach you how to use <c>emerge</c> to fix all your software-related needs.
21 </p>
22
23 <p>
24 <c>emerge</c> is the command used to install, remove, query and maintain
25 software packages. It is a front-end for <c>ebuild</c>; people interested in
26 becoming Gentoo professionals will learn how to use <c>ebuild</c> later on. For
27 now, we will focus on <c>emerge</c> as it has functionality that <c>ebuild</c>
28 lacks (such as resolving dependencies, searching the Portage tree, etc.).
29 </p>
30
31 <p>
32 Since <c>emerge</c> is the most important tool for Gentoo users, it has an
33 extensive manpage you can read by issuing <c>man emerge</c>. You can also view
34 the in-command help by running <c>emerge --help</c>.
35 </p>
36
37 <pre caption="Retrieving help for emerge">
38 # <i>man emerge</i>
39 # <i>emerge --help</i>
40 </pre>
41
42 </body>
43 </subsection>
44 <subsection>
45 <title>The Portage Tree</title>
46 <body>
47
48 <p>
49 Before we continue describing <c>emerge</c>, let us first take a look at the
50 Portage Tree. Go to <path>/usr/portage</path> and do a listing of the available
51 directories. We use <c>ls --classify</c> to list the contents of a
52 directory as it will show directories with a trailing "/".
53 </p>
54
55 <pre caption="Viewing the Portage Tree">
56 # <i>cd /usr/portage; ls --classify</i>
57 app-admin/ dev-ml/ gnome-libs/ net-print/
58 app-arch/ dev-perl/ gnome-office/ net-wireless/
59 app-benchmarks/ dev-php/ header.txt net-www/
60 app-cdr/ dev-python/ incoming/ net-zope/
61 app-crypt/ dev-ruby/ jython/ packages/
62 app-dicts/ dev-tcltk/ kde-apps/ profiles/
63 app-doc/ dev-tex/ kde-base/ releases/
64 app-editors/ dev-util/ kde-i18n/ scripts/
65 app-emacs/ distfiles/ kde-libs/ sec-policy/
66 app-emulation/ eclass/ licenses/ skel.ChangeLog
67 app-games/ experimental/ media-fonts/ skel.ebuild
68 app-gnustep/ files/ media-gfx/ skel.metadata.xml
69 app-i18n/ fresco-base/ media-libs/ snapshots/
70 app-misc/ games-action/ media-plugins/ sys-apps/
71 app-office/ games-arcade/ media-radio/ sys-build/
72 app-pda/ games-board/ media-sound/ sys-cluster/
73 app-portage/ games-emulation/ media-tv/ sys-devel/
74 app-sci/ games-engines/ media-video/ sys-fs/
75 app-shells/ games-fps/ metadata/ sys-kernel/
76 app-text/ games-kids/ net-analyzer/ sys-kmods/
77 app-vim/ games-misc/ net-apache/ sys-libs/
78 app-xemacs/ games-mud/ net-dialup/ unix2tcp/
79 berlin-base/ games-puzzle/ net-dns/ x11-base/
80 dev-ada/ games-roguelike/ net-firewall/ x11-libs/
81 dev-cpp/ games-rpg/ net-fs/ x11-misc/
82 dev-db/ games-server/ net-ftp/ x11-plugins/
83 dev-dotnet/ games-simulation/ net-im/ x11-terms/
84 dev-embedded/ games-sports/ net-irc/ x11-themes/
85 dev-games/ games-strategy/ net-libs/ x11-wm/
86 dev-haskell/ games-util/ net-mail/ xfce-base/
87 dev-java/ glep/ net-misc/ xfce-extra/
88 dev-lang/ gnome-apps/ net-nds/
89 dev-libs/ gnome-base/ net-news/
90 dev-lisp/ gnome-extra/ net-p2p/
91 </pre>
92
93 <p>
94 As you can see, the Portage tree has several subdirectories. Most of them are
95 the <e>categories</e> in which the Gentoo packages, called <e>ebuilds</e>,
96 reside. Take a look at, for instance, <path>app-office</path>:
97 </p>
98
99 <pre caption="Viewing a category">
100 # <i>cd app-office; ls --classify</i>
101 abiword/ gnotime/ kmymoney2/ ooodi/ plan/ timestamp.x
102 dia/ gnucash/ koffice/ oooqs/ qhacc/
103 dia2code/ gnumeric/ lxbank/ openoffice/ sc/
104 facturalux/ ical/ lyx/ openoffice-bin/ scribus/
105 gaby/ kbudget/ mdbtools/ openoffice-ximian/ siag/
106 gnofin/ khacc/ mrproject/ phprojekt/ texmacs/
107 </pre>
108
109 <p>
110 Inside a category you will find the packages belonging to that category, with a
111 separate directory for each package. Let us take a look at the <c>openoffice</c>
112 package:
113 </p>
114
115 <pre caption="Viewing a package">
116 # <i>cd openoffice; ls --classify</i>
117 ChangeLog files/ openoffice-1.0.3-r1.ebuild openoffice-1.1.0-r2.ebuild
118 Manifest metadata.xml openoffice-1.1.0-r1.ebuild openoffice-1.1.0.ebuild
119 </pre>
120
121 <p>
122 Remember that we told you that a Gentoo package is called an ebuild? Well, in
123 the example directory, four of such ebuilds are stored. Their naming is
124 almost identical; they only differ in the version name.
125 You are free to view the contents of such a package: they are plain scripts. We
126 will not discuss it right now as it isn't important to know if you plan on just
127 using Gentoo.
128 </p>
129
130 <p>
131 The other files are the <path>ChangeLog</path> (which contains a listing of all
132 the changes done to the ebuilds), <path>Manifest</path> (which contains the
133 checksums and filesizes of all the files in the directory) and
134 <path>metadata.xml</path> (which contains more information about the package,
135 such as the responsible development group -- called <e>herd</e> -- and a more
136 extensive description).
137 </p>
138
139 <p>
140 Inside the <path>files</path> directory, you will find extra files, needed by
141 Portage: digests (checksums and permissions of the files needed by a single
142 version of the package), patches, example configuration files, etc.
143 </p>
144
145 <pre caption="Viewing the extra files">
146 # <i>cd files; ls --classify</i>
147 1.0.3/ digest-openoffice-1.0.3-r1 digest-openoffice-1.1.0-r1
148 1.1.0/ digest-openoffice-1.1.0 digest-openoffice-1.1.0-r2
149 # <i>cd 1.1.0; ls --classify</i>
150 fixed-gcc.patch ooffice-wrapper-1.3
151 newstlportfix.patch openoffice-1.1.0-linux-2.6-fix.patch
152 no-mozab.patch openoffice-1.1.0-sparc64-fix.patch
153 nptl.patch
154 </pre>
155
156 <p>
157 If you go back to the root of the Portage tree (<path>/usr/portage</path>) you
158 will notice that there are other, non-category directories, too. We will discuss
159 those later in this chapter.
160 </p>
161
162 </body>
163 </subsection>
164 <subsection>
165 <title>Search for a Package</title>
166 <body>
167
168 <p>
169 If you are new to Linux or Gentoo, you might not know what tool you need for
170 what job. To facilitate searching, <c>emerge</c> provides you with a way to
171 search through the available packages on your system. There are two ways you can
172 search through packages: by <e>name</e>, or by <e>name</e> and
173 <e>description</e>.
174 </p>
175
176 <p>
177 To search through the Portage tree by name, use <c>emerge search</c>. For
178 instance, to find out more about <c>mozilla</c>:
179 </p>
180
181 <pre caption="Showing information about mozilla">
182 # <i>emerge search mozilla</i>
183 Searching...
184 [ Results for search key : mozilla ]
185 [ Applications found : 5 ]
186 <comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
187 * net-www/mozilla
188 Latest version available: 1.5-r1
189 Latest version installed: 1.4-r3
190 Size of downloaded files: 29,153 kB
191 Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org
192 Description: The Mozilla Web Browser
193
194 * net-www/mozilla-firebird
195 Latest version available: 0.7
196 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
197 Size of downloaded files: 37,850 kB
198 Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org/projects/firebird/
199 Description: The Mozilla Firebird Web Browser
200 <comment>(...)</comment>
201 </pre>
202
203 <p>
204 If you want to include a search through the descriptions too, use the
205 <c>--searchdesc</c> argument:
206 </p>
207
208 <pre caption="Search through the descriptions too">
209 # <i>emerge --searchdesc mozilla</i>
210 Searching...
211 [ Results for search key : mozilla ]
212 [ Applications found : 10 ]
213 <comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
214 * dev-libs/nss-3.8
215 Latest version available: 3.8
216 Latest version installed: 3.8
217 Size of downloaded files: 2,782 kB
218 Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org/projects/security/pki/nss/
219 Description: Mozilla's Netscape Security Services Library that implements PKI support
220 </pre>
221
222 <p>
223 As you can see, the output of <c>emerge</c> informs you about the category and
224 name of the package, the available version, the currently installed version,
225 the size of the downloaded files, the homepage and the small description.
226 </p>
227
228 <p>
229 You see something new? Yes, <e>downloaded files</e>. When you tell Portage to
230 install a package, it of course needs to have the necessary sources (or
231 precompiled packages) available. It therefore checks the contents of
232 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> (for source code) or
233 <path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> (for precompiled packages) to see if the
234 necessary files are already available. If not, it downloads the necessary files
235 and places them in those directories.
236 </p>
237
238 <!--
239 <note>
240 Searching the Portage Tree, especially when using <c>- -searchdesc</c>, is very
241 time consuming. There are other, best performing tools available. We will
242 describe those in the chapter on <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=7">Gentoolkit and
243 Other Tools</uri>.
244 </note>
245 -->
246
247 </body>
248 </subsection>
249 <subsection>
250 <title>Viewing the ChangeLog</title>
251 <body>
252
253 <p>
254 While browsing through the Portage Tree, you saw that there was a ChangeLog for
255 each package. You can view the ChangeLog entries between the available version
256 and the installed version with <c>emerge</c> too. Use the
257 <c>--pretend --changelog</c> (<c>-pl</c> in short) options. As an example we
258 will view the ChangeLog entries for <c>gnumeric</c>:
259 </p>
260
261 <pre caption="Viewing the ChangeLog entries for gnumeric">
262 # <i>emerge --pretend --changelog gnumeric</i>
263 <comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
264 *gnumeric-1.2.2
265
266 27 Nov 2003; foser &lt;foser@gentoo.org&gt; gnumeric-1.2.2.ebuild :
267 New release, requested in #34492
268 updated deps
269
270 12 Nov 2003; Jason Wever &lt;weeve@gentoo.org&gt; gnumeric-1.2.0.ebuild:
271 Marked stable on sparc, fixes bug #32405.
272
273 14 Oct 2003; Jason Wever &lt;weeve@gentoo.org&gt; gnumeric-1.0.8.ebuild:
274 Added ~sparc keyword. Fixes bug #31150.
275 </pre>
276
277 </body>
278 </subsection>
279 </section>
280 <section>
281 <title>Updating Portage</title>
282 <subsection>
283 <title>Introduction</title>
284 <body>
285
286 <p>
287 Searching through Portage is nice, but if you don't update your Portage Tree
288 regularly, you will be stuck with the packages and versions available on your
289 system. This means that your system will get outdated pretty soon and that
290 you will be missing bugfixes and remedies for possible security problems.
291 </p>
292
293 <p>
294 There are several ways to update your Portage Tree. The most popular method is
295 by using one of our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">rsync mirrors</uri>.
296 Another one is by using a Portage snapshot (in case a firewall or unavailability
297 of a network prohibits the use of the rsync server).
298 </p>
299
300 </body>
301 </subsection>
302 <subsection>
303 <title>Selecting a Mirror for rsync</title>
304 <body>
305
306 <p>
307 It is adviseable to first select a fast <uri
308 link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror</uri> close to you. You can do this manually
309 (by setting the <c>SYNC</c> variable in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>) or use
310 <c>mirrorselect</c> to do this for you automatically. As the <c>SYNC</c>
311 variable will be discussed later on, we will focus on using <c>mirrorselect</c>.
312 First install <c>mirrorselect</c> by emerging it:
313 </p>
314
315 <pre caption="Installing mirrorselect">
316 # <i>emerge --usepkg mirrorselect</i>
317 </pre>
318
319 <p>
320 Now run <c>mirrorselect</c> to automatically select mirrors for you (it will
321 also setup Portage to use a mirror for the source code):
322 </p>
323
324 <pre caption="Running mirrorselect">
325 # <i>mirrorselect -a -s3</i>
326 </pre>
327
328 </body>
329 </subsection>
330 <subsection>
331 <title>Updating Portage</title>
332 <body>
333
334 <p>
335 To update Portage using rsync, simply run <c>emerge sync</c>:
336 </p>
337
338 <pre caption="Updating Portage using emerge sync">
339 # <i>emerge sync</i>
340 </pre>
341
342 <p>
343 If this fails (due to network problems, or a firewall), you can try using
344 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will download a Portage Tree snapshot using
345 <c>wget</c>. This also means that you can use proxies if you want. We discussed
346 how to setup your system to use proxies during the Gentoo installation.
347 </p>
348
349 <pre caption="Updating Portage using emerge-webrsync">
350 # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
351 </pre>
352
353 </body>
354 </subsection>
355 </section>
356 <section>
357 <title>Maintaining Software</title>
358 <subsection>
359 <title>Building or Prebuilt?</title>
360 <body>
361
362 <p>
363 Gentoo provides ebuilds, the Gentoo packages if you like. But when you want to
364 install such an ebuild, you can choose between <e>building</e> the package and
365 using a <e>prebuilt</e> package. But what are the advantages/disadvantages of
366 both approaches, and can they be used next to each other?
367 </p>
368
369 <p>
370 As you probably have guessed, building packages takes a lot of time (especially
371 if you have little resources or want to build big packages, such as <uri
372 link="http://www.kde.org">KDE</uri>, <uri
373 link="http://www.openoffice.org">OpenOffice.org</uri>, etc.). By building the
374 package, you can use the <c>USE</c> setting to tweak the package to your system.
375 Of course, you can also define high optimization options (in the <c>CFLAGS</c>
376 and <c>CXXFLAGS</c> variables) to compile the package with.
377 </p>
378
379 <p>
380 Using prebuilt packages improves the installation time (as no more compilation
381 is needed), but you will lose the advantages of the <c>USE</c> setting and the
382 <c>CFLAGS</c> &amp; <c>CXXFLAGS</c> variables.
383 </p>
384
385 <p>
386 As previously stated, prebuilt packages are stored in the
387 <path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> directory, while the source code of the
388 packages is placed in <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. If you have finished
389 installing a package you can remove the package or source code from the
390 respective directory. However, you might want to keep the package/source code of
391 the latest version, just in case you want to reinstall the package (so you don't
392 have to redownload it).
393 </p>
394
395 </body>
396 </subsection>
397 <subsection>
398 <title>Installing Software from Sources</title>
399 <body>
400
401 <p>
402 Okay, enough talking, let's cut to the chase. To install a package, you will use
403 the <c>emerge</c> command. If you don't want to use any prebuilt packages, you
404 can just use <c>emerge &lt;package-name&gt;</c> or <c>emerge
405 &lt;category&gt;/&lt;package-name&gt;</c>. As an example we'll install
406 <c>gnumeric</c>:
407 </p>
408
409 <pre caption="Building gnumeric">
410 # <i>emerge gnumeric</i>
411 </pre>
412
413 <p>
414 This will download the source code for you and unpacks, compiles and installs
415 the package on your system. It will also do the same for all the dependencies.
416 If you want to see what dependencies will be installed with it, use the
417 <c>--pretend</c> option (<c>-p</c> in short):
418 </p>
419
420 <pre caption="Pretending to build gnumeric">
421 # <i>emerge --pretend gnumeric</i>
422 </pre>
423
424 <p>
425 If you want to download the source code of the package and its dependencies,
426 but don't want to build the package, use the <c>--fetchonly</c> option
427 (<c>-f</c> in short):
428 </p>
429
430 <pre caption="Fetching sources for gnumeric">
431 # <i>emerge --fetchonly gnumeric</i>
432 </pre>
433
434 <p>
435 If you want to see where <c>emerge</c> downloads the sources from, combine the
436 <c>--fetchonly</c> and <c>--pretend</c> options:
437 </p>
438
439 <pre caption="Showing URLs of the sources for gnumeric">
440 # <i>emerge --fetchonly --pretend gnumeric</i>
441 </pre>
442
443 <p>
444 You can also opt to install a specific version of a package.
445 For instance, if you want to install a gnumeric version older than 1.2 -- for
446 any reason whatsoever :) you would type:
447 </p>
448
449 <pre caption="Installing a specific gnumeric version">
450 # <i>emerge "&lt;gnumeric-1.2"</i>
451 </pre>
452
453 <p>
454 Other possibilities are of course "&gt;" (later version) and "=" (the exact
455 version).
456 </p>
457
458 </body>
459 </subsection>
460 <subsection>
461 <title>Installing Prebuilt Packages</title>
462 <body>
463
464 <p>
465 When you want to install a prebuilt package, you should use the <c>--usepkg</c>
466 option (<c>-k</c> in short). This will use the binary package available in
467 <path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> <e>if</e> the package and the version of
468 the application you want to install match.
469 </p>
470
471 <pre caption="Installing a prebuilt package for gnumeric">
472 # <i>emerge --usepkg gnumeric</i>
473 </pre>
474
475 <p>
476 If you want to use the binary package, even if the versions don't match, use
477 <c>--usepkgonly</c> (<c>-K</c> in short).
478 </p>
479
480 <pre caption="Installing the prebuilt package for gnumeric">
481 # <i>emerge --usepkgonly gnumeric</i>
482 </pre>
483
484 <p>
485 If you don't have the prebuilt package on your system yet, you can have
486 <c>emerge</c> download it from a mirror, defined in the <c>PORTAGE_BINHOST</c>
487 variable declared in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>.
488 </p>
489
490 <p>
491 To download the binary package in case this package doesn't exist on
492 your system already, use <c>--getbinpkg</c> (<c>-g</c> in short):
493 </p>
494
495 <pre caption="Downloading and installing a prebuilt package for gnumeric">
496 # <i>emerge --getbinpkg gnumeric</i>
497 </pre>
498
499 <p>
500 This will download the package and the package-related information for you and
501 install it on your system, together with the dependencies. If you want to see
502 what dependencies will be installed with it, use the <c>--pretend</c> option
503 (<c>-p</c> in short):
504 </p>
505
506 <pre caption="Pretending to download the prebuilt packages for gnumeric">
507 # <i>emerge --getbinpkg --pretend gnumeric</i>
508 </pre>
509
510 <p>
511 You can also opt to download the prebuilt package (and the package-related
512 information) <e>without</e> checking the information on your local system and
513 <e>without</e> using the prebuilt package already on your system (if
514 applicable), use the <c>--getbinpkgonly</c> option (<c>-G</c> in short):
515 </p>
516
517 <pre caption="Installing a prebuilt package without using local information">
518 # <i>emerge --getbinpkgonly gnumeric</i>
519 </pre>
520
521 <p>
522 You can also opt to install a specific version of a package.
523 For instance, if you want to install a gnumeric version older than 1.2 -- for
524 any reason whatsoever :) you would type:
525 </p>
526
527 <pre caption="Installing a specific gnumeric version">
528 # <i>emerge --usepkg "&lt;gnumeric-1.2"</i>
529 </pre>
530
531 <p>
532 Other possibilities are of course "&gt;" (later version) and "=" (the exact
533 version).
534 </p>
535
536
537 </body>
538 </subsection>
539 <subsection>
540 <title>Working with Dependencies</title>
541 <body>
542
543 <p>
544 Portage has an extensive support for dependency handling. Although you usually
545 don't need to even think about this (as dependencies are automatically handled
546 by Portage) some users might want to know how you can work with <c>emerge</c>
547 and dependencies.
548 </p>
549
550 <p>
551 For instance, if you want Portage to pretend that none of the dependencies of a
552 package are installed, you can use <c>--emptytree</c> (<c>-e</c> in short). This
553 is useful with <c>--pretend</c> to display a complete tree of dependencies for
554 any particular package. Without <c>--pretend</c>, <c>emerge</c> will (re)compile
555 all listed packages.
556 </p>
557
558 <pre caption="Show all dependencies of gnumeric">
559 # <i>emerge --emptytree --pretend gnumeric</i>
560 </pre>
561
562 <p>
563 Another argument is <c>--nodeps</c>, which will ask Portage to try install the
564 given package without taking care of the dependencies. It is trivial that this
565 can lead to failures.
566 </p>
567
568 <pre caption="Installing gnumeric without taking care of the dependencies">
569 # <i>emerge --nodeps gnumeric</i>
570 </pre>
571
572 <p>
573 The opposite of <c>--nodeps</c> is <c>--onlydeps</c>, which will have Portage
574 install all dependencies of a given package, but not the package itself:
575 </p>
576
577 <pre caption="Installing the dependencies of gnumeric">
578 # <i>emerge --onlydeps gnumeric</i>
579 </pre>
580
581 </body>
582 </subsection>
583 <subsection>
584 <title>Updating your System</title>
585 <body>
586
587 <p>
588 Portage knows two special tags to denote a set of software packages:
589 <e>system</e> and <e>world</e>. You have already seen the former while
590 installing Gentoo if you didn't use a <e>stage3</e> installation. To refresh
591 things: <e>system</e> is the collection of <e>core</e> packages, necessary to
592 have a working Gentoo system.
593 </p>
594
595 <p>
596 The <e>world</e> tag consists of all software you have installed yourself on
597 your system plus the <e>system</e> information. In other words, every time you
598 emerge a package using <c>emerge &lt;package-name&gt;</c>, the
599 <c>&lt;package-name&gt;</c> is registered in the <e>world</e> file
600 (<path>/var/cache/edb/world</path>). Dependencies are <e>not</e> part of the
601 <e>world</e> file, but we will get to that later.
602 </p>
603
604 <p>
605 If you want to update the system packages, use the <c>--update</c> option
606 (<c>-u</c> in short):
607 </p>
608
609 <pre caption="Updating the system packages">
610 # <i>emerge --update system</i>
611 </pre>
612
613 <p>
614 An identical approach can be used for the world packages:
615 </p>
616
617 <pre caption="Updating your entire system">
618 # <i>emerge --update world</i>
619 </pre>
620
621 <p>
622 Again, if you want to see what <c>emerge</c> wants to update, use the
623 <c>--pretend</c> option together with the <c>--update</c> option:
624 </p>
625
626 <pre caption="Pretending to update your entire system">
627 # <i>emerge --pretend --update world</i>
628 <comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
629 [ebuild U ] net-misc/wget-1.9-r1 [1.9]
630 [ebuild UD] media-video/dvdauthor-0.5.0 [0.5.3]
631 [ebuild U ] net-analyzer/ethereal-0.9.16 [0.9.14]
632 </pre>
633
634 <p>
635 Right next to the word "ebuild" you will notice a letter (or combination of
636 letters) which gives you more information about the package:
637 </p>
638
639 <ul>
640 <li>
641 <e>B</e> (blocks) The package listed to the left is blocking the emerge of
642 the package listed to the right
643 </li>
644 <li>
645 <e>N</e> (new) The package is new to your system and will be emerged for the
646 first time
647 </li>
648 <li>
649 <e>R</e> (reemerge) The package isn't new, but needs to be reemerged
650 </li>
651 <li>
652 <e>F</e> (fetch) The package requires that you download the source code
653 manually (for instance due to licencing issues)
654 </li>
655 <li>
656 <e>U</e> (update) The package already exists on your system but will be
657 upgraded
658 </li>
659 <li>
660 <e>UD</e> (downgrade) The package already exists on your system but will be
661 downgraded
662 </li>
663 <li>
664 <e>U-</e> (slot warning) The package you have installed on your system
665 is listed as a package that can not coexist with a different version, but
666 your update does. The update will be installed and the older version will be
667 removed.
668 </li>
669 </ul>
670
671 <p>
672 In certain cases, an update may mean a downgrade (i.e. install an older version
673 instead of a newer version). If you don't want this to happen, use the
674 <c>--upgradeonly</c> option (<c>-U</c> in short):
675 </p>
676
677 <pre caption="Upgrading your entire system">
678 # <i>emerge --update --upgradeonly world</i>
679 </pre>
680
681 <p>
682 We have mentioned that the <e>world</e> file doesn't contain dependencies. When
683 you run <c>emerge --update world</c> only the packages mentioned in the
684 <e>world</e> file and it's immediate dependencies are checked and, if necessary,
685 upgraded. If you want <c>emerge</c> to check <e>all</e> the dependencies
686 (including the dependencies of the dependencies), add the <c>--deep</c> flag:
687 </p>
688
689 <pre caption="Upgrading your entire system, including all dependencies">
690 # <i>emerge --update --deep world</i>
691 </pre>
692
693 <p>
694 Of course, we are talking here about <e>system</e> and <e>world</e>, but you can
695 perform the same actions for individual software packages.
696 </p>
697
698 </body>
699 </subsection>
700 <subsection>
701 <title>Removing Software</title>
702 <body>
703
704 <p>
705 If you want to remove software from your system, you can use the <c>unmerge</c>
706 option (<c>-C</c> - capital C - in short):
707 </p>
708
709 <pre caption="Uninstalling software">
710 # <i>emerge unmerge gnumeric</i>
711 </pre>
712
713 <p>
714 If you want to test a removal (but not perform it), you can use <c>--pretend</c>
715 again:
716 </p>
717
718 <pre caption="Pretending to uninstall software">
719 # <i>emerge --pretend unmerge gnumeric</i>
720 </pre>
721
722 <warn>
723 Portage doesn't verify if a package is a dependency for another
724 installed package. It also doesn't warn you if the package is part of
725 <e>system</e>, i.e. a core application necessary for the correct functioning of
726 your system!
727 </warn>
728
729 <p>
730 Once the unmerge begins you will see a long list of filenames belonging to the
731 package. Some of these filenames will have a flag displayed to the
732 left of the filename. The flags <c>!mtime</c>, <c>!empty</c>, and <c>cfgpro</c>
733 specify reasons why certain files are not being removed while the package is.
734 Files listed without any of these three flags are removed from the
735 filesystem successfully. The three flags specify the following reasons:
736 </p>
737
738 <ul>
739 <li>
740 <c>!mtime</c> : The listed file has been changed since it was installed,
741 probably by you or some tool
742 </li>
743 <li>
744 <c>!empty</c> : The listed directory is not empty
745 </li>
746 <li>
747 <c>cfgpro</c> : This file is located inside a protected directory and will
748 not be touched for safety
749 </li>
750 </ul>
751
752 </body>
753 </subsection>
754 </section>
755 <section>
756 <title>Software Availability</title>
757 <subsection>
758 <title>ARCH or not?</title>
759 <body>
760
761 <p>
762 Gentoo places its packages in two possible stadia called <e>ARCH</e> and
763 <e>~ARCH</e>. Don't take this literally: the stadia depend on the architecture
764 you are using. In other words, for x86-based systems you have <e>x86</e> and
765 <e>~x86</e>, for ppc-based systems you have <e>ppc</e> and <e>~ppc</e> etc.
766 </p>
767
768 <p>
769 The <e>~ARCH</e> stadium means that the package works for the developer in
770 charge of the package, but that the package hasn't been tested thoroughly enough
771 by the community to be placed in <e>ARCH</e>. <e>~ARCH</e> packages usually go
772 to <e>ARCH</e> after being bugfree for a sufficient amount of time.
773 </p>
774
775 <p>
776 Your system will use <e>ARCH</e> packages per default. If you want to live on
777 the edge, don't mind having a broken package once in a while, know how to deal
778 with a broken system and you like submitting bugreports to <uri
779 link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugs.gentoo.org</uri>, then you can opt to use
780 <e>~ARCH</e> packages. To "move" your system to a <e>~ARCH</e>-using system,
781 edit the <c>ACCEPT_KEYWORDS</c> variable in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so that
782 it reads <e>~ARCH</e> (again: for x86-based systems: <e>~x86</e>, etc.).
783 </p>
784
785 <p>
786 Note though that it is far from trivial (if even impossible) to go back to
787 <e>ARCH</e> from <e>~ARCH</e>.
788 </p>
789
790 <p>
791 If you want to update your system now, you will notice that <e>a lot</e> of
792 packages will be updated!
793 </p>
794
795 </body>
796 </subsection>
797 <subsection>
798 <title>Masked Packages</title>
799 <body>
800
801 <p>
802 When you want to install a package, you might come across the following message:
803 </p>
804
805 <pre caption="Message about masked packages">
806 Calculating dependencies
807 !!! <comment>all ebuilds that could satisfy </comment>&lt;your package&gt;<comment> have been masked.</comment>
808 </pre>
809
810 <p>
811 A package can be masked due to two reasons:
812 </p>
813
814 <ol>
815 <li>The package is in <e>~ARCH</e> while you use <e>ARCH</e></li>
816 <li>The package is hard-masked explicitly</li>
817 </ol>
818
819 <p>
820 If the package is masked because of the first reason, and you <e>really</e>
821 want to install it (knowing that there <e>is</e> a reason why it isn't
822 available in <e>ARCH</e>), you can accept the <e>~ARCH</e> version of any
823 package by adding it to your <path>/etc/portage/package.keywords</path> file:
824 </p>
825
826 <pre caption="Accepting the ~ARCH version of a package">
827 # <i>echo "app-office/gnumeric ~x86" &gt;&gt; /etc/portage/package.keywords</i>
828 # <i>emerge gnumeric</i>
829 </pre>
830
831 <p>
832 A package is hardmasked if it is listed in
833 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path>. If you read this file, you
834 will also read the reason why the package is hardmasked (it is usually added as
835 a comment). If you want to install the package nevertheless (despite all the
836 possible warnings we could ever throw at your head about "breaking your system",
837 "breaks other packages", or "badly needs testing"), create the
838 <path>/etc/portage/package.unmask</path> file and list the package in it (use
839 the same format as is used in <path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path>).
840 </p>
841
842 <p>
843 Do <e>not</e> alter the <path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path> file as
844 all changes are undone the next time you update your Portage tree. If you want
845 to hardmask a package create <path>/etc/portage/package.mask</path> and list the
846 package in it (use the same format as mentioned above).
847 </p>
848
849 <!--
850 <p>
851 Another trick to circumvent the "masked package" problem is to install the
852 package using the full path. This will ignore both the <c>ACCEPT_KEYWORD</c>
853 settings and the <path>package.mask</path> listing.
854 </p>
855
856 <pre caption="Installing a package without checking for stadium / masking">
857 # <i>emerge /usr/portage/app-office/gnumeric/gnumeric-1.2.0.ebuild</i>
858 </pre>
859 -->
860
861 </body>
862 </subsection>
863 <subsection>
864 <title>Blocked Packages</title>
865 <body>
866
867 <p>
868 You have a situation when you receive the following error on your screen:
869 </p>
870
871 <pre caption="Blocking package">
872 [blocks B ] gnome-base/bonobo-activation (from pkg gnome-base/libbonobo-2.4.0)
873 </pre>
874
875 <p>
876 In the above example, the package <c>bonobo-activation</c> is blocking the
877 emerge of <c>libbonobo</c>. To resolve this issue, remove the
878 <c>bonobo-activation</c> package and continue:
879 </p>
880
881 <pre caption="Resolving a blocking situation">
882 # <i>emerge unmerge bonobo-activation</i>
883 </pre>
884
885 </body>
886 </subsection>
887 </section>
888 </sections>

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