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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.46 2004/12/18 15:12:22 neysx Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>1.43</version>
12 <date>2005-01-22</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Welcome to Portage</title>
16 <body>
17
18 <p>
19 Portage is probably Gentoo's most notable innovation in software management.
20 With its high flexibility and enormous amount of features it is frequently seen
21 as the best software management tool available for Linux.
22 </p>
23
24 <p>
25 Portage is completely written in <uri link="http://www.python.org">Python</uri>
26 and <uri link="http://www.gnu.org/software/bash">Bash</uri> and therefore fully
27 visible to the users as both are scripting languages.
28 </p>
29
30 <p>
31 Most users will work with Portage through the <c>emerge</c> tool. This chapter
32 is not meant to duplicate the information available from the emerge man page.
33 For a complete rundown of emerge's options, please consult the man page:
34 </p>
35
36 <pre caption="Reading the emerge man page">
37 $ <i>man emerge</i>
38 </pre>
39
40 </body>
41 </section>
42 <section>
43 <title>The Portage Tree</title>
44 <subsection>
45 <title>Ebuilds</title>
46 <body>
47
48 <p>
49 When we talk about packages, we often mean software titles that are available to
50 the Gentoo users through the Portage tree. The Portage tree is a collection of
51 <e>ebuilds</e>, files that contain all information Portage needs to maintain
52 software (install, search, query, ...). These ebuilds reside in
53 <path>/usr/portage</path> by default.
54 </p>
55
56 <p>
57 Whenever you ask Portage to perform some action regarding software titles, it
58 will use the ebuilds on your system as a base. It is therefore important that
59 you regularly update the ebuilds on your system so Portage knows about new
60 software, security updates, etc.
61 </p>
62
63 </body>
64 </subsection>
65 <subsection>
66 <title>Updating the Portage Tree</title>
67 <body>
68
69 <p>
70 The Portage tree is usually updated with <uri
71 link="http://rsync.gentoo.org">rsync</uri>, a fast incremental file transfer
72 utility. Updating is fairly simple as the <c>emerge</c> command provides a
73 front-end for rsync:
74 </p>
75
76 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
77 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
78 </pre>
79
80 <p>
81 If you are unable to rsync due to firewall restrictions you can still update
82 your Portage tree by using our daily generated Portage tree snapshots. The
83 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> tool automatically fetches and installs the latest
84 snapshot on your system:
85 </p>
86
87 <pre caption="Running emerge-webrsync">
88 # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
89 </pre>
90
91 </body>
92 </subsection>
93 </section>
94 <section>
95 <title>Maintaining Software</title>
96 <subsection>
97 <title>Searching for Software</title>
98 <body>
99
100 <p>
101 To search through the Portage tree after software titles, you can use
102 <c>emerge</c> built-in search capabilities. By default, <c>emerge --search</c>
103 returns the names of packages whose title matches (either fully or partially)
104 the given search term.
105 </p>
106
107 <p>
108 For instance, to search for all packages who have "pdf" in their name:
109 </p>
110
111 <pre caption="Searching for pdf-named packages">
112 $ <i>emerge --search pdf</i>
113 </pre>
114
115 <p>
116 If you want to search through the descriptions as well you can use the
117 <c>--searchdesc</c> (or <c>-S</c>) switch:
118 </p>
119
120 <pre caption="Searching for pdf-related packages">
121 $ <i>emerge --searchdesc pdf</i>
122 </pre>
123
124 <p>
125 When you take a look at the output, you'll notice that it gives you a lot of
126 information. The fields are clearly labelled so we won't go further into their
127 meanings:
128 </p>
129
130 <pre caption="Example emerge --search output">
131 * net-print/cups-pdf
132 Latest version available: 1.5.2
133 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
134 Size of downloaded files: 15 kB
135 Homepage: http://cip.physik.uni-wuerzburg.de/~vrbehr/cups-pdf/
136 Description: Provides a virtual printer for CUPS to produce PDF files.
137 License: GPL-2
138 </pre>
139
140 </body>
141 </subsection>
142 <subsection>
143 <title>Installing Software</title>
144 <body>
145
146 <p>
147 Once you've found a software title to your liking, you can easily install it
148 with <c>emerge</c>: just add the package name. For instance, to install
149 <c>gnumeric</c>:
150 </p>
151
152 <pre caption="Installing gnumeric">
153 # <i>emerge gnumeric</i>
154 </pre>
155
156 <p>
157 Since many applications depend on each other, any attempt to install a certain
158 software package might result in the installation of several dependencies as
159 well. Don't worry, Portage handles dependencies well. If you want to find out
160 what Portage <e>would</e> install when you ask it to install a certain package,
161 add the <c>--pretend</c> switch. For instance:
162 </p>
163
164 <pre caption="Pretend to install gnumeric">
165 # <i>emerge --pretend gnumeric</i>
166 </pre>
167
168 <p>
169 When you ask Portage to install a package, it will download the necessary source
170 code from the internet (if necessary) and store it by default in
171 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. After this it will unpack, compile and
172 install the package. If you want Portage to only download the sources without
173 installing them, add the <c>--fetchonly</c> option to the <c>emerge</c> command:
174 </p>
175
176 <pre caption="Download the sourcecode for gnumeric">
177 # <i>emerge --fetchonly gnumeric</i>
178 </pre>
179
180 </body>
181 </subsection>
182 <subsection>
183 <title>Removing Software</title>
184 <body>
185
186 <p>
187 When you want to remove a software package from your system, use <c>emerge
188 --unmerge</c>. This will tell Portage to remove all files installed by that
189 package from your system <e>except</e> the configuration files of that
190 application if you have altered those after the installation. Leaving the
191 configuration files allows you to continue working with the package if you ever
192 decide to install it again.
193 </p>
194
195 <p>
196 However, a <brite>big warning</brite> applies: Portage will <e>not</e> check if
197 the package you want to remove is required by another package. It will however
198 warn you when you want to remove an important package that breaks your system
199 if you unmerge it.
200 </p>
201
202 <pre caption="Removing gnumeric from the system">
203 # <i>emerge --unmerge gnumeric</i>
204 </pre>
205
206 <p>
207 When you remove a package from your system, the dependencies of that package
208 that were installed automatically when you installed the software are left. To
209 have Portage locate all dependencies that can now be removed, use
210 <c>emerge</c>'s <c>--depclean</c> functionality. We will talk about this later
211 on.
212 </p>
213
214 </body>
215 </subsection>
216 <subsection>
217 <title>Updating your System</title>
218 <body>
219
220 <p>
221 To keep your system in perfect shape (and not to mention install the latest
222 security updates) you need to update your system regularly. Since Portage only
223 checks the ebuilds in your Portage tree you first have to update your Portage
224 tree. When your Portage tree is updated, you can update your system with
225 <c>emerge --update world</c>:
226 </p>
227
228 <pre caption="Updating your system">
229 # <i>emerge --update world</i>
230 </pre>
231
232 <p>
233 Portage will then search for newer version of the applications you have
234 installed. However, it will only verify the versions for the applications you
235 have explicitly installed - not the dependencies. If you want to update every
236 single package on your system, add the <c>--deep</c> argument:
237 </p>
238
239 <pre caption="Updating your entire system">
240 # <i>emerge --update --deep world</i>
241 </pre>
242
243 <p>
244 If you have altered any of your <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>
245 lately you might want to add <c>--newuse</c> as well. Portage will then verify
246 if the change requires the installation of new packages or recompilation of
247 existing ones:
248 </p>
249
250 <pre caption="Performing a full update">
251 # <i>emerge --update --deep --newuse world</i>
252 </pre>
253
254 </body>
255 </subsection>
256 <subsection>
257 <title>Stub Packages</title>
258 <body>
259
260 <p>
261 Some packages in the Portage tree don't have any real content but are used to
262 install a collection of packages. For instance, the <c>kde</c> package will
263 install a complete KDE environment on your system by pulling in various
264 KDE-related packages as dependencies.
265 </p>
266
267 <p>
268 If you ever want to remove such a package from your system, running <c>emerge
269 --unmerge</c> on the package won't have much effect as the dependencies remain
270 on the system.
271 </p>
272
273 <p>
274 Portage has the functionality to remove orphaned dependencies as well, but since
275 the availability of software is dynamically dependent you first need to update
276 your entire system fully, including the new changes you applied when changing
277 USE flags. After this you can run <c>emerge --depclean</c> to remove the
278 orphaned dependencies. When this is done, you need to rebuild the applications
279 that were dynamically linked to the now-removed software titles but don't
280 require them anymore.
281 </p>
282
283 <p>
284 All this is handled with the following three commands:
285 </p>
286
287 <pre caption="Removing orphaned dependencies">
288 # <i>emerge --update --deep --newuse world</i>
289 # <i>emerge --depclean</i>
290 # <i>revdep-rebuild</i>
291 </pre>
292
293 <p>
294 <c>revdep-rebuild</c> is provided by the <c>gentoolkit</c> package; don't forget
295 to emerge it first:
296 </p>
297
298 <pre caption="Installing the gentoolkit package">
299 # <i>emerge gentoolkit</i>
300 </pre>
301
302 </body>
303 </subsection>
304 </section>
305 <section>
306 <title>When Portage is Complaining...</title>
307 <subsection>
308 <title>About SLOTs, Virtuals, Branches, Architectures and Profiles</title>
309 <body>
310
311 <p>
312 As we stated before, Portage is extremely powerful and supports many features
313 that other software management tools lack. To understand this, we explain a few
314 aspects of Portage without going into too much detail.
315 </p>
316
317 <p>
318 With Portage different versions of a single package can coexist on a system.
319 While other distributions tend to name their package to those versions (like
320 <c>freetype</c> and <c>freetype2</c>) Portage uses a technology called
321 <e>SLOT</e>s. An ebuild declares a certain SLOT for its version. Ebuilds with
322 different SLOTs can coexist on the same system. For instance, the
323 <c>freetype</c> package has ebuilds with <c>SLOT="1"</c> and <c>SLOT="2"</c>.
324 </p>
325
326 <p>
327 There are also packages that provide the same functionality but are implemented
328 differently. For instance, <c>metalogd</c>, <c>sysklogd</c> and <c>syslog-ng</c>
329 are all system loggers. Applications that rely on the availability of "a system
330 logger" cannot depend on, for instance, <c>metalogd</c>, as the other system
331 loggers are as good a choice as any. Portage allows for <e>virtuals</e>: each
332 system logger provides <c>virtual/syslog</c> so that applications can depend on
333 <c>virtual/syslog</c>.
334 </p>
335
336 <p>
337 Software in the Portage tree can reside in different branches. By default your
338 system only accepts packages that Gentoo deems stable. Most new software titles,
339 when committed, are added to the testing branch, meaning more testing needs to
340 be done before it is marked as stable. Although you will see the ebuilds for
341 those software in the Portage tree, Portage will not update them before they are
342 placed in the stable branch.
343 </p>
344
345 <p>
346 Some software is only available for a few architectures. Or the software doesn't
347 work on the other architectures, or it needs more testing, or the developer that
348 committed the software to the Portage tree is unable to verify if the package
349 works on different architectures.
350 </p>
351
352 <p>
353 Each Gentoo installation adheres to a certain <c>profile</c> which contains,
354 amongst other information, the list of packages that are required for a system
355 to function normally.
356 </p>
357
358 </body>
359 </subsection>
360 <subsection id="blocked">
361 <title>Blocked Packages</title>
362 <body>
363
364 <pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (with --pretend)">
365 [blocks B ] gnome-base/bonobo-activation (from pkg gnome-base/libbonobo-2.4.0)
366 </pre>
367
368 <pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (without --pretend)">
369 !!! Error: the gnome-base/bonobo-activation package conflicts with another package.
370 !!! both can't be installed on the same system together.
371 !!! Please use 'emerge --pretend' to determine blockers.
372 </pre>
373
374 <p>
375 Ebuilds contain specific fields that inform Portage about its dependencies.
376 There are two possible dependencies: build dependencies, declared in
377 <c>DEPEND</c> and run-time dependencies, declared in <c>RDEPEND</c>. When one of
378 these dependencies explicitly marks a package or virtual as being <e>not</e>
379 compatible, it triggers a blockage.
380 </p>
381
382 <p>
383 To fix a blockage, you can choose to not install the package or unmerge the
384 conflicting package first. In the given example, you can opt not to install
385 <c>libbonobo</c> or to remove <c>bonobo-activation</c> first.
386 </p>
387
388 </body>
389 </subsection>
390 <subsection id="masked">
391 <title>Masked Packages</title>
392 <body>
393
394 <pre caption="Portage warning about masked packages">
395 !!! all ebuilds that could satisfy "bootsplash" have been masked.
396 </pre>
397
398 <pre caption="Portage warning about masked packages - reason">
399 !!! possible candidates are:
400
401 - gnome-base/gnome-2.8.0_pre1 (masked by: <i>~x86 keyword</i>)
402 - lm-sensors/lm-sensors-2.8.7 (masked by: <i>-sparc keyword</i>)
403 - sys-libs/glibc-2.3.4.20040808 (masked by: <i>-* keyword</i>)
404 - dev-util/cvsd-1.0.2 (masked by: <i>missing keyword</i>)
405 - media-video/ati-gatos-4.3.0 (masked by: <i>package.mask</i>)
406 - sys-libs/glibc-2.3.2-r11 (masked by: <i>profile</i>)
407 </pre>
408
409 <p>
410 When you want to install a package that isn't available for your system, you
411 will receive this masking error. You should try installing a different
412 application that is available for your system or wait until the package is put
413 available. There is always a reason why a package is masked:
414 </p>
415
416 <ul>
417 <li>
418 <b>~arch keyword</b> means that the application is not tested sufficiently
419 to be put in the stable branch. Wait a few days or weeks and try again.
420 </li>
421 <li>
422 <b>-arch keyword</b> or <b>-* keyword</b> means that the application does
423 not work on your architecture. If you believe the package does work file
424 a bug at our <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> website.
425 </li>
426 <li>
427 <b>missing keyword</b> means that the application has not been tested on
428 your architecture yet. Ask the architecture porting team to test the package
429 or test it for them and report your findings on our <uri
430 link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> website.
431 </li>
432 <li>
433 <b>package.mask</b> means that the package has been found corrupt, unstable
434 or worse and has been deliberately marked as do-not-use.
435 </li>
436 <li>
437 <b>profile</b> means that the package has been found not suitable for your
438 profile. The application might break your system if you installed it or is
439 just not compatible with the profile you use.
440 </li>
441 </ul>
442
443 </body>
444 </subsection>
445 <subsection id="missingdependencies">
446 <title>Missing Dependencies</title>
447 <body>
448
449 <pre caption="Portage warning about missing dependency">
450 emerge: there are no ebuilds to satisfy "&gt;=sys-devel/gcc-4.2-r4".
451
452 !!! Problem with ebuild sys-devel/gcc-3.4.2-r2
453 !!! Possibly a DEPEND/*DEPEND problem.
454 </pre>
455
456 <p>
457 The application you are trying to install depends on another package that is not
458 available for your system. Please check <uri
459 link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> if the issue is known and if not,
460 please report it. Unless you are mixing branches this should not occur and is
461 therefore a bug.
462 </p>
463
464 </body>
465 </subsection>
466 <subsection id="ambiguousebuild">
467 <title>Ambiguous Ebuild Name</title>
468 <body>
469
470 <pre caption="Portage warning about ambiguous ebuild names">
471 !!! The short ebuild name "aterm" is ambiguous. Please specify
472 !!! one of the following fully-qualified ebuild names instead:
473
474 dev-libs/aterm
475 x11-terms/aterm
476 </pre>
477
478 <p>
479 The application you want to install has a name that corresponds with more than
480 one package. You need to supply the category name as well. Portage will inform
481 you of possible matches to choose from.
482 </p>
483
484 </body>
485 </subsection>
486 <subsection id="circulardependencies">
487 <title>Circular Dependencies</title>
488 <body>
489
490 <pre caption="Portage warning about circular dependencies">
491 !!! Error: circular dependencies:
492
493 ebuild / net-print/cups-1.1.15-r2 depends on ebuild / app-text/ghostscript-7.05.3-r1
494 ebuild / app-text/ghostscript-7.05.3-r1 depends on ebuild / net-print/cups-1.1.15-r2
495 </pre>
496
497 <p>
498 Two (or more) packages you want to install depend on each other and can
499 therefore not be installed. This is most likely a bug in the Portage tree.
500 Please resync after a while and try again. You can also check <uri
501 link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> if the issue is known and if not,
502 report it.
503 </p>
504
505 </body>
506 </subsection>
507 <subsection id="fetchfailed">
508 <title>Fetch failed</title>
509 <body>
510
511 <pre caption="Portage warning about fetch failed">
512 !!! Fetch failed for sys-libs/ncurses-5.4-r5, continuing...
513 <comment>(...)</comment>
514 !!! Some fetch errors were encountered. Please see above for details.
515 </pre>
516
517 <p>
518 Portage was unable to download the sources for the given application and will
519 try to continue installing the other applications (if applicable). This failure
520 can be due to a mirror that has not synchronised correctly or because the ebuild
521 points to an incorrect location. The server where the sources reside can also be
522 down for some reason.
523 </p>
524
525 <p>
526 Retry after one hour to see if the issue still persists.
527 </p>
528
529 </body>
530 </subsection>
531 <subsection id="profileprotect">
532 <title>System Profile Protection</title>
533 <body>
534
535 <pre caption="Portage warning about profile-protected package">
536 !!! Trying to unmerge package(s) in system profile. 'sys-apps/portage'
537 !!! This could be damaging to your system.
538 </pre>
539
540 <p>
541 You have asked to remove a package that is part of your system's core packages.
542 It is listed in your profile as required and should therefore not be removed
543 from the system.
544 </p>
545
546 </body>
547 </subsection>
548 </section>
549 </sections>

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