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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.51 2005/05/17 14:39:26 neysx Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>1.47</version>
12 <date>2005-05-17</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Welcome to Portage</title>
16 <body>
17
18 <p>
19 Portage is probably Gentoo's most notable innovation in software management.
20 With its high flexibility and enormous amount of features it is frequently seen
21 as the best software management tool available for Linux.
22 </p>
23
24 <p>
25 Portage is completely written in <uri link="http://www.python.org">Python</uri>
26 and <uri link="http://www.gnu.org/software/bash">Bash</uri> and therefore fully
27 visible to the users as both are scripting languages.
28 </p>
29
30 <p>
31 Most users will work with Portage through the <c>emerge</c> tool. This chapter
32 is not meant to duplicate the information available from the emerge man page.
33 For a complete rundown of emerge's options, please consult the man page:
34 </p>
35
36 <pre caption="Reading the emerge man page">
37 $ <i>man emerge</i>
38 </pre>
39
40 </body>
41 </section>
42 <section>
43 <title>The Portage Tree</title>
44 <subsection>
45 <title>Ebuilds</title>
46 <body>
47
48 <p>
49 When we talk about packages, we often mean software titles that are available to
50 the Gentoo users through the Portage tree. The Portage tree is a collection of
51 <e>ebuilds</e>, files that contain all information Portage needs to maintain
52 software (install, search, query, ...). These ebuilds reside in
53 <path>/usr/portage</path> by default.
54 </p>
55
56 <p>
57 Whenever you ask Portage to perform some action regarding software titles, it
58 will use the ebuilds on your system as a base. It is therefore important that
59 you regularly update the ebuilds on your system so Portage knows about new
60 software, security updates, etc.
61 </p>
62
63 </body>
64 </subsection>
65 <subsection>
66 <title>Updating the Portage Tree</title>
67 <body>
68
69 <p>
70 The Portage tree is usually updated with <uri
71 link="http://rsync.samba.org/">rsync</uri>, a fast incremental file transfer
72 utility. Updating is fairly simple as the <c>emerge</c> command provides a
73 front-end for rsync:
74 </p>
75
76 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
77 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
78 </pre>
79
80 <p>
81 If you are unable to rsync due to firewall restrictions you can still update
82 your Portage tree by using our daily generated Portage tree snapshots. The
83 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> tool automatically fetches and installs the latest
84 snapshot on your system:
85 </p>
86
87 <pre caption="Running emerge-webrsync">
88 # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
89 </pre>
90
91 </body>
92 </subsection>
93 </section>
94 <section>
95 <title>Maintaining Software</title>
96 <subsection>
97 <title>Searching for Software</title>
98 <body>
99
100 <p>
101 To search through the Portage tree after software titles, you can use
102 <c>emerge</c> built-in search capabilities. By default, <c>emerge --search</c>
103 returns the names of packages whose title matches (either fully or partially)
104 the given search term.
105 </p>
106
107 <p>
108 For instance, to search for all packages who have "pdf" in their name:
109 </p>
110
111 <pre caption="Searching for pdf-named packages">
112 $ <i>emerge --search pdf</i>
113 </pre>
114
115 <p>
116 If you want to search through the descriptions as well you can use the
117 <c>--searchdesc</c> (or <c>-S</c>) switch:
118 </p>
119
120 <pre caption="Searching for pdf-related packages">
121 $ <i>emerge --searchdesc pdf</i>
122 </pre>
123
124 <p>
125 When you take a look at the output, you'll notice that it gives you a lot of
126 information. The fields are clearly labelled so we won't go further into their
127 meanings:
128 </p>
129
130 <pre caption="Example 'emerge --search' output">
131 * net-print/cups-pdf
132 Latest version available: 1.5.2
133 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
134 Size of downloaded files: 15 kB
135 Homepage: http://cip.physik.uni-wuerzburg.de/~vrbehr/cups-pdf/
136 Description: Provides a virtual printer for CUPS to produce PDF files.
137 License: GPL-2
138 </pre>
139
140 </body>
141 </subsection>
142 <subsection>
143 <title>Installing Software</title>
144 <body>
145
146 <p>
147 Once you've found a software title to your liking, you can easily install it
148 with <c>emerge</c>: just add the package name. For instance, to install
149 <c>gnumeric</c>:
150 </p>
151
152 <pre caption="Installing gnumeric">
153 # <i>emerge gnumeric</i>
154 </pre>
155
156 <p>
157 Since many applications depend on each other, any attempt to install a certain
158 software package might result in the installation of several dependencies as
159 well. Don't worry, Portage handles dependencies well. If you want to find out
160 what Portage <e>would</e> install when you ask it to install a certain package,
161 add the <c>--pretend</c> switch. For instance:
162 </p>
163
164 <pre caption="Pretend to install gnumeric">
165 # <i>emerge --pretend gnumeric</i>
166 </pre>
167
168 <p>
169 When you ask Portage to install a package, it will download the necessary source
170 code from the internet (if necessary) and store it by default in
171 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. After this it will unpack, compile and
172 install the package. If you want Portage to only download the sources without
173 installing them, add the <c>--fetchonly</c> option to the <c>emerge</c> command:
174 </p>
175
176 <pre caption="Download the sourcecode for gnumeric">
177 # <i>emerge --fetchonly gnumeric</i>
178 </pre>
179
180 </body>
181 </subsection>
182 <subsection>
183 <title>Finding Installed Package Documentation</title>
184 <body>
185
186 <p>
187 Many packages come with their own documentation. Sometimes, the <c>doc</c> USE
188 flag determines whether the package documentation should be installed or not.
189 You can check the existence of a <c>doc</c> USE flag with the <c>emerge -vp
190 &lt;package name&gt;</c> command.
191 </p>
192
193 <pre caption="Checking the existence of a doc USE flag">
194 <comment>(alsa-lib is just an example, of course.)</comment>
195 # <i>emerge -vp alsa-lib</i>
196 [ebuild N ] media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.9_rc3 +doc -jack 674 kB
197 </pre>
198
199 <p>
200 You can enable or disable the <c>doc</c> USE flag either globally in the
201 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file or per package in the
202 <path>/etc/portage/package.use</path> file. The <uri
203 link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE Flags</uri> chapter covers this aspect in detail.
204 </p>
205
206 <p>
207 Once the package installed, its documentation is generally found in a
208 subdirectory named after the package under the <path>/usr/share/doc</path>
209 directory. You can also list all installed files with the <c>equery</c> tool
210 which is part of the <c>app-portage/gentoolkit</c> <uri
211 link="/doc/en/gentoolkit.xml">package</uri>.
212 </p>
213
214 <pre caption="Locating package documentation">
215 # <i>ls -l /usr/share/doc/alsa-lib-1.0.9_rc3</i>
216 total 28
217 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 669 May 17 21:54 ChangeLog.gz
218 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 9373 May 17 21:54 COPYING.gz
219 drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 8560 May 17 21:54 html
220 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 196 May 17 21:54 TODO.gz
221
222 <comment>(Alternatively, use equery to locate interesting files:)</comment>
223 # <i>equery files alsa-lib | less</i>
224 media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.9_rc3
225 * Contents of media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.9_rc3:
226 /usr
227 /usr/bin
228 /usr/bin/alsalisp
229 &lt;&lt;output truncated&gt;&gt;
230 </pre>
231
232 </body>
233 </subsection>
234 <subsection>
235 <title>Removing Software</title>
236 <body>
237
238 <p>
239 When you want to remove a software package from your system, use <c>emerge
240 --unmerge</c>. This will tell Portage to remove all files installed by that
241 package from your system <e>except</e> the configuration files of that
242 application if you have altered those after the installation. Leaving the
243 configuration files allows you to continue working with the package if you ever
244 decide to install it again.
245 </p>
246
247 <p>
248 However, a <brite>big warning</brite> applies: Portage will <e>not</e> check if
249 the package you want to remove is required by another package. It will however
250 warn you when you want to remove an important package that breaks your system
251 if you unmerge it.
252 </p>
253
254 <pre caption="Removing gnumeric from the system">
255 # <i>emerge --unmerge gnumeric</i>
256 </pre>
257
258 <p>
259 When you remove a package from your system, the dependencies of that package
260 that were installed automatically when you installed the software are left. To
261 have Portage locate all dependencies that can now be removed, use
262 <c>emerge</c>'s <c>--depclean</c> functionality. We will talk about this later
263 on.
264 </p>
265
266 </body>
267 </subsection>
268 <subsection>
269 <title>Updating your System</title>
270 <body>
271
272 <p>
273 To keep your system in perfect shape (and not to mention install the latest
274 security updates) you need to update your system regularly. Since Portage only
275 checks the ebuilds in your Portage tree you first have to update your Portage
276 tree. When your Portage tree is updated, you can update your system with
277 <c>emerge --update world</c>:
278 </p>
279
280 <pre caption="Updating your system">
281 # <i>emerge --update world</i>
282 </pre>
283
284 <p>
285 Portage will then search for newer version of the applications you have
286 installed. However, it will only verify the versions for the applications you
287 have explicitly installed - not the dependencies. If you want to update every
288 single package on your system, add the <c>--deep</c> argument:
289 </p>
290
291 <pre caption="Updating your entire system">
292 # <i>emerge --update --deep world</i>
293 </pre>
294
295 <p>
296 If you have altered any of your <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>
297 lately you might want to add <c>--newuse</c> as well. Portage will then verify
298 if the change requires the installation of new packages or recompilation of
299 existing ones:
300 </p>
301
302 <pre caption="Performing a full update">
303 # <i>emerge --update --deep --newuse world</i>
304 </pre>
305
306 </body>
307 </subsection>
308 <subsection>
309 <title>Metapackages</title>
310 <body>
311
312 <p>
313 Some packages in the Portage tree don't have any real content but are used to
314 install a collection of packages. For instance, the <c>kde</c> package will
315 install a complete KDE environment on your system by pulling in various
316 KDE-related packages as dependencies.
317 </p>
318
319 <p>
320 If you ever want to remove such a package from your system, running <c>emerge
321 --unmerge</c> on the package won't have much effect as the dependencies remain
322 on the system.
323 </p>
324
325 <p>
326 Portage has the functionality to remove orphaned dependencies as well, but since
327 the availability of software is dynamically dependent you first need to update
328 your entire system fully, including the new changes you applied when changing
329 USE flags. After this you can run <c>emerge --depclean</c> to remove the
330 orphaned dependencies. When this is done, you need to rebuild the applications
331 that were dynamically linked to the now-removed software titles but don't
332 require them anymore.
333 </p>
334
335 <p>
336 All this is handled with the following three commands:
337 </p>
338
339 <pre caption="Removing orphaned dependencies">
340 # <i>emerge --update --deep --newuse world</i>
341 # <i>emerge --depclean</i>
342 # <i>revdep-rebuild</i>
343 </pre>
344
345 <p>
346 <c>revdep-rebuild</c> is provided by the <c>gentoolkit</c> package; don't forget
347 to emerge it first:
348 </p>
349
350 <pre caption="Installing the gentoolkit package">
351 # <i>emerge gentoolkit</i>
352 </pre>
353
354 </body>
355 </subsection>
356 </section>
357 <section>
358 <title>When Portage is Complaining...</title>
359 <subsection>
360 <title>About SLOTs, Virtuals, Branches, Architectures and Profiles</title>
361 <body>
362
363 <p>
364 As we stated before, Portage is extremely powerful and supports many features
365 that other software management tools lack. To understand this, we explain a few
366 aspects of Portage without going into too much detail.
367 </p>
368
369 <p>
370 With Portage different versions of a single package can coexist on a system.
371 While other distributions tend to name their package to those versions (like
372 <c>freetype</c> and <c>freetype2</c>) Portage uses a technology called
373 <e>SLOT</e>s. An ebuild declares a certain SLOT for its version. Ebuilds with
374 different SLOTs can coexist on the same system. For instance, the
375 <c>freetype</c> package has ebuilds with <c>SLOT="1"</c> and <c>SLOT="2"</c>.
376 </p>
377
378 <p>
379 There are also packages that provide the same functionality but are implemented
380 differently. For instance, <c>metalogd</c>, <c>sysklogd</c> and <c>syslog-ng</c>
381 are all system loggers. Applications that rely on the availability of "a system
382 logger" cannot depend on, for instance, <c>metalogd</c>, as the other system
383 loggers are as good a choice as any. Portage allows for <e>virtuals</e>: each
384 system logger provides <c>virtual/syslog</c> so that applications can depend on
385 <c>virtual/syslog</c>.
386 </p>
387
388 <p>
389 Software in the Portage tree can reside in different branches. By default your
390 system only accepts packages that Gentoo deems stable. Most new software titles,
391 when committed, are added to the testing branch, meaning more testing needs to
392 be done before it is marked as stable. Although you will see the ebuilds for
393 those software in the Portage tree, Portage will not update them before they are
394 placed in the stable branch.
395 </p>
396
397 <p>
398 Some software is only available for a few architectures. Or the software doesn't
399 work on the other architectures, or it needs more testing, or the developer that
400 committed the software to the Portage tree is unable to verify if the package
401 works on different architectures.
402 </p>
403
404 <p>
405 Each Gentoo installation adheres to a certain <c>profile</c> which contains,
406 amongst other information, the list of packages that are required for a system
407 to function normally.
408 </p>
409
410 </body>
411 </subsection>
412 <subsection id="blocked">
413 <title>Blocked Packages</title>
414 <body>
415
416 <pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (with --pretend)">
417 [blocks B ] gnome-base/bonobo-activation (from pkg gnome-base/libbonobo-2.4.0)
418 </pre>
419
420 <pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (without --pretend)">
421 !!! Error: the gnome-base/bonobo-activation package conflicts with another package.
422 !!! both can't be installed on the same system together.
423 !!! Please use 'emerge --pretend' to determine blockers.
424 </pre>
425
426 <p>
427 Ebuilds contain specific fields that inform Portage about its dependencies.
428 There are two possible dependencies: build dependencies, declared in
429 <c>DEPEND</c> and run-time dependencies, declared in <c>RDEPEND</c>. When one of
430 these dependencies explicitly marks a package or virtual as being <e>not</e>
431 compatible, it triggers a blockage.
432 </p>
433
434 <p>
435 To fix a blockage, you can choose to not install the package or unmerge the
436 conflicting package first. In the given example, you can opt not to install
437 <c>libbonobo</c> or to remove <c>bonobo-activation</c> first.
438 </p>
439
440 </body>
441 </subsection>
442 <subsection id="masked">
443 <title>Masked Packages</title>
444 <body>
445
446 <pre caption="Portage warning about masked packages">
447 !!! all ebuilds that could satisfy "bootsplash" have been masked.
448 </pre>
449
450 <pre caption="Portage warning about masked packages - reason">
451 !!! possible candidates are:
452
453 - gnome-base/gnome-2.8.0_pre1 (masked by: <i>~x86 keyword</i>)
454 - lm-sensors/lm-sensors-2.8.7 (masked by: <i>-sparc keyword</i>)
455 - sys-libs/glibc-2.3.4.20040808 (masked by: <i>-* keyword</i>)
456 - dev-util/cvsd-1.0.2 (masked by: <i>missing keyword</i>)
457 - media-video/ati-gatos-4.3.0 (masked by: <i>package.mask</i>)
458 - sys-libs/glibc-2.3.2-r11 (masked by: <i>profile</i>)
459 </pre>
460
461 <p>
462 When you want to install a package that isn't available for your system, you
463 will receive this masking error. You should try installing a different
464 application that is available for your system or wait until the package is put
465 available. There is always a reason why a package is masked:
466 </p>
467
468 <ul>
469 <li>
470 <b>~arch keyword</b> means that the application is not tested sufficiently
471 to be put in the stable branch. Wait a few days or weeks and try again.
472 </li>
473 <li>
474 <b>-arch keyword</b> or <b>-* keyword</b> means that the application does
475 not work on your architecture. If you believe the package does work file
476 a bug at our <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> website.
477 </li>
478 <li>
479 <b>missing keyword</b> means that the application has not been tested on
480 your architecture yet. Ask the architecture porting team to test the package
481 or test it for them and report your findings on our <uri
482 link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> website.
483 </li>
484 <li>
485 <b>package.mask</b> means that the package has been found corrupt, unstable
486 or worse and has been deliberately marked as do-not-use.
487 </li>
488 <li>
489 <b>profile</b> means that the package has been found not suitable for your
490 profile. The application might break your system if you installed it or is
491 just not compatible with the profile you use.
492 </li>
493 </ul>
494
495 </body>
496 </subsection>
497 <subsection id="missingdependencies">
498 <title>Missing Dependencies</title>
499 <body>
500
501 <pre caption="Portage warning about missing dependency">
502 emerge: there are no ebuilds to satisfy "&gt;=sys-devel/gcc-3.4.2-r4".
503
504 !!! Problem with ebuild sys-devel/gcc-3.4.2-r2
505 !!! Possibly a DEPEND/*DEPEND problem.
506 </pre>
507
508 <p>
509 The application you are trying to install depends on another package that is not
510 available for your system. Please check <uri
511 link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> if the issue is known and if not,
512 please report it. Unless you are mixing branches this should not occur and is
513 therefore a bug.
514 </p>
515
516 </body>
517 </subsection>
518 <subsection id="ambiguousebuild">
519 <title>Ambiguous Ebuild Name</title>
520 <body>
521
522 <pre caption="Portage warning about ambiguous ebuild names">
523 !!! The short ebuild name "aterm" is ambiguous. Please specify
524 !!! one of the following fully-qualified ebuild names instead:
525
526 dev-libs/aterm
527 x11-terms/aterm
528 </pre>
529
530 <p>
531 The application you want to install has a name that corresponds with more than
532 one package. You need to supply the category name as well. Portage will inform
533 you of possible matches to choose from.
534 </p>
535
536 </body>
537 </subsection>
538 <subsection id="circulardependencies">
539 <title>Circular Dependencies</title>
540 <body>
541
542 <pre caption="Portage warning about circular dependencies">
543 !!! Error: circular dependencies:
544
545 ebuild / net-print/cups-1.1.15-r2 depends on ebuild / app-text/ghostscript-7.05.3-r1
546 ebuild / app-text/ghostscript-7.05.3-r1 depends on ebuild / net-print/cups-1.1.15-r2
547 </pre>
548
549 <p>
550 Two (or more) packages you want to install depend on each other and can
551 therefore not be installed. This is most likely a bug in the Portage tree.
552 Please resync after a while and try again. You can also check <uri
553 link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> if the issue is known and if not,
554 report it.
555 </p>
556
557 </body>
558 </subsection>
559 <subsection id="fetchfailed">
560 <title>Fetch failed</title>
561 <body>
562
563 <pre caption="Portage warning about fetch failed">
564 !!! Fetch failed for sys-libs/ncurses-5.4-r5, continuing...
565 <comment>(...)</comment>
566 !!! Some fetch errors were encountered. Please see above for details.
567 </pre>
568
569 <p>
570 Portage was unable to download the sources for the given application and will
571 try to continue installing the other applications (if applicable). This failure
572 can be due to a mirror that has not synchronised correctly or because the ebuild
573 points to an incorrect location. The server where the sources reside can also be
574 down for some reason.
575 </p>
576
577 <p>
578 Retry after one hour to see if the issue still persists.
579 </p>
580
581 </body>
582 </subsection>
583 <subsection id="profileprotect">
584 <title>System Profile Protection</title>
585 <body>
586
587 <pre caption="Portage warning about profile-protected package">
588 !!! Trying to unmerge package(s) in system profile. 'sys-apps/portage'
589 !!! This could be damaging to your system.
590 </pre>
591
592 <p>
593 You have asked to remove a package that is part of your system's core packages.
594 It is listed in your profile as required and should therefore not be removed
595 from the system.
596 </p>
597
598 </body>
599 </subsection>
600 </section>
601 </sections>

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