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1 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
2 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
3
4 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.6 2003/11/27 14:45:38 swift Exp $ -->
5
6 <sections>
7 <section>
8 <title>Obtaining Package Information</title>
9 <subsection>
10 <title>The Lord of All Tools: emerge</title>
11 <body>
12
13 <p>
14 The main Portage tool that most users will use is <c>emerge</c>. We have already
15 used it during the Gentoo installation and in the previous chapter, but we just
16 briefly explained how to use it. This chapter will elaborate on <c>emerge</c>
17 and learn you how to use <c>emerge</c> to fix all your software-related needs.
18 </p>
19
20 <p>
21 <c>emerge</c> is the command used to install, remove, query and maintain
22 software packages. It is a front-end for <c>ebuild</c>; people interested in
23 becoming Gentoo professionals will learn how to use <c>ebuild</c> later on. For
24 now, we will focus on <c>emerge</c> as it has functionality that <c>ebuild</c>
25 lacks (such as resolving dependencies, searching the Portage tree, etc.).
26 </p>
27
28 <p>
29 Since <c>emerge</c> is the most important tool for Gentoo users, it has an
30 extensive manpage you can read by issuing <c>man emerge</c>. You can also view
31 the in-command help by running <c>emerge --help</c>.
32 </p>
33
34 <pre caption="Retrieving help for emerge">
35 # <i>man emerge</i>
36 # <i>emerge --help</i>
37 </pre>
38
39 </body>
40 </subsection>
41 <subsection>
42 <title>The Portage Tree</title>
43 <body>
44
45 <p>
46 Before we continue describing <c>emerge</c>, let us first take a look at the
47 Portage Tree. Go to <path>/usr/portage</path> and do a listing of the available
48 directories. We use <c>ls --classify</c> to list the contents of a
49 directory as it will show directories with a trailing "/".
50 </p>
51
52 <pre caption="Viewing the Portage Tree">
53 # <i>cd /usr/portage; ls --classify</i>
54 app-admin/ dev-ml/ gnome-libs/ net-print/
55 app-arch/ dev-perl/ gnome-office/ net-wireless/
56 app-benchmarks/ dev-php/ header.txt net-www/
57 app-cdr/ dev-python/ incoming/ net-zope/
58 app-crypt/ dev-ruby/ jython/ packages/
59 app-dicts/ dev-tcltk/ kde-apps/ profiles/
60 app-doc/ dev-tex/ kde-base/ releases/
61 app-editors/ dev-util/ kde-i18n/ scripts/
62 app-emacs/ distfiles/ kde-libs/ sec-policy/
63 app-emulation/ eclass/ licenses/ skel.ChangeLog
64 app-games/ experimental/ media-fonts/ skel.ebuild
65 app-gnustep/ files/ media-gfx/ skel.metadata.xml
66 app-i18n/ fresco-base/ media-libs/ snapshots/
67 app-misc/ games-action/ media-plugins/ sys-apps/
68 app-office/ games-arcade/ media-radio/ sys-build/
69 app-pda/ games-board/ media-sound/ sys-cluster/
70 app-portage/ games-emulation/ media-tv/ sys-devel/
71 app-sci/ games-engines/ media-video/ sys-fs/
72 app-shells/ games-fps/ metadata/ sys-kernel/
73 app-text/ games-kids/ net-analyzer/ sys-kmods/
74 app-vim/ games-misc/ net-apache/ sys-libs/
75 app-xemacs/ games-mud/ net-dialup/ unix2tcp/
76 berlin-base/ games-puzzle/ net-dns/ x11-base/
77 dev-ada/ games-roguelike/ net-firewall/ x11-libs/
78 dev-cpp/ games-rpg/ net-fs/ x11-misc/
79 dev-db/ games-server/ net-ftp/ x11-plugins/
80 dev-dotnet/ games-simulation/ net-im/ x11-terms/
81 dev-embedded/ games-sports/ net-irc/ x11-themes/
82 dev-games/ games-strategy/ net-libs/ x11-wm/
83 dev-haskell/ games-util/ net-mail/ xfce-base/
84 dev-java/ glep/ net-misc/ xfce-extra/
85 dev-lang/ gnome-apps/ net-nds/
86 dev-libs/ gnome-base/ net-news/
87 dev-lisp/ gnome-extra/ net-p2p/
88 </pre>
89
90 <p>
91 As you can see, the Portage tree has several subdirectories. Most of them are
92 the <e>categories</e> in which the Gentoo packages, called <e>ebuilds</e>,
93 reside. Take a look at, for instance, <path>app-office</path>:
94 </p>
95
96 <pre caption="Viewing a category">
97 # <i>cd app-office; ls --classify</i>
98 abiword/ gnotime/ kmymoney2/ ooodi/ plan/ timestamp.x
99 dia/ gnucash/ koffice/ oooqs/ qhacc/
100 dia2code/ gnumeric/ lxbank/ openoffice/ sc/
101 facturalux/ ical/ lyx/ openoffice-bin/ scribus/
102 gaby/ kbudget/ mdbtools/ openoffice-ximian/ siag/
103 gnofin/ khacc/ mrproject/ phprojekt/ texmacs/
104 </pre>
105
106 <p>
107 Inside a category you will find the packages belonging to that category, with a
108 seperate directory for each package. Let us take a look at the <c>openoffice</c>
109 package:
110 </p>
111
112 <pre caption="Viewing a package">
113 # <i>cd openoffice; ls --classify</i>
114 ChangeLog files/ openoffice-1.0.3-r1.ebuild openoffice-1.1.0-r2.ebuild
115 Manifest metadata.xml openoffice-1.1.0-r1.ebuild openoffice-1.1.0.ebuild
116 </pre>
117
118 <p>
119 Remember that we told you that a Gentoo package is called an ebuild? Well, in
120 the example directory four of such ebuilds are stored. Their naming is
121 almost identical: they only differ in the version name.
122 You are free to view the contents of such a package: they are plain scripts. We
123 will not discuss it right now as it isn't important to know if you plan on just
124 using Gentoo.
125 </p>
126
127 <p>
128 The other files are the <path>ChangeLog</path> (which contains a listing of all
129 the changes done to the ebuilds), <path>Manifest</path> (which contains the
130 checksums and permissions of all the files in the directory) and
131 <path>metadata.xml</path> (which contains more information about the package,
132 such as the responsible development group -- called <e>herd</e> -- and a more
133 extensive description).
134 </p>
135
136 <p>
137 Inside the <path>files</path> directory you will find extra files, needed by
138 Portage: digests (checksums and permissions of the files needed by a single
139 version of the package), patches, example configuration files, etc.
140 </p>
141
142 <pre caption="Viewing the extra files">
143 # <i>cd files; ls --classify</i>
144 1.0.3/ digest-openoffice-1.0.3-r1 digest-openoffice-1.1.0-r1
145 1.1.0/ digest-openoffice-1.1.0 digest-openoffice-1.1.0-r2
146 # <i>cd 1.1.0; ls --classify</i>
147 fixed-gcc.patch ooffice-wrapper-1.3
148 newstlportfix.patch openoffice-1.1.0-linux-2.6-fix.patch
149 no-mozab.patch openoffice-1.1.0-sparc64-fix.patch
150 nptl.patch
151 </pre>
152
153 <p>
154 If you go back to the root of the Portage tree (<path>/usr/portage</path>) you
155 will notice that there are other, non-category directories too. We will discuss
156 those later in this chapter.
157 </p>
158
159 </body>
160 </subsection>
161 <subsection>
162 <title>Search for a Package</title>
163 <body>
164
165 <p>
166 If you are new to Linux or Gentoo, you might not know what tool you need for
167 what job. To facilitate searching, <c>emerge</c> provides you with a way to
168 search through the available packages on your system. There are two ways you can
169 search through packages: by <e>name</e>, or by <e>name</e> and
170 <e>description</e>.
171 </p>
172
173 <p>
174 To search through the Portage tree by name, use <c>emerge search</c>. For
175 instance, to find out more about <c>mozilla</c>:
176 </p>
177
178 <pre caption="Showing information about mozilla">
179 # <i>emerge search mozilla</i>
180 Searching...
181 [ Results for search key : mozilla ]
182 [ Applications found : 5 ]
183 <comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
184 * net-www/mozilla
185 Latest version available: 1.5-r1
186 Latest version installed: 1.4-r3
187 Size of downloaded files: 29,153 kB
188 Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org
189 Description: The Mozilla Web Browser
190
191 * net-www/mozilla-firebird
192 Latest version available: 0.7
193 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
194 Size of downloaded files: 37,850 kB
195 Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org/projects/firebird/
196 Description: The Mozilla Firebird Web Browser
197 <comment>(...)</comment>
198 </pre>
199
200 <p>
201 If you want to include a search through the descriptions too, use the
202 <c>--searchdesc</c> argument:
203 </p>
204
205 <pre caption="Search through the descriptions too">
206 # <i>emerge --searchdesc mozilla</i>
207 Searching...
208 [ Results for search key : mozilla ]
209 [ Applications found : 10 ]
210 <comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
211 * dev-libs/nss-3.8
212 Latest version available: 3.8
213 Latest version installed: 3.8
214 Size of downloaded files: 2,782 kB
215 Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org/projects/security/pki/nss/
216 Description: Mozilla's Netscape Security Services Library that implements PKI support
217 </pre>
218
219 <p>
220 As you can see, the output of <c>emerge</c> informs you about the category and
221 name of the package, the available version, the currently installed version,
222 the size of the downloaded files, the homepage and the small description.
223 </p>
224
225 <p>
226 You see something new? Yes, <e>downloaded files</e>. When you tell Portage to
227 install a package, it of course needs to have the necessary sources (or
228 precompiled packages) available. It therefore checks the contents of
229 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> (for sourcecode) or
230 <path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> (for precompiled packages) to see if the
231 necessary files are already available. If not, it downloads the necessary files
232 and places them in those directories.
233 </p>
234
235 <note>
236 Searching the Portage Tree, especially when using <c>--searchdesc</c>, is very
237 time consuming. There are other, more performant tools available. We will
238 describe those in the chapter on <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=7">Gentoolkit and
239 Other Tools</uri>.
240 </note>
241
242 </body>
243 </subsection>
244 <subsection>
245 <title>Viewing the ChangeLog</title>
246 <body>
247
248 <p>
249 While browsing through the Portage Tree, you saw that there was a ChangeLog for
250 each package. You can view this ChangeLog with <c>emerge</c> too. Use the
251 <c>--pretend --changelog</c> (<c>-pl</c> in short) options. As an example we
252 will view the ChangeLog entries for <c>gnumeric</c>:
253 </p>
254
255 <pre caption="Viewing the ChangeLog entries for gnumeric">
256 # <i>emerge --pretend --changelog gnumeric</i>
257 </pre>
258
259 </body>
260 </subsection>
261 </section>
262 <section>
263 <title>Updating Portage</title>
264 <subsection>
265 <title>Introduction</title>
266 <body>
267
268 <p>
269 Searching through Portage is nice, but if you don't update your Portage Tree
270 regularly, you will be stuck with the packages and versions available on your
271 system. This means that your system will get outdated pretty soon and that
272 you will be missing bugfixes and remedies for possible security problems.
273 </p>
274
275 <p>
276 There are several ways to update your Portage Tree. The most popular method is
277 by using one of our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">rsync mirrors</uri>.
278 Another one is by using a Portage snapshot (in case a firewall or unavailability
279 of a network prohibits the use of the rsync server).
280 </p>
281
282 </body>
283 </subsection>
284 <subsection>
285 <title>Selecting a Mirror for rsync</title>
286 <body>
287
288 <p>
289 It is adviseable to first select a fast <uri
290 link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror</uri> close to you. You can do this manually
291 (by setting the <c>SYNC</c> variable in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>) or use
292 <c>mirrorselect</c> to do this for you automatically. As the <c>SYNC</c>
293 variable will be discussed later on, we will focus on using <c>mirrorselect</c>.
294 First install <c>mirrorselect</c> by emerging it:
295 </p>
296
297 <pre caption="Installing mirrorselect">
298 # <i>emerge --usepkg mirrorselect</i>
299 </pre>
300
301 <p>
302 Now run <c>mirrorselect</c> to automatically select mirrors for you (it will
303 also setup Portage to use a mirror for the sourcecode):
304 </p>
305
306 <pre caption="Running mirrorselect">
307 # <i>mirrorselect -a -s3</i>
308 </pre>
309
310 </body>
311 </subsection>
312 <subsection>
313 <title>Updating Portage</title>
314 <body>
315
316 <p>
317 To update Portage using rsync, simply run <c>emerge sync</c>:
318 </p>
319
320 <pre caption="Updating Portage using emerge sync">
321 # <i>emerge sync</i>
322 </pre>
323
324 <p>
325 If this fails (due to network problems, or a firewall), you can try using
326 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will download a Portage Tree snapshot using
327 <c>wget</c>. This also means that you can use proxies if you want. We discussed
328 how to setup your system to use proxies during the Gentoo installation.
329 </p>
330
331 <pre caption="Updating Portage using emerge-webrsync">
332 # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
333 </pre>
334
335 </body>
336 </subsection>
337 </section>
338 <section>
339 <title>Maintaining Software</title>
340 <subsection>
341 <title>Building or Prebuild?</title>
342 <body>
343
344 <p>
345 Gentoo provides ebuilds, the Gentoo packages if you like. But when you want to
346 install such an ebuild, you can choose between <e>building</e> the package, or
347 using a <e>prebuild</e> package. But what are the advantages/disadvantages of
348 both approaches, and can they be used next to each other?
349 </p>
350
351 <p>
352 As you probably have guessed, building packages takes a lot of time (especially
353 if you have little resources or want to build big packages, such as <uri
354 link="http://www.kde.org">KDE</uri>, <uri
355 link="http://www.openoffice.org">OpenOffice.org</uri>, etc.). By building the
356 package, you can use the <c>USE</c> setting to tweak the package to your system.
357 Of course, you can also define high optimization options (in the <c>CFLAGS</c>
358 and <c>CXXFLAGS</c> variables) to compile the package with.
359 </p>
360
361 <p>
362 Using prebuild packages improves the installation time (as no more compilation
363 is needed), but you will lose the advantages of the <c>USE</c> setting and the
364 <c>CFLAGS</c> &amp; <c>CXXFLAGS</c> variables.
365 </p>
366
367 <p>
368 As previously stated, prebuild packages are stored in the
369 <path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> directory, while the sourcecode of the
370 packages are placed in <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. If you have finished
371 installing a package you can remove the package or sourcecode from the
372 respective directory. However, you might want to keep the package/sourcecode of
373 the latest version, just in case you want to reinstall the package (so you don't
374 have to redownload it).
375 </p>
376
377 </body>
378 </subsection>
379 <subsection>
380 <title>Installing Software from Sources</title>
381 <body>
382
383 <p>
384 Okay, enough talking, let's cut to the chase. To install a package, you will use
385 the <c>emerge</c> command. If you don't want to use any prebuild packages, you
386 can just use <c>emerge &lt;package-name&gt;</c> or <c>emerge
387 &lt;category&gt;/&lt;package-name&gt;</c>. As an example we'll install
388 <c>gnumeric</c>:
389 </p>
390
391 <pre caption="Building gnumeric">
392 # <i>emerge gnumeric</i>
393 </pre>
394
395 <p>
396 This will download the sourcecode for you and unpacks, compiles and installs the
397 package on your system. It will also do the same for all the dependencies. If
398 you want to see what dependencies will be installed with it, use the
399 <c>--pretend</c> option (<c>-p</c> in short):
400 </p>
401
402 <pre caption="Pretending to build gnumeric">
403 # <i>emerge --pretend gnumeric</i>
404 </pre>
405
406 <p>
407 If you want to download the sourcecode of the package and its dependencies,
408 but don't want to build the package, use the <c>--fetchonly</c> option
409 (<c>-f</c> in short):
410 </p>
411
412 <pre caption="Fetching sources for gnumeric">
413 # <i>emerge --fetchonly gnumeric</i>
414 </pre>
415
416 <p>
417 If you want to see where <c>emerge</c> downloads the sources from, combine the
418 <c>--fetchonly</c> and <c>--pretend</c> options:
419 </p>
420
421 <pre caption="Showing URLs of the sources for gnumeric">
422 # <i>emerge --fetchonly --pretend gnumeric</i>
423 </pre>
424
425 <p>
426 You can also opt to install a specific version of a package.
427 For instance, if you want to install a gnumeric version older than 1.2 -- for
428 any reason whatsoever :) you would type:
429 </p>
430
431 <pre caption="Installing a specific gnumeric version">
432 # <i>emerge "&lt;gnumeric-1.2"</i>
433 </pre>
434
435 <p>
436 Other possibilities are of course "&gt;" (later version) and "=" (the exact
437 version).
438 </p>
439
440 </body>
441 </subsection>
442 <subsection>
443 <title>Installing Prebuild Packages</title>
444 <body>
445
446 <p>
447 When you want to install a prebuild package, you should use the <c>--usepkg</c>
448 option (<c>-k</c> in short). This will use the binary package available in
449 <path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> <e>if</e> the package and the version of
450 the application you want to install match.
451 </p>
452
453 <pre caption="Installing a prebuild package for gnumeric">
454 # <i>emerge --usepkg gnumeric</i>
455 </pre>
456
457 <p>
458 If you want to use the binary package, even if the versions don't match, use
459 <c>--usepkgonly</c> (<c>-K</c> in short).
460 </p>
461
462 <pre caption="Installing the prebuild package for gnumeric">
463 # <i>emerge --usepkgonly gnumeric</i>
464 </pre>
465
466 <!-- TODO When handbook goes life, comment out this parts until the mirrors have
467 been updated with online GRP packages. -->
468 <p>
469 If you don't have the prebuild package on your system yet, you can have
470 <c>emerge</c> download it from a mirror, defined in the <c>PORTAGE_BINHOST</c>
471 variable declared in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>.
472 </p>
473
474 <p>
475 To download the binary package in case this package doesn't exist on
476 your system already, use <c>--getbinpkg</c> (<c>-g</c> in short):
477 </p>
478
479 <pre caption="Downloading and installing a prebuild package for gnumeric">
480 # <i>emerge --getbinpkg gnumeric</i>
481 </pre>
482
483 <p>
484 This will download the package and the package-related information for you and
485 install it on your system, together with the dependencies. If you want to see
486 what dependencies will be installed with it, use the <c>--pretend</c> option
487 (<c>-p</c> in short):
488 </p>
489
490 <pre caption="Pretending to download the prebuild packages for gnumeric">
491 # <i>emerge --getbinpkg --pretend gnumeric</i>
492 </pre>
493
494 <p>
495 You can also opt to download the prebuild package (and the package-related
496 information) <e>without</e> checking the information on your local system and
497 <e>without</e> using the prebuild package already on your system (if
498 applicable), use the <c>--getbinpkgonly</c> option (<c>-G</c> in short):
499 </p>
500
501 <pre caption="Installing a prebuild package without using local information">
502 # <i>emerge --getbinpkgonly gnumeric</i>
503 </pre>
504
505 <!-- TODO Up until here -->
506
507 <p>
508 You can also opt to install a specific version of a package.
509 For instance, if you want to install a gnumeric version older than 1.2 -- for
510 any reason whatsoever :) you would type:
511 </p>
512
513 <pre caption="Installing a specific gnumeric version">
514 # <i>emerge --usepkg "&lt;gnumeric-1.2"</i>
515 </pre>
516
517 <p>
518 Other possibilities are of course "&gt;" (later version) and "=" (the exact
519 version).
520 </p>
521
522
523 </body>
524 </subsection>
525 <subsection>
526 <title>Updating your System</title>
527 <body>
528
529 <p>
530 Portage knows two special tags to denote a set of software packages:
531 <e>system</e> and <e>world</e>. You have already seen the former while
532 installing Gentoo if you didn't use a <e>stage3</e> installation. To refresh
533 things: <e>system</e> is the collection of <e>core</e> packages, necessary to
534 have a working Gentoo system.
535 </p>
536
537 <p>
538 The <e>world</e> tag consists of all software you have installed yourself on
539 your system plus the <e>system</e> information. In other words, every time you
540 emerge a package using <c>emerge &lt;package-name&gt;</c>, the
541 <c>&lt;package-name&gt;</c> is registered in the <e>world</e> file
542 (<path>/var/cache/edb/world</path>). Dependencies are <e>not</e> part of the
543 <e>world</e> file, but we will get to that later.
544 </p>
545
546 <p>
547 If you want to update the system packages, use the <c>--update</c> option
548 (<c>-u</c> in short):
549 </p>
550
551 <pre caption="Updating the system packages">
552 # <i>emerge --update system</i>
553 </pre>
554
555 <p>
556 An identical approach can be used for the world packages:
557 </p>
558
559 <pre caption="Updating your entire system">
560 # <i>emerge --update world</i>
561 </pre>
562
563 <p>
564 Again, if you want to see what <c>emerge</c> wants to update, use the
565 <c>--pretend</c> option together with the <c>--update</c> option:
566 </p>
567
568 <pre caption="Pretending to update your entire system">
569 # <i>emerge --pretend --update world</i>
570 <comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
571 [ebuild U ] net-misc/wget-1.9-r1 [1.9]
572 [ebuild UD] media-video/dvdauthor-0.5.0 [0.5.3]
573 [ebuild U ] net-analyzer/ethereal-0.9.16 [0.9.14]
574 </pre>
575
576 <p>
577 Right next to the word "ebuild" you will notice a letter (or combination of
578 letters) which gives you more information about the package:
579 </p>
580
581 <ul>
582 <li>
583 <e>B</e> (blocks) The package listed to the left is blocking the emerge of
584 the package listed to the right
585 </li>
586 <li>
587 <e>N</e> (new) The package is new to your system and will be emerged for the
588 first time
589 </li>
590 <li>
591 <e>R</e> (reemerge) The package isn't new, but needs to be reemerged
592 </li>
593 <li>
594 <e>F</e> (fetch) The package requires that you download the sourcecode
595 manually (for instance due to licencing issues)
596 </li>
597 <li>
598 <e>U</e> (update) The package already exists on your system but will be
599 upgraded
600 </li>
601 <li>
602 <e>UD</e> (downgrade) The package already exists on your system but will be
603 downgraded
604 </li>
605 <li>
606 <e>U-</e> (slot warning) The package you have installed on your system
607 is listed as a package that can not coexist with a different version, but
608 your update does. The update will be installed and the older version will be
609 removed.
610 </li>
611 </ul>
612
613 <p>
614 In certain cases, an update may mean a downgrade (i.e. install an older version
615 instead of a newer version). If you don't want this to happen, use the
616 <c>--upgradeonly</c> option (<c>-U</c> in short):
617 </p>
618
619 <pre caption="Upgrading your entire system">
620 # <i>emerge --update --upgradeonly world</i>
621 </pre>
622
623 <p>
624 Of course, we are talking here about <e>system</e> and <e>world</e>, but you can
625 perform the same actions for individual software packages.
626 </p>
627
628 </body>
629 </subsection>
630 <subsection>
631 <title>Removing Software</title>
632 <body>
633
634 <p>
635 If you want to remove software from your system, you can use the <c>unmerge</c>
636 option (<c>-C</c> - capital C - in short):
637 </p>
638
639 <pre caption="Uninstalling software">
640 # <i>emerge unmerge gnumeric</i>
641 </pre>
642
643 <p>
644 If you want to test a removal (but not perform it), you can use <c>--pretend</c>
645 again:
646 </p>
647
648 <pre caption="Pretending to uninstall software">
649 # <i>emerge --pretend unmerge gnumeric</i>
650 </pre>
651
652 <warn>
653 Portage doesn't verify if a package is a dependency for another
654 installed package. It also doesn't warn you if the package is part of
655 <e>system</e>, i.e. a core application necessary for the correct functioning of
656 your system!
657 </warn>
658
659 </body>
660 </subsection>
661 </section>
662 <section>
663 <title>Software Availability</title>
664 <subsection>
665 <title>ARCH or not?</title>
666 <body>
667
668 <p>
669 Gentoo places its packages in two possible stadia called <e>ARCH</e> and
670 <e>~ARCH</e>. Don't take this literally: the stadia depend on the architecture
671 you are using. In other words, for x86-based systems you have <e>x86</e> and
672 <e>~x86</e>, for ppc-based systems you have <e>ppc</e> and <e>~ppc</e> etc.
673 </p>
674
675 <p>
676 The <e>~ARCH</e> stadium means that the package works for the developer in
677 charge of the package, but that the package hasn't been tested thoroughly enough
678 by the community to be placed in <e>ARCH</e>. <e>~ARCH</e> packages usually go
679 to <e>ARCH</e> after being bugfree for a sufficient amount of time.
680 </p>
681
682 <p>
683 Your system will use <e>ARCH</e> packages per default. If you want to live on
684 the edge, don't mind having a broken package once in a while, and you like
685 submitting bugreports to <uri
686 link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugs.gentoo.org</uri>, then you can opt to use
687 <e>~ARCH</e> packages. To "move" your system to a <e>~ARCH</e>-using system,
688 edit the <c>ACCEPT_KEYWORDS</c> variable in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so that
689 it reads <e>~ARCH</e> (again: for x86-based systems: <e>~x86</e>, etc.).
690 </p>
691
692 <p>
693 If you want to update your system now, you will notice that <e>a lot</e> of
694 packages will be updated!
695 </p>
696
697 </body>
698 </subsection>
699 <subsection>
700 <title>Masked Packages</title>
701 <body>
702
703 <p>
704 When you want to install a package, you might come across the following message:
705 </p>
706
707 <pre caption="Message about masked packages">
708 Calculating dependencies
709 !!! <comment>all ebuilds that could satisfy </comment>&lt;your package&gt;<comment> have been masked.</comment>
710 </pre>
711
712 <p>
713 A package can be masked due to two reasons:
714 </p>
715
716 <ol>
717 <li>The package is in <e>~ARCH</e> while you use <e>ARCH</e></li>
718 <li>The package is hard-masked explicitly</li>
719 </ol>
720
721 <p>
722 If the package is masked because of the first reason, and you <e>really</e> want
723 to install it (knowing that there <e>is</e> a reason why it isn't available in
724 <e>ARCH</e>), you can temporarily accept <e>~ARCH</e> packages:
725 </p>
726
727 <pre caption="Temporarily accepting ~ARCH packages">
728 # <i>ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~x86" emerge gnumeric</i>
729 </pre>
730
731 <p>
732 A package is hardmasked if it is listed in
733 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path>. If you read this file, you
734 will also read the reason why the package is hardmasked (it is usually added as
735 a comment). If you want to install the package nevertheless (despite all the
736 possible warnings we could ever throw at your head about "breaking your system",
737 "breaks other packages", or "badly needs testing"), create the
738 <path>/etc/portage/package.unmask</path> file and list the package in it (use
739 the same format as is used in <path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path>).
740 </p>
741
742 <p>
743 Do <e>not</e> alter the <path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path> file as
744 all changes are undone the next time you update your Portage tree.
745 </p>
746
747 <p>
748 Another trick to circumvent the "masked package" problem is to install the
749 package using the full path. This will ignore both the <c>ACCEPT_KEYWORD</c>
750 settings and the <path>package.mask</path> listing.
751 </p>
752
753 <pre caption="Installing a package without checking for stadium / masking">
754 # <i>emerge /usr/portage/app-office/gnumeric/gnumeric-1.2.0.ebuild</i>
755 </pre>
756
757 </body>
758 </subsection>
759 <subsection>
760 <title>Blocked Packages</title>
761 <body>
762
763 <p>
764 You have a situation when you receive the following error on your screen:
765 </p>
766
767 <pre caption="Blocking package">
768 [blocks B ] gnome-base/bonobo-activation (from pkg gnome-base/libbonobo-2.4.0)
769 </pre>
770
771 <p>
772 In the above example, the package <c>bonobo-activation</c> is blocking the
773 emerge of <c>libbonobo</c>. To resolve this issue, remove the
774 <c>bonobo-activation</c> package and continue:
775 </p>
776
777 <pre caption="Resolving a blocking situation">
778 # <i>emerge unmerge bonobo-activation</i>
779 </pre>
780
781 </body>
782 </subsection>
783 </section>
784 </sections>

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