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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.76 2011/08/12 19:24:18 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <abstract>
12 This chapter explains the "simple" steps a user definitely needs to know to
13 maintain the software on his system.
14 </abstract>
15
16 <version>3</version>
17 <date>2011-08-12</date>
18
19 <section>
20 <title>Welcome to Portage</title>
21 <body>
22
23 <p>
24 Portage is probably Gentoo's most notable innovation in software management.
25 With its high flexibility and enormous amount of features it is frequently seen
26 as the best software management tool available for Linux.
27 </p>
28
29 <p>
30 Portage is completely written in <uri link="http://www.python.org">Python</uri>
31 and <uri link="http://www.gnu.org/software/bash">Bash</uri> and therefore fully
32 visible to the users as both are scripting languages.
33 </p>
34
35 <p>
36 Most users will work with Portage through the <c>emerge</c> tool. This chapter
37 is not meant to duplicate the information available from the emerge man page.
38 For a complete rundown of emerge's options, please consult the man page:
39 </p>
40
41 <pre caption="Reading the emerge man page">
42 $ <i>man emerge</i>
43 </pre>
44
45 </body>
46 </section>
47 <section>
48 <title>The Portage Tree</title>
49 <subsection>
50 <title>Ebuilds</title>
51 <body>
52
53 <p>
54 When we talk about packages, we often mean software titles that are available to
55 the Gentoo users through the Portage tree. The Portage tree is a collection of
56 <e>ebuilds</e>, files that contain all information Portage needs to maintain
57 software (install, search, query, ...). These ebuilds reside in
58 <path>/usr/portage</path> by default.
59 </p>
60
61 <p>
62 Whenever you ask Portage to perform some action regarding software titles, it
63 will use the ebuilds on your system as a base. It is therefore important that
64 you regularly update the ebuilds on your system so Portage knows about new
65 software, security updates, etc.
66 </p>
67
68 </body>
69 </subsection>
70 <subsection>
71 <title>Updating the Portage Tree</title>
72 <body>
73
74 <p>
75 The Portage tree is usually updated with <uri
76 link="http://rsync.samba.org/">rsync</uri>, a fast incremental file transfer
77 utility. Updating is fairly simple as the <c>emerge</c> command provides a
78 front-end for rsync:
79 </p>
80
81 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
82 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
83 </pre>
84
85 <p>
86 If you are unable to rsync due to firewall restrictions you can still update
87 your Portage tree by using our daily generated Portage tree snapshots. The
88 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> tool automatically fetches and installs the latest
89 snapshot on your system:
90 </p>
91
92 <pre caption="Running emerge-webrsync">
93 # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
94 </pre>
95
96 </body>
97 </subsection>
98 </section>
99 <section>
100 <title>Maintaining Software</title>
101 <subsection>
102 <title>Searching for Software</title>
103 <body>
104
105 <p>
106 To search through the Portage tree after software titles, you can use
107 <c>emerge</c> built-in search capabilities. By default, <c>emerge --search</c>
108 returns the names of packages whose title matches (either fully or partially)
109 the given search term.
110 </p>
111
112 <p>
113 For instance, to search for all packages who have "pdf" in their name:
114 </p>
115
116 <pre caption="Searching for pdf-named packages">
117 $ <i>emerge --search pdf</i>
118 </pre>
119
120 <p>
121 If you want to search through the descriptions as well you can use the
122 <c>--searchdesc</c> (or <c>-S</c>) switch:
123 </p>
124
125 <pre caption="Searching for pdf-related packages">
126 $ <i>emerge --searchdesc pdf</i>
127 </pre>
128
129 <p>
130 When you take a look at the output, you'll notice that it gives you a lot of
131 information. The fields are clearly labelled so we won't go further into their
132 meanings:
133 </p>
134
135 <pre caption="Example 'emerge --search' output">
136 * net-print/cups-pdf
137 Latest version available: 1.5.2
138 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
139 Size of downloaded files: 15 kB
140 Homepage: http://cip.physik.uni-wuerzburg.de/~vrbehr/cups-pdf/
141 Description: Provides a virtual printer for CUPS to produce PDF files.
142 License: GPL-2
143 </pre>
144
145 </body>
146 </subsection>
147 <subsection>
148 <title>Installing Software</title>
149 <body>
150
151 <p>
152 Once you've found a software title to your liking, you can easily install it
153 with <c>emerge</c>: just add the package name. For instance, to install
154 <c>gnumeric</c>:
155 </p>
156
157 <pre caption="Installing gnumeric">
158 # <i>emerge gnumeric</i>
159 </pre>
160
161 <p>
162 Since many applications depend on each other, any attempt to install a certain
163 software package might result in the installation of several dependencies as
164 well. Don't worry, Portage handles dependencies well. If you want to find out
165 what Portage <e>would</e> install when you ask it to install a certain package,
166 add the <c>--pretend</c> switch. For instance:
167 </p>
168
169 <pre caption="Pretend to install gnumeric">
170 # <i>emerge --pretend gnumeric</i>
171 </pre>
172
173 <p>
174 When you ask Portage to install a package, it will download the necessary source
175 code from the internet (if necessary) and store it by default in
176 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. After this it will unpack, compile and
177 install the package. If you want Portage to only download the sources without
178 installing them, add the <c>--fetchonly</c> option to the <c>emerge</c> command:
179 </p>
180
181 <pre caption="Download the sourcecode for gnumeric">
182 # <i>emerge --fetchonly gnumeric</i>
183 </pre>
184
185 </body>
186 </subsection>
187 <subsection>
188 <title>Finding Installed Package Documentation</title>
189 <body>
190
191 <p>
192 Many packages come with their own documentation. Sometimes, the <c>doc</c> USE
193 flag determines whether the package documentation should be installed or not.
194 You can check the existence of a <c>doc</c> USE flag with the <c>emerge -vp
195 &lt;package name&gt;</c> command.
196 </p>
197
198 <pre caption="Checking the existence of a doc USE flag">
199 <comment>(alsa-lib is just an example, of course.)</comment>
200 # <i>emerge -vp alsa-lib</i>
201 [ebuild N ] media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1 -debug +doc 698 kB
202 </pre>
203
204 <p>
205 The best way of enabling the <c>doc</c> USE flag is doing it on a per-package
206 basis via <path>/etc/portage/package.use</path>, so that you get documentation
207 only for packages that you are interested in. Enabling this flag globally is
208 known to cause problems with circular dependencies. For more information, please
209 read the <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE Flags</uri> chapter.
210 </p>
211
212 <p>
213 Once the package installed, its documentation is generally found in a
214 subdirectory named after the package under the <path>/usr/share/doc</path>
215 directory. You can also list all installed files with the <c>equery</c> tool
216 which is part of the <c>app-portage/gentoolkit</c> <uri
217 link="/doc/en/gentoolkit.xml">package</uri>.
218 </p>
219
220 <pre caption="Locating package documentation">
221 # <i>ls -l /usr/share/doc/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1</i>
222 total 28
223 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 669 May 17 21:54 ChangeLog.gz
224 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 9373 May 17 21:54 COPYING.gz
225 drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 8560 May 17 21:54 html
226 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 196 May 17 21:54 TODO.gz
227
228 <comment>(Alternatively, use equery to locate interesting files:)</comment>
229 # <i>equery files alsa-lib | less</i>
230 media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1
231 * Contents of media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1:
232 /usr
233 /usr/bin
234 /usr/bin/alsalisp
235 <comment>(Output truncated)</comment>
236 </pre>
237
238 </body>
239 </subsection>
240 <subsection>
241 <title>Removing Software</title>
242 <body>
243
244 <p>
245 When you want to remove a software package from your system, use <c>emerge
246 --unmerge</c>. This will tell Portage to remove all files installed by that
247 package from your system <e>except</e> the configuration files of that
248 application if you have altered those after the installation. Leaving the
249 configuration files allows you to continue working with the package if you ever
250 decide to install it again.
251 </p>
252
253 <p>
254 However, a <brite>big warning</brite> applies: Portage will <e>not</e> check if
255 the package you want to remove is required by another package. It will however
256 warn you when you want to remove an important package that breaks your system
257 if you unmerge it.
258 </p>
259
260 <pre caption="Removing gnumeric from the system">
261 # <i>emerge --unmerge gnumeric</i>
262 </pre>
263
264 <p>
265 When you remove a package from your system, the dependencies of that package
266 that were installed automatically when you installed the software are left. To
267 have Portage locate all dependencies that can now be removed, use
268 <c>emerge</c>'s <c>--depclean</c> functionality. We will talk about this later
269 on.
270 </p>
271
272 </body>
273 </subsection>
274 <subsection>
275 <title>Updating your System</title>
276 <body>
277
278 <p>
279 To keep your system in perfect shape (and not to mention install the latest
280 security updates) you need to update your system regularly. Since Portage only
281 checks the ebuilds in your Portage tree you first have to update your Portage
282 tree. When your Portage tree is updated, you can update your system with
283 <c>emerge --update world</c>. In the next example, we'll also use the
284 <c>--ask</c> switch which will tell Portage to display the list of packages it
285 wants to upgrade and ask you if you want to continue:
286 </p>
287
288 <pre caption="Updating your system">
289 # <i>emerge --update --ask world</i>
290 </pre>
291
292 <p>
293 Portage will then search for newer version of the applications you have
294 installed. However, it will only verify the versions for the applications you
295 have <e>explicitly</e> installed (the applications listed in
296 <path>/var/lib/portage/world</path>) - it does not thoroughly check their
297 dependencies. If you want to update the dependencies of those packages as well,
298 add the <c>--deep</c> argument:
299 </p>
300
301 <pre caption="Updating your system with dependencies">
302 # <i>emerge --update --deep world</i>
303 </pre>
304
305 <p>
306 Still, this doesn't mean <e>all packages</e>: some packages on your system are
307 needed during the compile and build process of packages, but once that package
308 is installed, these dependencies are no longer required. Portage calls those
309 <e>build dependencies</e>. To include those in an update cycle, add
310 <c>--with-bdeps=y</c>:
311 </p>
312
313 <pre caption="Updating your entire system">
314 # <i>emerge --update --deep --with-bdeps=y world</i>
315 </pre>
316
317 <p>
318 Since security updates also happen in packages you have not explicitly installed
319 on your system (but that are pulled in as dependencies of other programs), it
320 is recommended to run this command once in a while.
321 </p>
322
323 <p>
324 If you have altered any of your <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>
325 lately you might want to add <c>--newuse</c> as well. Portage will then verify
326 if the change requires the installation of new packages or recompilation of
327 existing ones:
328 </p>
329
330 <pre caption="Performing a full update">
331 # <i>emerge --update --deep --with-bdeps=y --newuse world</i>
332 </pre>
333
334 </body>
335 </subsection>
336 <subsection>
337 <title>Metapackages</title>
338 <body>
339
340 <p>
341 Some packages in the Portage tree don't have any real content but are used to
342 install a collection of packages. For instance, the <c>kde-meta</c> package will
343 install a complete KDE environment on your system by pulling in various
344 KDE-related packages as dependencies.
345 </p>
346
347 <p>
348 If you ever want to remove such a package from your system, running <c>emerge
349 --unmerge</c> on the package won't have much effect as the dependencies remain
350 on the system.
351 </p>
352
353 <p>
354 Portage has the functionality to remove orphaned dependencies as well, but since
355 the availability of software is dynamically dependent you first need to update
356 your entire system fully, including the new changes you applied when changing
357 USE flags. After this you can run <c>emerge --depclean</c> to remove the
358 orphaned dependencies. When this is done, you need to rebuild the applications
359 that were dynamically linked to the now-removed software titles but don't
360 require them anymore.
361 </p>
362
363 <p>
364 All this is handled with the following three commands:
365 </p>
366
367 <pre caption="Removing orphaned dependencies">
368 # <i>emerge --update --deep --newuse world</i>
369 # <i>emerge --depclean</i>
370 # <i>revdep-rebuild</i>
371 </pre>
372
373 <p>
374 <c>revdep-rebuild</c> is provided by the <c>gentoolkit</c> package; don't forget
375 to emerge it first:
376 </p>
377
378 <pre caption="Installing the gentoolkit package">
379 # <i>emerge gentoolkit</i>
380 </pre>
381
382 </body>
383 </subsection>
384 </section>
385 <section id="license">
386 <title>Licenses</title>
387 <subsection>
388 <body>
389
390 <p>
391 Beginning with Portage version 2.1.7, you can accept or reject software
392 installation based on its license. All packages in the tree contain a
393 <c>LICENSE</c> entry in their ebuilds. Running <c>emerge --search
394 packagename</c> will tell you the package's license.
395 </p>
396
397 <p>
398 By default, Portage permits all licenses, except End User License Agreements
399 (EULAs) that require reading and signing an acceptance agreement.
400 </p>
401
402 <p>
403 The variable that controls permitted licenses is <c>ACCEPT_LICENSE</c>, which
404 can be set in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
405 </p>
406
407 <pre caption="Default ACCEPT_LICENSE in /etc/make.conf">
408 ACCEPT_LICENSE="* -@EULA"
409 </pre>
410
411 <p>
412 With this configuration, packages that require interaction during installation
413 to approve their EULA <e>will not</e> be installed. Packages without an EULA
414 <e>will</e> be installed.
415 </p>
416
417 <p>
418 You can set <c>ACCEPT_LICENSE</c> globally in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, or
419 you can specify it on a per-package basis in
420 <path>/etc/portage/package.license</path>.
421 </p>
422
423 <p>
424 For example, if you want to allow the <c>truecrypt-2.7</c> license for
425 <c>app-crypt/truecrypt</c>, add the following to
426 <path>/etc/portage/package.license</path>:
427 </p>
428
429 <pre caption="Specifying a truecrypt license in package.license">
430 app-crypt/truecrypt truecrypt-2.7
431 </pre>
432
433 <p>
434 This permits installation of truecrypt versions that have the
435 <c>truecrypt-2.7</c> license, but not versions with the <c>truecrypt-2.8</c>
436 license.
437 </p>
438
439 <impo>
440 Licenses are stored in <path>/usr/portage/licenses</path>, and license groups
441 are kept in <path>/usr/portage/profiles/license_groups</path>. The first entry
442 of each line in CAPITAL letters is the name of the license group, and every
443 entry after that is an individual license.
444 </impo>
445
446 <p>
447 License groups defined in <c>ACCEPT_LICENSE</c> are prefixed with an <b>@</b>
448 sign. Here's an example of a system that globally permits the GPL-compatible
449 license group, as well as a few other groups and individual licenses:
450 </p>
451
452 <pre caption="ACCEPT_LICENSE in /etc/make.conf">
453 ACCEPT_LICENSE="@GPL-COMPATIBLE @OSI-APPROVED @EULA atheros-hal BitstreamVera"
454 </pre>
455
456 <p>
457 If you want only free software and documentation on your system, you might use
458 the following setup:
459 </p>
460
461 <pre caption="Use only free licenses">
462 ACCEPT_LICENSE="-* @FREE"
463 </pre>
464
465 <p>
466 In this case, "free" is mostly defined by the <uri
467 link="http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/free-sw.html">FSF</uri> and <uri
468 link="http://www.opensource.org/docs/osd">OSI</uri>. Any package whose license
469 does not meet these requirements will not be installed on your system.
470 </p>
471
472 </body>
473 </subsection>
474 </section>
475 <section>
476 <title>When Portage is Complaining...</title>
477 <subsection>
478 <title>About SLOTs, Virtuals, Branches, Architectures and Profiles</title>
479 <body>
480
481 <p>
482 As we stated before, Portage is extremely powerful and supports many features
483 that other software management tools lack. To understand this, we explain a few
484 aspects of Portage without going into too much detail.
485 </p>
486
487 <p>
488 With Portage different versions of a single package can coexist on a system.
489 While other distributions tend to name their package to those versions (like
490 <c>freetype</c> and <c>freetype2</c>) Portage uses a technology called
491 <e>SLOT</e>s. An ebuild declares a certain SLOT for its version. Ebuilds with
492 different SLOTs can coexist on the same system. For instance, the
493 <c>freetype</c> package has ebuilds with <c>SLOT="1"</c> and <c>SLOT="2"</c>.
494 </p>
495
496 <p>
497 There are also packages that provide the same functionality but are implemented
498 differently. For instance, <c>metalogd</c>, <c>sysklogd</c> and <c>syslog-ng</c>
499 are all system loggers. Applications that rely on the availability of "a system
500 logger" cannot depend on, for instance, <c>metalogd</c>, as the other system
501 loggers are as good a choice as any. Portage allows for <e>virtuals</e>: each
502 system logger provides <c>virtual/syslog</c> so that applications can depend on
503 <c>virtual/syslog</c>.
504 </p>
505
506 <p>
507 Software in the Portage tree can reside in different branches. By default your
508 system only accepts packages that Gentoo deems stable. Most new software titles,
509 when committed, are added to the testing branch, meaning more testing needs to
510 be done before it is marked as stable. Although you will see the ebuilds for
511 those software in the Portage tree, Portage will not update them before they are
512 placed in the stable branch.
513 </p>
514
515 <p>
516 Some software is only available for a few architectures. Or the software doesn't
517 work on the other architectures, or it needs more testing, or the developer that
518 committed the software to the Portage tree is unable to verify if the package
519 works on different architectures.
520 </p>
521
522 <p>
523 Each Gentoo installation adheres to a certain <c>profile</c> which contains,
524 amongst other information, the list of packages that are required for a system
525 to function normally.
526 </p>
527
528 </body>
529 </subsection>
530 <subsection id="blocked">
531 <title>Blocked Packages</title>
532 <body>
533
534 <pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (with --pretend)">
535 [blocks B ] mail-mta/ssmtp (is blocking mail-mta/postfix-2.2.2-r1)
536 </pre>
537
538 <pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (without --pretend)">
539 !!! Error: the mail-mta/postfix package conflicts with another package.
540 !!! both can't be installed on the same system together.
541 !!! Please use 'emerge --pretend' to determine blockers.
542 </pre>
543
544 <p>
545 Ebuilds contain specific fields that inform Portage about its dependencies.
546 There are two possible dependencies: build dependencies, declared in
547 <c>DEPEND</c> and run-time dependencies, declared in <c>RDEPEND</c>. When one of
548 these dependencies explicitly marks a package or virtual as being <e>not</e>
549 compatible, it triggers a blockage.
550 </p>
551
552 <p>
553 While recent versions of Portage are smart enough to work around minor blockages
554 without user intervention, occasionally you will need to fix it yourself, as
555 explained below.
556 </p>
557
558 <p>
559 To fix a blockage, you can choose to not install the package or unmerge the
560 conflicting package first. In the given example, you can opt not to install
561 <c>postfix</c> or to remove <c>ssmtp</c> first.
562 </p>
563
564 <p>
565 You may also see blocking packages with specific atoms, such as
566 <b>&lt;</b>media-video/mplayer-1.0_rc1-r2. In this case, updating to a more
567 recent version of the blocking package would remove the block.
568 </p>
569
570 <p>
571 It is also possible that two packages that are yet to be installed are blocking
572 each other. In this rare case, you should find out why you need to install both.
573 In most cases you can do with one of the packages alone. If not, please file a
574 bug on <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">Gentoo's bugtracking system</uri>.
575 </p>
576
577 </body>
578 </subsection>
579 <subsection id="masked">
580 <title>Masked Packages</title>
581 <body>
582
583 <pre caption="Portage warning about masked packages">
584 !!! all ebuilds that could satisfy "bootsplash" have been masked.
585 </pre>
586
587 <pre caption="Portage warning about masked packages - reason">
588 !!! possible candidates are:
589
590 - gnome-base/gnome-2.8.0_pre1 (masked by: <i>~x86 keyword</i>)
591 - lm-sensors/lm-sensors-2.8.7 (masked by: <i>-sparc keyword</i>)
592 - sys-libs/glibc-2.3.4.20040808 (masked by: <i>-* keyword</i>)
593 - dev-util/cvsd-1.0.2 (masked by: <i>missing keyword</i>)
594 - games-fps/unreal-tournament-451 (masked by: <i>package.mask</i>)
595 - sys-libs/glibc-2.3.2-r11 (masked by: <i>profile</i>)
596 - net-im/skype-2.1.0.81 (masked by: skype-eula <i>license</i>(s))
597 </pre>
598
599 <p>
600 When you want to install a package that isn't available for your system, you
601 will receive this masking error. You should try installing a different
602 application that is available for your system or wait until the package is put
603 available. There is always a reason why a package is masked:
604 </p>
605
606 <ul>
607 <li>
608 <b>~arch keyword</b> means that the application is not tested sufficiently
609 to be put in the stable branch. Wait a few days or weeks and try again.
610 </li>
611 <li>
612 <b>-arch keyword</b> or <b>-* keyword</b> means that the application does
613 not work on your architecture. If you believe the package does work file
614 a bug at our <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> website.
615 </li>
616 <li>
617 <b>missing keyword</b> means that the application has not been tested on
618 your architecture yet. Ask the architecture porting team to test the package
619 or test it for them and report your findings on our <uri
620 link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> website.
621 </li>
622 <li>
623 <b>package.mask</b> means that the package has been found corrupt, unstable
624 or worse and has been deliberately marked as do-not-use.
625 </li>
626 <li>
627 <b>profile</b> means that the package has been found not suitable for your
628 profile. The application might break your system if you installed it or is
629 just not compatible with the profile you use.
630 </li>
631 <li>
632 <b>license</b> means that the package's license is not compatible with your
633 <c>ACCEPT_LICENSE</c> setting. You must explicitly permit its license or
634 license group by setting it in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> or in
635 <path>/etc/portage/package.license</path>. Refer to <uri
636 link="#license">Licenses</uri> to learn how licenses work.
637 </li>
638 </ul>
639
640 </body>
641 </subsection>
642 <subsection id="USEdependency">
643 <title>Necessary USE Flag Changes</title>
644 <body>
645
646 <pre caption="Portage warning about USE flag change requirement">
647 The following USE changes are necessary to proceed:
648 #required by app-text/happypackage-2.0, required by happypackage (argument)
649 >=app-text/feelings-1.0.0 test
650 </pre>
651
652 <p>
653 The error message might also be displayed as follows, if <c>--autounmask</c>
654 isn't set:
655 </p>
656
657 <pre caption="Portage error about USE flag change requirement">
658 emerge: there are no ebuilds built with USE flags to satisfy "app-text/feelings[test]".
659 !!! One of the following packages is required to complete your request:
660 - app-text/feelings-1.0.0 (Change USE: +test)
661 (dependency required by "app-text/happypackage-2.0" [ebuild])
662 (dependency required by "happypackage" [argument])
663 </pre>
664
665 <p>
666 Such warning or error occurs when you want to install a package which not only
667 depends on another package, but also requires that that package is built with a
668 particular USE flag (or set of USE flags). In the given example, the package
669 <c>app-text/feelings</c> needs to be built with <c>USE="test"</c>, but this USE
670 flag is not set on the system.
671 </p>
672
673 <p>
674 To resolve this, either add the requested USE flag to your global USE flags in
675 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, or set it for the specific package in
676 <path>/etc/portage/package.use</path>.
677 </p>
678
679 </body>
680 </subsection>
681 <subsection id="missingdependencies">
682 <title>Missing Dependencies</title>
683 <body>
684
685 <pre caption="Portage warning about missing dependency">
686 emerge: there are no ebuilds to satisfy "&gt;=sys-devel/gcc-3.4.2-r4".
687
688 !!! Problem with ebuild sys-devel/gcc-3.4.2-r2
689 !!! Possibly a DEPEND/*DEPEND problem.
690 </pre>
691
692 <p>
693 The application you are trying to install depends on another package that is not
694 available for your system. Please check <uri
695 link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> if the issue is known and if not,
696 please report it. Unless you are mixing branches this should not occur and is
697 therefore a bug.
698 </p>
699
700 </body>
701 </subsection>
702 <subsection id="ambiguousebuild">
703 <title>Ambiguous Ebuild Name</title>
704 <body>
705
706 <pre caption="Portage warning about ambiguous ebuild names">
707 [ Results for search key : listen ]
708 [ Applications found : 2 ]
709
710 * dev-tinyos/listen [ Masked ]
711 Latest version available: 1.1.15
712 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
713 Size of files: 10,032 kB
714 Homepage: http://www.tinyos.net/
715 Description: Raw listen for TinyOS
716 License: BSD
717
718 * media-sound/listen [ Masked ]
719 Latest version available: 0.6.3
720 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
721 Size of files: 859 kB
722 Homepage: http://www.listen-project.org
723 Description: A Music player and management for GNOME
724 License: GPL-2
725
726 !!! The short ebuild name "listen" is ambiguous. Please specify
727 !!! one of the above fully-qualified ebuild names instead.
728 </pre>
729
730 <p>
731 The application you want to install has a name that corresponds with more than
732 one package. You need to supply the category name as well. Portage will inform
733 you of possible matches to choose from.
734 </p>
735
736 </body>
737 </subsection>
738 <subsection id="circulardependencies">
739 <title>Circular Dependencies</title>
740 <body>
741
742 <pre caption="Portage warning about circular dependencies">
743 !!! Error: circular dependencies:
744
745 ebuild / net-print/cups-1.1.15-r2 depends on ebuild / app-text/ghostscript-7.05.3-r1
746 ebuild / app-text/ghostscript-7.05.3-r1 depends on ebuild / net-print/cups-1.1.15-r2
747 </pre>
748
749 <p>
750 Two (or more) packages you want to install depend on each other and can
751 therefore not be installed. This is most likely a bug in the Portage tree.
752 Please resync after a while and try again. You can also check <uri
753 link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> if the issue is known and if not,
754 report it.
755 </p>
756
757 </body>
758 </subsection>
759 <subsection id="fetchfailed">
760 <title>Fetch failed</title>
761 <body>
762
763 <pre caption="Portage warning about fetch failed">
764 !!! Fetch failed for sys-libs/ncurses-5.4-r5, continuing...
765 <comment>(...)</comment>
766 !!! Some fetch errors were encountered. Please see above for details.
767 </pre>
768
769 <p>
770 Portage was unable to download the sources for the given application and will
771 try to continue installing the other applications (if applicable). This failure
772 can be due to a mirror that has not synchronised correctly or because the ebuild
773 points to an incorrect location. The server where the sources reside can also be
774 down for some reason.
775 </p>
776
777 <p>
778 Retry after one hour to see if the issue still persists.
779 </p>
780
781 </body>
782 </subsection>
783 <subsection id="profileprotect">
784 <title>System Profile Protection</title>
785 <body>
786
787 <pre caption="Portage warning about profile-protected package">
788 !!! Trying to unmerge package(s) in system profile. 'sys-apps/portage'
789 !!! This could be damaging to your system.
790 </pre>
791
792 <p>
793 You have asked to remove a package that is part of your system's core packages.
794 It is listed in your profile as required and should therefore not be removed
795 from the system.
796 </p>
797
798 </body>
799 </subsection>
800 <subsection id="digesterror">
801 <title>Digest Verification Failures</title>
802 <body>
803
804 <p>
805 Sometimes, when you attempt to emerge a package, it will fail with the message:
806 </p>
807
808 <pre caption="Digest verification failure">
809 &gt;&gt;&gt; checking ebuild checksums
810 !!! Digest verification failed:
811 </pre>
812
813 <p>
814 This is a sign that something is wrong with the Portage tree -- often, it is
815 because a developer may have made a mistake when committing a package to the
816 tree.
817 </p>
818
819 <p>
820 When the digest verification fails, do <e>not</e> try to re-digest the package
821 yourself. Running <c>ebuild foo manifest</c> will not fix the problem; it will
822 almost certainly make it worse!
823 </p>
824
825 <p>
826 Instead, wait an hour or two for the tree to settle down. It's likely that the
827 error was noticed right away, but it can take a little time for the fix to
828 trickle down the Portage tree. While you're waiting, check <uri
829 link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri> and see if anyone has reported
830 the problem yet. If not, go ahead and file a bug for the broken package.
831 </p>
832
833 <p>
834 Once you see that the bug has been fixed, you may want to re-sync to pick up
835 the fixed digest.
836 </p>
837
838 <impo>
839 This does <e>not</e> mean that you can re-sync your tree multiple times! As
840 stated in the rsync policy (when you run <c>emerge --sync</c>), users who sync
841 too often will be banned! In fact, it's better to just wait until your next
842 scheduled sync, so that you don't overload the rsync servers.
843 </impo>
844
845 </body>
846 </subsection>
847 </section>
848 </sections>

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