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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.80 2012/07/24 12:12:52 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <abstract>
12 This chapter explains the "simple" steps a user definitely needs to know to
13 maintain the software on his system.
14 </abstract>
15
16 <version>7</version>
17 <date>2012-08-15</date>
18
19 <section>
20 <title>Welcome to Portage</title>
21 <body>
22
23 <p>
24 Portage is probably Gentoo's most notable innovation in software management.
25 With its high flexibility and enormous amount of features it is frequently seen
26 as the best software management tool available for Linux.
27 </p>
28
29 <p>
30 Portage is completely written in <uri link="http://www.python.org">Python</uri>
31 and <uri link="http://www.gnu.org/software/bash">Bash</uri> and therefore fully
32 visible to the users as both are scripting languages.
33 </p>
34
35 <p>
36 Most users will work with Portage through the <c>emerge</c> tool. This chapter
37 is not meant to duplicate the information available from the emerge man page.
38 For a complete rundown of emerge's options, please consult the man page:
39 </p>
40
41 <pre caption="Reading the emerge man page">
42 $ <i>man emerge</i>
43 </pre>
44
45 </body>
46 </section>
47 <section>
48 <title>The Portage Tree</title>
49 <subsection>
50 <title>Ebuilds</title>
51 <body>
52
53 <p>
54 When we talk about packages, we often mean software titles that are available to
55 the Gentoo users through the Portage tree. The Portage tree is a collection of
56 <e>ebuilds</e>, files that contain all information Portage needs to maintain
57 software (install, search, query, ...). These ebuilds reside in
58 <path>/usr/portage</path> by default.
59 </p>
60
61 <p>
62 Whenever you ask Portage to perform some action regarding software titles, it
63 will use the ebuilds on your system as a base. It is therefore important that
64 you regularly update the ebuilds on your system so Portage knows about new
65 software, security updates, etc.
66 </p>
67
68 </body>
69 </subsection>
70 <subsection>
71 <title>Updating the Portage Tree</title>
72 <body>
73
74 <p>
75 The Portage tree is usually updated with <uri
76 link="http://rsync.samba.org/">rsync</uri>, a fast incremental file transfer
77 utility. Updating is fairly simple as the <c>emerge</c> command provides a
78 front-end for rsync:
79 </p>
80
81 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
82 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
83 </pre>
84
85 <p>
86 If you are unable to rsync due to firewall restrictions you can still update
87 your Portage tree by using our daily generated Portage tree snapshots. The
88 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> tool automatically fetches and installs the latest
89 snapshot on your system:
90 </p>
91
92 <pre caption="Running emerge-webrsync">
93 # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
94 </pre>
95
96 <p>
97 An additional advantage of using <c>emerge-webrsync</c> is that it allows the
98 administrator to only pull in portage tree snapshots that are signed by the
99 Gentoo release engineering GPG key. More information on this can be found
100 in the <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=3">Portage Features</uri> section on
101 <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=3#webrsync-gpg">Fetching Validated Portage Tree
102 Snapshots</uri>.
103 </p>
104
105 </body>
106 </subsection>
107 </section>
108 <section>
109 <title>Maintaining Software</title>
110 <subsection>
111 <title>Searching for Software</title>
112 <body>
113
114 <p>
115 To search through the Portage tree after software titles, you can use
116 <c>emerge</c> built-in search capabilities. By default, <c>emerge --search</c>
117 returns the names of packages whose title matches (either fully or partially)
118 the given search term.
119 </p>
120
121 <p>
122 For instance, to search for all packages who have "pdf" in their name:
123 </p>
124
125 <pre caption="Searching for pdf-named packages">
126 $ <i>emerge --search pdf</i>
127 </pre>
128
129 <p>
130 If you want to search through the descriptions as well you can use the
131 <c>--searchdesc</c> (or <c>-S</c>) switch:
132 </p>
133
134 <pre caption="Searching for pdf-related packages">
135 $ <i>emerge --searchdesc pdf</i>
136 </pre>
137
138 <p>
139 When you take a look at the output, you'll notice that it gives you a lot of
140 information. The fields are clearly labelled so we won't go further into their
141 meanings:
142 </p>
143
144 <pre caption="Example 'emerge --search' output">
145 * net-print/cups-pdf
146 Latest version available: 1.5.2
147 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
148 Size of downloaded files: 15 kB
149 Homepage: http://cip.physik.uni-wuerzburg.de/~vrbehr/cups-pdf/
150 Description: Provides a virtual printer for CUPS to produce PDF files.
151 License: GPL-2
152 </pre>
153
154 </body>
155 </subsection>
156 <subsection>
157 <title>Installing Software</title>
158 <body>
159
160 <p>
161 Once you've found a software title to your liking, you can easily install it
162 with <c>emerge</c>: just add the package name. For instance, to install
163 <c>gnumeric</c>:
164 </p>
165
166 <pre caption="Installing gnumeric">
167 # <i>emerge gnumeric</i>
168 </pre>
169
170 <p>
171 Since many applications depend on each other, any attempt to install a certain
172 software package might result in the installation of several dependencies as
173 well. Don't worry, Portage handles dependencies well. If you want to find out
174 what Portage <e>would</e> install when you ask it to install a certain package,
175 add the <c>--pretend</c> switch. For instance:
176 </p>
177
178 <pre caption="Pretend to install gnumeric">
179 # <i>emerge --pretend gnumeric</i>
180 </pre>
181
182 <p>
183 When you ask Portage to install a package, it will download the necessary source
184 code from the internet (if necessary) and store it by default in
185 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. After this it will unpack, compile and
186 install the package. If you want Portage to only download the sources without
187 installing them, add the <c>--fetchonly</c> option to the <c>emerge</c> command:
188 </p>
189
190 <pre caption="Download the sourcecode for gnumeric">
191 # <i>emerge --fetchonly gnumeric</i>
192 </pre>
193
194 </body>
195 </subsection>
196 <subsection>
197 <title>Finding Installed Package Documentation</title>
198 <body>
199
200 <p>
201 Many packages come with their own documentation. Sometimes, the <c>doc</c> USE
202 flag determines whether the package documentation should be installed or not.
203 You can check the existence of a <c>doc</c> USE flag with the <c>emerge -vp
204 &lt;package name&gt;</c> command.
205 </p>
206
207 <pre caption="Checking the existence of a doc USE flag">
208 <comment>(alsa-lib is just an example, of course.)</comment>
209 # <i>emerge -vp alsa-lib</i>
210 [ebuild N ] media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1 -debug +doc 698 kB
211 </pre>
212
213 <p>
214 The best way of enabling the <c>doc</c> USE flag is doing it on a per-package
215 basis via <path>/etc/portage/package.use</path>, so that you get documentation
216 only for packages that you are interested in. Enabling this flag globally is
217 known to cause problems with circular dependencies. For more information, please
218 read the <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE Flags</uri> chapter.
219 </p>
220
221 <p>
222 Once the package installed, its documentation is generally found in a
223 subdirectory named after the package under the <path>/usr/share/doc</path>
224 directory. You can also list all installed files with the <c>equery</c> tool
225 which is part of the <c>app-portage/gentoolkit</c> <uri
226 link="/doc/en/gentoolkit.xml">package</uri>.
227 </p>
228
229 <pre caption="Locating package documentation">
230 # <i>ls -l /usr/share/doc/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1</i>
231 total 28
232 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 669 May 17 21:54 ChangeLog.gz
233 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 9373 May 17 21:54 COPYING.gz
234 drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 8560 May 17 21:54 html
235 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 196 May 17 21:54 TODO.gz
236
237 <comment>(Alternatively, use equery to locate interesting files:)</comment>
238 # <i>equery files alsa-lib | less</i>
239 media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1
240 * Contents of media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1:
241 /usr
242 /usr/bin
243 /usr/bin/alsalisp
244 <comment>(Output truncated)</comment>
245 </pre>
246
247 </body>
248 </subsection>
249 <subsection>
250 <title>Removing Software</title>
251 <body>
252
253 <p>
254 When you want to remove a software package from your system, use <c>emerge
255 --unmerge</c>. This will tell Portage to remove all files installed by that
256 package from your system <e>except</e> the configuration files of that
257 application if you have altered those after the installation. Leaving the
258 configuration files allows you to continue working with the package if you ever
259 decide to install it again.
260 </p>
261
262 <p>
263 However, a <brite>big warning</brite> applies: Portage will <e>not</e> check if
264 the package you want to remove is required by another package. It will however
265 warn you when you want to remove an important package that breaks your system
266 if you unmerge it.
267 </p>
268
269 <pre caption="Removing gnumeric from the system">
270 # <i>emerge --unmerge gnumeric</i>
271 </pre>
272
273 <p>
274 When you remove a package from your system, the dependencies of that package
275 that were installed automatically when you installed the software are left. To
276 have Portage locate all dependencies that can now be removed, use
277 <c>emerge</c>'s <c>--depclean</c> functionality. We will talk about this later
278 on.
279 </p>
280
281 </body>
282 </subsection>
283 <subsection>
284 <title>Updating your System</title>
285 <body>
286
287 <p>
288 To keep your system in perfect shape (and not to mention install the latest
289 security updates) you need to update your system regularly. Since Portage only
290 checks the ebuilds in your Portage tree you first have to update your Portage
291 tree. When your Portage tree is updated, you can update your system with
292 <c>emerge --update world</c>. In the next example, we'll also use the
293 <c>--ask</c> switch which will tell Portage to display the list of packages it
294 wants to upgrade and ask you if you want to continue:
295 </p>
296
297 <pre caption="Updating your system">
298 # <i>emerge --update --ask world</i>
299 </pre>
300
301 <p>
302 Portage will then search for newer version of the applications you have
303 installed. However, it will only verify the versions for the applications you
304 have <e>explicitly</e> installed (the applications listed in
305 <path>/var/lib/portage/world</path>) - it does not thoroughly check their
306 dependencies. If you want to update the dependencies of those packages as well,
307 add the <c>--deep</c> argument:
308 </p>
309
310 <pre caption="Updating your system with dependencies">
311 # <i>emerge --update --deep world</i>
312 </pre>
313
314 <p>
315 Still, this doesn't mean <e>all packages</e>: some packages on your system are
316 needed during the compile and build process of packages, but once that package
317 is installed, these dependencies are no longer required. Portage calls those
318 <e>build dependencies</e>. To include those in an update cycle, add
319 <c>--with-bdeps=y</c>:
320 </p>
321
322 <pre caption="Updating your entire system">
323 # <i>emerge --update --deep --with-bdeps=y world</i>
324 </pre>
325
326 <p>
327 Since security updates also happen in packages you have not explicitly installed
328 on your system (but that are pulled in as dependencies of other programs), it
329 is recommended to run this command once in a while.
330 </p>
331
332 <p>
333 If you have altered any of your <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>
334 lately you might want to add <c>--newuse</c> as well. Portage will then verify
335 if the change requires the installation of new packages or recompilation of
336 existing ones:
337 </p>
338
339 <pre caption="Performing a full update">
340 # <i>emerge --update --deep --with-bdeps=y --newuse world</i>
341 </pre>
342
343 </body>
344 </subsection>
345 <subsection>
346 <title>Metapackages</title>
347 <body>
348
349 <p>
350 Some packages in the Portage tree don't have any real content but are used to
351 install a collection of packages. For instance, the <c>kde-meta</c> package will
352 install a complete KDE environment on your system by pulling in various
353 KDE-related packages as dependencies.
354 </p>
355
356 <p>
357 If you ever want to remove such a package from your system, running <c>emerge
358 --unmerge</c> on the package won't have much effect as the dependencies remain
359 on the system.
360 </p>
361
362 <p>
363 Portage has the functionality to remove orphaned dependencies as well, but since
364 the availability of software is dynamically dependent you first need to update
365 your entire system fully, including the new changes you applied when changing
366 USE flags. After this you can run <c>emerge --depclean</c> to remove the
367 orphaned dependencies. When this is done, you need to rebuild the applications
368 that were dynamically linked to the now-removed software titles but don't
369 require them anymore.
370 </p>
371
372 <p>
373 All this is handled with the following three commands:
374 </p>
375
376 <pre caption="Removing orphaned dependencies">
377 # <i>emerge --update --deep --newuse world</i>
378 # <i>emerge --depclean</i>
379 # <i>revdep-rebuild</i>
380 </pre>
381
382 <p>
383 <c>revdep-rebuild</c> is provided by the <c>gentoolkit</c> package; don't forget
384 to emerge it first:
385 </p>
386
387 <pre caption="Installing the gentoolkit package">
388 # <i>emerge gentoolkit</i>
389 </pre>
390
391 </body>
392 </subsection>
393 </section>
394 <section id="license">
395 <title>Licenses</title>
396 <subsection>
397 <body>
398
399 <p>
400 Beginning with Portage version 2.1.7, you can accept or reject software
401 installation based on its license. All packages in the tree contain a
402 <c>LICENSE</c> entry in their ebuilds. Running <c>emerge --search
403 packagename</c> will tell you the package's license.
404 </p>
405
406 <p>
407 By default, Portage permits all licenses, except End User License Agreements
408 (EULAs) that require reading and signing an acceptance agreement.
409 </p>
410
411 <p>
412 The variable that controls permitted licenses is <c>ACCEPT_LICENSE</c>, which
413 can be set in <path>/etc/portage/make.conf</path>:
414 </p>
415
416 <pre caption="Default ACCEPT_LICENSE in /etc/portage/make.conf">
417 ACCEPT_LICENSE="* -@EULA"
418 </pre>
419
420 <p>
421 With this configuration, packages that require interaction during installation
422 to approve their EULA <e>will not</e> be installed. Packages without an EULA
423 <e>will</e> be installed.
424 </p>
425
426 <p>
427 You can set <c>ACCEPT_LICENSE</c> globally in <path>/etc/portage/make.conf</path>
428 , or you can specify it on a per-package basis in
429 <path>/etc/portage/package.license</path>.
430 </p>
431
432 <p>
433 For example, if you want to allow the <c>truecrypt-2.7</c> license for
434 <c>app-crypt/truecrypt</c>, add the following to
435 <path>/etc/portage/package.license</path>:
436 </p>
437
438 <pre caption="Specifying a truecrypt license in package.license">
439 app-crypt/truecrypt truecrypt-2.7
440 </pre>
441
442 <p>
443 This permits installation of truecrypt versions that have the
444 <c>truecrypt-2.7</c> license, but not versions with the <c>truecrypt-2.8</c>
445 license.
446 </p>
447
448 <impo>
449 Licenses are stored in <path>/usr/portage/licenses</path>, and license groups
450 are kept in <path>/usr/portage/profiles/license_groups</path>. The first entry
451 of each line in CAPITAL letters is the name of the license group, and every
452 entry after that is an individual license.
453 </impo>
454
455 <p>
456 License groups defined in <c>ACCEPT_LICENSE</c> are prefixed with an <b>@</b>
457 sign. Here's an example of a system that globally permits the GPL-compatible
458 license group, as well as a few other groups and individual licenses:
459 </p>
460
461 <pre caption="ACCEPT_LICENSE in /etc/portage/make.conf">
462 ACCEPT_LICENSE="@GPL-COMPATIBLE @OSI-APPROVED @EULA atheros-hal BitstreamVera"
463 </pre>
464
465 <p>
466 If you want only free software and documentation on your system, you might use
467 the following setup:
468 </p>
469
470 <pre caption="Use only free licenses">
471 ACCEPT_LICENSE="-* @FREE"
472 </pre>
473
474 <p>
475 In this case, "free" is mostly defined by the <uri
476 link="http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/free-sw.html">FSF</uri> and <uri
477 link="http://www.opensource.org/docs/osd">OSI</uri>. Any package whose license
478 does not meet these requirements will not be installed on your system.
479 </p>
480
481 </body>
482 </subsection>
483 </section>
484 <section>
485 <title>When Portage is Complaining...</title>
486 <subsection>
487 <title>About SLOTs, Virtuals, Branches, Architectures and Profiles</title>
488 <body>
489
490 <p>
491 As we stated before, Portage is extremely powerful and supports many features
492 that other software management tools lack. To understand this, we explain a few
493 aspects of Portage without going into too much detail.
494 </p>
495
496 <p>
497 With Portage different versions of a single package can coexist on a system.
498 While other distributions tend to name their package to those versions (like
499 <c>freetype</c> and <c>freetype2</c>) Portage uses a technology called
500 <e>SLOT</e>s. An ebuild declares a certain SLOT for its version. Ebuilds with
501 different SLOTs can coexist on the same system. For instance, the
502 <c>freetype</c> package has ebuilds with <c>SLOT="1"</c> and <c>SLOT="2"</c>.
503 </p>
504
505 <p>
506 There are also packages that provide the same functionality but are implemented
507 differently. For instance, <c>metalogd</c>, <c>sysklogd</c> and <c>syslog-ng</c>
508 are all system loggers. Applications that rely on the availability of "a system
509 logger" cannot depend on, for instance, <c>metalogd</c>, as the other system
510 loggers are as good a choice as any. Portage allows for <e>virtuals</e>: each
511 system logger is listed as an "exclusive" dependency of the logging service in the
512 <c>logger</c> virtual package of the <c>virtual</c> category, so that
513 applications can depend on the <c>virtual/logger</c> package. When installed,
514 the package will pull in the first logging package mentioned in the package,
515 unless a logging package was already installed (in which case the virtual is
516 satisfied).
517 </p>
518
519 <p>
520 Software in the Portage tree can reside in different branches. By default your
521 system only accepts packages that Gentoo deems stable. Most new software titles,
522 when committed, are added to the testing branch, meaning more testing needs to
523 be done before it is marked as stable. Although you will see the ebuilds for
524 those software in the Portage tree, Portage will not update them before they are
525 placed in the stable branch.
526 </p>
527
528 <p>
529 Some software is only available for a few architectures. Or the software doesn't
530 work on the other architectures, or it needs more testing, or the developer that
531 committed the software to the Portage tree is unable to verify if the package
532 works on different architectures.
533 </p>
534
535 <p>
536 Each Gentoo installation adheres to a certain <c>profile</c> which contains,
537 amongst other information, the list of packages that are required for a system
538 to function normally.
539 </p>
540
541 </body>
542 </subsection>
543 <subsection id="blocked">
544 <title>Blocked Packages</title>
545 <body>
546
547 <pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (with --pretend)">
548 [blocks B ] mail-mta/ssmtp (is blocking mail-mta/postfix-2.2.2-r1)
549 </pre>
550
551 <pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (without --pretend)">
552 !!! Error: the mail-mta/postfix package conflicts with another package.
553 !!! both can't be installed on the same system together.
554 !!! Please use 'emerge --pretend' to determine blockers.
555 </pre>
556
557 <p>
558 Ebuilds contain specific fields that inform Portage about its dependencies.
559 There are two possible dependencies: build dependencies, declared in
560 <c>DEPEND</c> and run-time dependencies, declared in <c>RDEPEND</c>. When one of
561 these dependencies explicitly marks a package or virtual as being <e>not</e>
562 compatible, it triggers a blockage.
563 </p>
564
565 <p>
566 While recent versions of Portage are smart enough to work around minor blockages
567 without user intervention, occasionally you will need to fix it yourself, as
568 explained below.
569 </p>
570
571 <p>
572 To fix a blockage, you can choose to not install the package or unmerge the
573 conflicting package first. In the given example, you can opt not to install
574 <c>postfix</c> or to remove <c>ssmtp</c> first.
575 </p>
576
577 <p>
578 You may also see blocking packages with specific atoms, such as
579 <b>&lt;</b>media-video/mplayer-1.0_rc1-r2. In this case, updating to a more
580 recent version of the blocking package would remove the block.
581 </p>
582
583 <p>
584 It is also possible that two packages that are yet to be installed are blocking
585 each other. In this rare case, you should find out why you need to install both.
586 In most cases you can do with one of the packages alone. If not, please file a
587 bug on <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">Gentoo's bugtracking system</uri>.
588 </p>
589
590 </body>
591 </subsection>
592 <subsection id="masked">
593 <title>Masked Packages</title>
594 <body>
595
596 <pre caption="Portage warning about masked packages">
597 !!! all ebuilds that could satisfy "bootsplash" have been masked.
598 </pre>
599
600 <pre caption="Portage warning about masked packages - reason">
601 !!! possible candidates are:
602
603 - gnome-base/gnome-2.8.0_pre1 (masked by: <i>~x86 keyword</i>)
604 - lm-sensors/lm-sensors-2.8.7 (masked by: <i>-sparc keyword</i>)
605 - sys-libs/glibc-2.3.4.20040808 (masked by: <i>-* keyword</i>)
606 - dev-util/cvsd-1.0.2 (masked by: <i>missing keyword</i>)
607 - games-fps/unreal-tournament-451 (masked by: <i>package.mask</i>)
608 - sys-libs/glibc-2.3.2-r11 (masked by: <i>profile</i>)
609 - net-im/skype-2.1.0.81 (masked by: skype-eula <i>license</i>(s))
610 </pre>
611
612 <p>
613 When you want to install a package that isn't available for your system, you
614 will receive this masking error. You should try installing a different
615 application that is available for your system or wait until the package is put
616 available. There is always a reason why a package is masked:
617 </p>
618
619 <ul>
620 <li>
621 <b>~arch keyword</b> means that the application is not tested sufficiently
622 to be put in the stable branch. Wait a few days or weeks and try again.
623 </li>
624 <li>
625 <b>-arch keyword</b> or <b>-* keyword</b> means that the application does
626 not work on your architecture. If you believe the package does work file
627 a bug at our <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> website.
628 </li>
629 <li>
630 <b>missing keyword</b> means that the application has not been tested on
631 your architecture yet. Ask the architecture porting team to test the package
632 or test it for them and report your findings on our <uri
633 link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> website.
634 </li>
635 <li>
636 <b>package.mask</b> means that the package has been found corrupt, unstable
637 or worse and has been deliberately marked as do-not-use.
638 </li>
639 <li>
640 <b>profile</b> means that the package has been found not suitable for your
641 profile. The application might break your system if you installed it or is
642 just not compatible with the profile you use.
643 </li>
644 <li>
645 <b>license</b> means that the package's license is not compatible with your
646 <c>ACCEPT_LICENSE</c> setting. You must explicitly permit its license or
647 license group by setting it in <path>/etc/portage/make.conf</path> or in
648 <path>/etc/portage/package.license</path>. Refer to <uri
649 link="#license">Licenses</uri> to learn how licenses work.
650 </li>
651 </ul>
652
653 </body>
654 </subsection>
655 <subsection id="USEdependency">
656 <title>Necessary USE Flag Changes</title>
657 <body>
658
659 <pre caption="Portage warning about USE flag change requirement">
660 The following USE changes are necessary to proceed:
661 #required by app-text/happypackage-2.0, required by happypackage (argument)
662 >=app-text/feelings-1.0.0 test
663 </pre>
664
665 <p>
666 The error message might also be displayed as follows, if <c>--autounmask</c>
667 isn't set:
668 </p>
669
670 <pre caption="Portage error about USE flag change requirement">
671 emerge: there are no ebuilds built with USE flags to satisfy "app-text/feelings[test]".
672 !!! One of the following packages is required to complete your request:
673 - app-text/feelings-1.0.0 (Change USE: +test)
674 (dependency required by "app-text/happypackage-2.0" [ebuild])
675 (dependency required by "happypackage" [argument])
676 </pre>
677
678 <p>
679 Such warning or error occurs when you want to install a package which not only
680 depends on another package, but also requires that that package is built with a
681 particular USE flag (or set of USE flags). In the given example, the package
682 <c>app-text/feelings</c> needs to be built with <c>USE="test"</c>, but this USE
683 flag is not set on the system.
684 </p>
685
686 <p>
687 To resolve this, either add the requested USE flag to your global USE flags in
688 <path>/etc/portage/make.conf</path>, or set it for the specific package in
689 <path>/etc/portage/package.use</path>.
690 </p>
691
692 </body>
693 </subsection>
694 <subsection id="missingdependencies">
695 <title>Missing Dependencies</title>
696 <body>
697
698 <pre caption="Portage warning about missing dependency">
699 emerge: there are no ebuilds to satisfy "&gt;=sys-devel/gcc-3.4.2-r4".
700
701 !!! Problem with ebuild sys-devel/gcc-3.4.2-r2
702 !!! Possibly a DEPEND/*DEPEND problem.
703 </pre>
704
705 <p>
706 The application you are trying to install depends on another package that is not
707 available for your system. Please check <uri
708 link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> if the issue is known and if not,
709 please report it. Unless you are mixing branches this should not occur and is
710 therefore a bug.
711 </p>
712
713 </body>
714 </subsection>
715 <subsection id="ambiguousebuild">
716 <title>Ambiguous Ebuild Name</title>
717 <body>
718
719 <pre caption="Portage warning about ambiguous ebuild names">
720 [ Results for search key : listen ]
721 [ Applications found : 2 ]
722
723 * dev-tinyos/listen [ Masked ]
724 Latest version available: 1.1.15
725 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
726 Size of files: 10,032 kB
727 Homepage: http://www.tinyos.net/
728 Description: Raw listen for TinyOS
729 License: BSD
730
731 * media-sound/listen [ Masked ]
732 Latest version available: 0.6.3
733 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
734 Size of files: 859 kB
735 Homepage: http://www.listen-project.org
736 Description: A Music player and management for GNOME
737 License: GPL-2
738
739 !!! The short ebuild name "listen" is ambiguous. Please specify
740 !!! one of the above fully-qualified ebuild names instead.
741 </pre>
742
743 <p>
744 The application you want to install has a name that corresponds with more than
745 one package. You need to supply the category name as well. Portage will inform
746 you of possible matches to choose from.
747 </p>
748
749 </body>
750 </subsection>
751 <subsection id="circulardependencies">
752 <title>Circular Dependencies</title>
753 <body>
754
755 <pre caption="Portage warning about circular dependencies">
756 !!! Error: circular dependencies:
757
758 ebuild / net-print/cups-1.1.15-r2 depends on ebuild / app-text/ghostscript-7.05.3-r1
759 ebuild / app-text/ghostscript-7.05.3-r1 depends on ebuild / net-print/cups-1.1.15-r2
760 </pre>
761
762 <p>
763 Two (or more) packages you want to install depend on each other and can
764 therefore not be installed. This is most likely a bug in the Portage tree.
765 Please resync after a while and try again. You can also check <uri
766 link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> if the issue is known and if not,
767 report it.
768 </p>
769
770 </body>
771 </subsection>
772 <subsection id="fetchfailed">
773 <title>Fetch failed</title>
774 <body>
775
776 <pre caption="Portage warning about fetch failed">
777 !!! Fetch failed for sys-libs/ncurses-5.4-r5, continuing...
778 <comment>(...)</comment>
779 !!! Some fetch errors were encountered. Please see above for details.
780 </pre>
781
782 <p>
783 Portage was unable to download the sources for the given application and will
784 try to continue installing the other applications (if applicable). This failure
785 can be due to a mirror that has not synchronised correctly or because the ebuild
786 points to an incorrect location. The server where the sources reside can also be
787 down for some reason.
788 </p>
789
790 <p>
791 Retry after one hour to see if the issue still persists.
792 </p>
793
794 </body>
795 </subsection>
796 <subsection id="profileprotect">
797 <title>System Profile Protection</title>
798 <body>
799
800 <pre caption="Portage warning about profile-protected package">
801 !!! Trying to unmerge package(s) in system profile. 'sys-apps/portage'
802 !!! This could be damaging to your system.
803 </pre>
804
805 <p>
806 You have asked to remove a package that is part of your system's core packages.
807 It is listed in your profile as required and should therefore not be removed
808 from the system.
809 </p>
810
811 </body>
812 </subsection>
813 <subsection id="digesterror">
814 <title>Digest Verification Failures</title>
815 <body>
816
817 <p>
818 Sometimes, when you attempt to emerge a package, it will fail with the message:
819 </p>
820
821 <pre caption="Digest verification failure">
822 &gt;&gt;&gt; checking ebuild checksums
823 !!! Digest verification failed:
824 </pre>
825
826 <p>
827 This is a sign that something is wrong with the Portage tree -- often, it is
828 because a developer may have made a mistake when committing a package to the
829 tree.
830 </p>
831
832 <p>
833 When the digest verification fails, do <e>not</e> try to re-digest the package
834 yourself. Running <c>ebuild foo manifest</c> will not fix the problem; it will
835 almost certainly make it worse!
836 </p>
837
838 <p>
839 Instead, wait an hour or two for the tree to settle down. It's likely that the
840 error was noticed right away, but it can take a little time for the fix to
841 trickle down the Portage tree. While you're waiting, check <uri
842 link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri> and see if anyone has reported
843 the problem yet. If not, go ahead and file a bug for the broken package.
844 </p>
845
846 <p>
847 Once you see that the bug has been fixed, you may want to re-sync to pick up
848 the fixed digest.
849 </p>
850
851 <impo>
852 This does <e>not</e> mean that you can re-sync your tree multiple times! As
853 stated in the rsync policy (when you run <c>emerge --sync</c>), users who sync
854 too often will be banned! In fact, it's better to just wait until your next
855 scheduled sync, so that you don't overload the rsync servers.
856 </impo>
857
858 </body>
859 </subsection>
860 </section>
861 </sections>

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