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1 swift 1.18 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4 swift 1.1 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 fox2mike 1.55 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 swift 1.1
7 swift 1.86 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.85 2013/12/17 11:29:20 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10 swift 1.43
11 neysx 1.60 <abstract>
12     This chapter explains the "simple" steps a user definitely needs to know to
13     maintain the software on his system.
14     </abstract>
15    
16 swift 1.86 <version>12</version>
17     <date>2014-08-17</date>
18 swift 1.43
19 swift 1.1 <section>
20 swift 1.39 <title>Welcome to Portage</title>
21 swift 1.1 <body>
22    
23 swift 1.2 <p>
24 swift 1.39 Portage is probably Gentoo's most notable innovation in software management.
25     With its high flexibility and enormous amount of features it is frequently seen
26     as the best software management tool available for Linux.
27 swift 1.2 </p>
28    
29     <p>
30 swift 1.39 Portage is completely written in <uri link="http://www.python.org">Python</uri>
31     and <uri link="http://www.gnu.org/software/bash">Bash</uri> and therefore fully
32     visible to the users as both are scripting languages.
33 swift 1.2 </p>
34    
35     <p>
36 swift 1.39 Most users will work with Portage through the <c>emerge</c> tool. This chapter
37     is not meant to duplicate the information available from the emerge man page.
38     For a complete rundown of emerge's options, please consult the man page:
39 swift 1.2 </p>
40    
41 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Reading the emerge man page">
42     $ <i>man emerge</i>
43 swift 1.2 </pre>
44    
45     </body>
46 swift 1.1 </section>
47     <section>
48 swift 1.39 <title>The Portage Tree</title>
49 swift 1.1 <subsection>
50 swift 1.39 <title>Ebuilds</title>
51 swift 1.2 <body>
52    
53     <p>
54 swift 1.39 When we talk about packages, we often mean software titles that are available to
55     the Gentoo users through the Portage tree. The Portage tree is a collection of
56     <e>ebuilds</e>, files that contain all information Portage needs to maintain
57     software (install, search, query, ...). These ebuilds reside in
58     <path>/usr/portage</path> by default.
59 swift 1.2 </p>
60    
61     <p>
62 swift 1.39 Whenever you ask Portage to perform some action regarding software titles, it
63     will use the ebuilds on your system as a base. It is therefore important that
64     you regularly update the ebuilds on your system so Portage knows about new
65     software, security updates, etc.
66 swift 1.2 </p>
67    
68     </body>
69     </subsection>
70     <subsection>
71 swift 1.39 <title>Updating the Portage Tree</title>
72 swift 1.1 <body>
73 swift 1.2
74     <p>
75 swift 1.39 The Portage tree is usually updated with <uri
76 yoswink 1.50 link="http://rsync.samba.org/">rsync</uri>, a fast incremental file transfer
77 swift 1.39 utility. Updating is fairly simple as the <c>emerge</c> command provides a
78     front-end for rsync:
79 swift 1.2 </p>
80    
81 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
82 cam 1.38 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
83 swift 1.2 </pre>
84    
85     <p>
86 swift 1.39 If you are unable to rsync due to firewall restrictions you can still update
87 swift 1.40 your Portage tree by using our daily generated Portage tree snapshots. The
88 swift 1.39 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> tool automatically fetches and installs the latest
89     snapshot on your system:
90 swift 1.2 </p>
91    
92 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Running emerge-webrsync">
93 swift 1.2 # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
94     </pre>
95 swift 1.1
96 swift 1.78 <p>
97     An additional advantage of using <c>emerge-webrsync</c> is that it allows the
98     administrator to only pull in portage tree snapshots that are signed by the
99     Gentoo release engineering GPG key. More information on this can be found
100     in the <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=3">Portage Features</uri> section on
101     <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=3#webrsync-gpg">Fetching Validated Portage Tree
102     Snapshots</uri>.
103     </p>
104    
105 swift 1.1 </body>
106     </subsection>
107     </section>
108     <section>
109     <title>Maintaining Software</title>
110     <subsection>
111 swift 1.39 <title>Searching for Software</title>
112 swift 1.1 <body>
113    
114 swift 1.3 <p>
115 swift 1.39 To search through the Portage tree after software titles, you can use
116 cam 1.47 <c>emerge</c> built-in search capabilities. By default, <c>emerge --search</c>
117 neysx 1.42 returns the names of packages whose title matches (either fully or partially)
118 swift 1.39 the given search term.
119 swift 1.3 </p>
120    
121     <p>
122 swift 1.39 For instance, to search for all packages who have "pdf" in their name:
123 swift 1.3 </p>
124    
125 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Searching for pdf-named packages">
126 cam 1.47 $ <i>emerge --search pdf</i>
127 swift 1.39 </pre>
128    
129 swift 1.3 <p>
130 swift 1.39 If you want to search through the descriptions as well you can use the
131     <c>--searchdesc</c> (or <c>-S</c>) switch:
132 swift 1.3 </p>
133    
134 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Searching for pdf-related packages">
135     $ <i>emerge --searchdesc pdf</i>
136     </pre>
137    
138 swift 1.3 <p>
139 swift 1.39 When you take a look at the output, you'll notice that it gives you a lot of
140     information. The fields are clearly labelled so we won't go further into their
141     meanings:
142 swift 1.3 </p>
143    
144 swift 1.49 <pre caption="Example 'emerge --search' output">
145 swift 1.39 * net-print/cups-pdf
146     Latest version available: 1.5.2
147     Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
148     Size of downloaded files: 15 kB
149     Homepage: http://cip.physik.uni-wuerzburg.de/~vrbehr/cups-pdf/
150     Description: Provides a virtual printer for CUPS to produce PDF files.
151     License: GPL-2
152     </pre>
153    
154 swift 1.3 </body>
155     </subsection>
156     <subsection>
157 swift 1.39 <title>Installing Software</title>
158 swift 1.3 <body>
159    
160     <p>
161 swift 1.39 Once you've found a software title to your liking, you can easily install it
162     with <c>emerge</c>: just add the package name. For instance, to install
163 swift 1.3 <c>gnumeric</c>:
164     </p>
165    
166 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Installing gnumeric">
167 swift 1.3 # <i>emerge gnumeric</i>
168     </pre>
169    
170     <p>
171 swift 1.39 Since many applications depend on each other, any attempt to install a certain
172     software package might result in the installation of several dependencies as
173     well. Don't worry, Portage handles dependencies well. If you want to find out
174     what Portage <e>would</e> install when you ask it to install a certain package,
175     add the <c>--pretend</c> switch. For instance:
176 swift 1.3 </p>
177    
178 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Pretend to install gnumeric">
179 swift 1.3 # <i>emerge --pretend gnumeric</i>
180     </pre>
181    
182     <p>
183 swift 1.39 When you ask Portage to install a package, it will download the necessary source
184     code from the internet (if necessary) and store it by default in
185     <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. After this it will unpack, compile and
186     install the package. If you want Portage to only download the sources without
187     installing them, add the <c>--fetchonly</c> option to the <c>emerge</c> command:
188 swift 1.3 </p>
189    
190 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Download the sourcecode for gnumeric">
191 swift 1.3 # <i>emerge --fetchonly gnumeric</i>
192     </pre>
193    
194     </body>
195     </subsection>
196     <subsection>
197 neysx 1.52 <title>Finding Installed Package Documentation</title>
198     <body>
199    
200     <p>
201     Many packages come with their own documentation. Sometimes, the <c>doc</c> USE
202     flag determines whether the package documentation should be installed or not.
203     You can check the existence of a <c>doc</c> USE flag with the <c>emerge -vp
204     &lt;package name&gt;</c> command.
205     </p>
206    
207     <pre caption="Checking the existence of a doc USE flag">
208     <comment>(alsa-lib is just an example, of course.)</comment>
209     # <i>emerge -vp alsa-lib</i>
210 nightmorph 1.62 [ebuild N ] media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1 -debug +doc 698 kB
211 neysx 1.52 </pre>
212    
213     <p>
214 jkt 1.67 The best way of enabling the <c>doc</c> USE flag is doing it on a per-package
215 nightmorph 1.68 basis via <path>/etc/portage/package.use</path>, so that you get documentation
216     only for packages that you are interested in. Enabling this flag globally is
217     known to cause problems with circular dependencies. For more information, please
218     read the <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE Flags</uri> chapter.
219 neysx 1.52 </p>
220    
221     <p>
222     Once the package installed, its documentation is generally found in a
223     subdirectory named after the package under the <path>/usr/share/doc</path>
224     directory. You can also list all installed files with the <c>equery</c> tool
225     which is part of the <c>app-portage/gentoolkit</c> <uri
226 swift 1.84 link="https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/Gentoolkit">package</uri>.
227 neysx 1.52 </p>
228    
229     <pre caption="Locating package documentation">
230 nightmorph 1.62 # <i>ls -l /usr/share/doc/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1</i>
231 neysx 1.52 total 28
232     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 669 May 17 21:54 ChangeLog.gz
233     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 9373 May 17 21:54 COPYING.gz
234     drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 8560 May 17 21:54 html
235     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 196 May 17 21:54 TODO.gz
236    
237     <comment>(Alternatively, use equery to locate interesting files:)</comment>
238     # <i>equery files alsa-lib | less</i>
239 nightmorph 1.62 media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1
240     * Contents of media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1:
241 neysx 1.52 /usr
242     /usr/bin
243     /usr/bin/alsalisp
244 neysx 1.53 <comment>(Output truncated)</comment>
245 neysx 1.52 </pre>
246    
247     </body>
248     </subsection>
249     <subsection>
250 swift 1.39 <title>Removing Software</title>
251 swift 1.3 <body>
252    
253     <p>
254 swift 1.39 When you want to remove a software package from your system, use <c>emerge
255 cam 1.47 --unmerge</c>. This will tell Portage to remove all files installed by that
256 swift 1.39 package from your system <e>except</e> the configuration files of that
257     application if you have altered those after the installation. Leaving the
258     configuration files allows you to continue working with the package if you ever
259     decide to install it again.
260 swift 1.3 </p>
261    
262     <p>
263 swift 1.39 However, a <brite>big warning</brite> applies: Portage will <e>not</e> check if
264     the package you want to remove is required by another package. It will however
265     warn you when you want to remove an important package that breaks your system
266     if you unmerge it.
267 swift 1.3 </p>
268    
269 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Removing gnumeric from the system">
270 cam 1.47 # <i>emerge --unmerge gnumeric</i>
271 swift 1.3 </pre>
272    
273     <p>
274 swift 1.39 When you remove a package from your system, the dependencies of that package
275     that were installed automatically when you installed the software are left. To
276     have Portage locate all dependencies that can now be removed, use
277 cam 1.47 <c>emerge</c>'s <c>--depclean</c> functionality. We will talk about this later
278     on.
279 swift 1.3 </p>
280    
281 swift 1.39 </body>
282     </subsection>
283     <subsection>
284     <title>Updating your System</title>
285     <body>
286 swift 1.32
287 swift 1.3 <p>
288 swift 1.39 To keep your system in perfect shape (and not to mention install the latest
289     security updates) you need to update your system regularly. Since Portage only
290     checks the ebuilds in your Portage tree you first have to update your Portage
291     tree. When your Portage tree is updated, you can update your system with
292 swift 1.85 <c>emerge --update @world</c>. In the next example, we'll also use the
293 swift 1.57 <c>--ask</c> switch which will tell Portage to display the list of packages it
294     wants to upgrade and ask you if you want to continue:
295 swift 1.3 </p>
296    
297 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Updating your system">
298 swift 1.85 # <i>emerge --update --ask @world</i>
299 swift 1.3 </pre>
300    
301     <p>
302 swift 1.39 Portage will then search for newer version of the applications you have
303     installed. However, it will only verify the versions for the applications you
304 nightmorph 1.61 have <e>explicitly</e> installed (the applications listed in
305     <path>/var/lib/portage/world</path>) - it does not thoroughly check their
306 swift 1.77 dependencies. If you want to update the dependencies of those packages as well,
307 nightmorph 1.61 add the <c>--deep</c> argument:
308 swift 1.3 </p>
309    
310 swift 1.77 <pre caption="Updating your system with dependencies">
311 swift 1.85 # <i>emerge --update --deep @world</i>
312 swift 1.77 </pre>
313    
314     <p>
315     Still, this doesn't mean <e>all packages</e>: some packages on your system are
316     needed during the compile and build process of packages, but once that package
317     is installed, these dependencies are no longer required. Portage calls those
318     <e>build dependencies</e>. To include those in an update cycle, add
319     <c>--with-bdeps=y</c>:
320     </p>
321    
322 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Updating your entire system">
323 swift 1.85 # <i>emerge --update --deep --with-bdeps=y @world</i>
324 swift 1.3 </pre>
325    
326     <p>
327 swift 1.54 Since security updates also happen in packages you have not explicitly installed
328     on your system (but that are pulled in as dependencies of other programs), it
329     is recommended to run this command once in a while.
330     </p>
331    
332     <p>
333 swift 1.39 If you have altered any of your <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>
334     lately you might want to add <c>--newuse</c> as well. Portage will then verify
335     if the change requires the installation of new packages or recompilation of
336     existing ones:
337 swift 1.3 </p>
338    
339 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Performing a full update">
340 swift 1.85 # <i>emerge --update --deep --with-bdeps=y --newuse @world</i>
341 swift 1.3 </pre>
342    
343 swift 1.1 </body>
344     </subsection>
345     <subsection>
346 neysx 1.51 <title>Metapackages</title>
347 swift 1.11 <body>
348    
349     <p>
350 swift 1.39 Some packages in the Portage tree don't have any real content but are used to
351 nightmorph 1.73 install a collection of packages. For instance, the <c>kde-meta</c> package will
352 swift 1.39 install a complete KDE environment on your system by pulling in various
353     KDE-related packages as dependencies.
354 swift 1.11 </p>
355    
356     <p>
357 swift 1.39 If you ever want to remove such a package from your system, running <c>emerge
358 cam 1.47 --unmerge</c> on the package won't have much effect as the dependencies remain
359     on the system.
360 swift 1.11 </p>
361    
362     <p>
363 swift 1.39 Portage has the functionality to remove orphaned dependencies as well, but since
364     the availability of software is dynamically dependent you first need to update
365     your entire system fully, including the new changes you applied when changing
366 cam 1.47 USE flags. After this you can run <c>emerge --depclean</c> to remove the
367     orphaned dependencies. When this is done, you need to rebuild the applications
368     that were dynamically linked to the now-removed software titles but don't
369     require them anymore.
370 swift 1.11 </p>
371    
372     <p>
373 swift 1.39 All this is handled with the following three commands:
374 swift 1.11 </p>
375    
376 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Removing orphaned dependencies">
377 swift 1.85 # <i>emerge --update --deep --newuse @world</i>
378 cam 1.47 # <i>emerge --depclean</i>
379 swift 1.39 # <i>revdep-rebuild</i>
380 swift 1.11 </pre>
381    
382 swift 1.34 <p>
383 swift 1.39 <c>revdep-rebuild</c> is provided by the <c>gentoolkit</c> package; don't forget
384     to emerge it first:
385 swift 1.34 </p>
386    
387 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Installing the gentoolkit package">
388     # <i>emerge gentoolkit</i>
389 swift 1.34 </pre>
390    
391 swift 1.11 </body>
392     </subsection>
393 swift 1.39 </section>
394 nightmorph 1.74 <section id="license">
395     <title>Licenses</title>
396     <subsection>
397     <body>
398    
399     <p>
400     Beginning with Portage version 2.1.7, you can accept or reject software
401     installation based on its license. All packages in the tree contain a
402     <c>LICENSE</c> entry in their ebuilds. Running <c>emerge --search
403     packagename</c> will tell you the package's license.
404     </p>
405    
406     <p>
407     By default, Portage permits all licenses, except End User License Agreements
408     (EULAs) that require reading and signing an acceptance agreement.
409     </p>
410    
411     <p>
412     The variable that controls permitted licenses is <c>ACCEPT_LICENSE</c>, which
413 swift 1.82 can be set in <path>/etc/portage/make.conf</path>. In the next example, this
414     default value is shown:
415 nightmorph 1.74 </p>
416    
417 swift 1.82 <pre caption="Setting ACCEPT_LICENSE in /etc/portage/make.conf">
418 nightmorph 1.74 ACCEPT_LICENSE="* -@EULA"
419     </pre>
420    
421     <p>
422     With this configuration, packages that require interaction during installation
423 swift 1.82 to approve their EULA <e>will not</e> be installable. Packages without an EULA
424     <e>will</e> be installable.
425 nightmorph 1.74 </p>
426    
427     <p>
428 swift 1.80 You can set <c>ACCEPT_LICENSE</c> globally in <path>/etc/portage/make.conf</path>
429     , or you can specify it on a per-package basis in
430 nightmorph 1.74 <path>/etc/portage/package.license</path>.
431     </p>
432    
433     <p>
434     For example, if you want to allow the <c>truecrypt-2.7</c> license for
435     <c>app-crypt/truecrypt</c>, add the following to
436     <path>/etc/portage/package.license</path>:
437     </p>
438    
439     <pre caption="Specifying a truecrypt license in package.license">
440     app-crypt/truecrypt truecrypt-2.7
441     </pre>
442    
443     <p>
444     This permits installation of truecrypt versions that have the
445     <c>truecrypt-2.7</c> license, but not versions with the <c>truecrypt-2.8</c>
446     license.
447     </p>
448    
449     <impo>
450     Licenses are stored in <path>/usr/portage/licenses</path>, and license groups
451 nightmorph 1.75 are kept in <path>/usr/portage/profiles/license_groups</path>. The first entry
452     of each line in CAPITAL letters is the name of the license group, and every
453     entry after that is an individual license.
454 nightmorph 1.74 </impo>
455    
456     <p>
457     License groups defined in <c>ACCEPT_LICENSE</c> are prefixed with an <b>@</b>
458 swift 1.83 sign. A commonly requested setting is to only allow the installation of free
459     software and documentation. To accomplish this, we can remove all currently
460     accepted licenses (using <c>-*</c>) and then only allow the licenses in the
461     <c>FREE</c> group as follows:
462 nightmorph 1.74 </p>
463    
464 swift 1.83 <pre caption="Only allowing free software and documentation licenses in /etc/portage/make.conf">
465     ACCEPT_LICENSE="-* @FREE"
466 nightmorph 1.74 </pre>
467    
468     <p>
469     In this case, "free" is mostly defined by the <uri
470     link="http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/free-sw.html">FSF</uri> and <uri
471     link="http://www.opensource.org/docs/osd">OSI</uri>. Any package whose license
472 swift 1.82 does not meet these requirements will not be installable on your system.
473 nightmorph 1.74 </p>
474    
475     </body>
476     </subsection>
477     </section>
478 swift 1.39 <section>
479     <title>When Portage is Complaining...</title>
480 swift 1.11 <subsection>
481 swift 1.39 <title>About SLOTs, Virtuals, Branches, Architectures and Profiles</title>
482 swift 1.1 <body>
483    
484 swift 1.3 <p>
485 swift 1.39 As we stated before, Portage is extremely powerful and supports many features
486     that other software management tools lack. To understand this, we explain a few
487 neysx 1.46 aspects of Portage without going into too much detail.
488 swift 1.3 </p>
489    
490     <p>
491 swift 1.39 With Portage different versions of a single package can coexist on a system.
492     While other distributions tend to name their package to those versions (like
493     <c>freetype</c> and <c>freetype2</c>) Portage uses a technology called
494     <e>SLOT</e>s. An ebuild declares a certain SLOT for its version. Ebuilds with
495     different SLOTs can coexist on the same system. For instance, the
496     <c>freetype</c> package has ebuilds with <c>SLOT="1"</c> and <c>SLOT="2"</c>.
497 swift 1.3 </p>
498    
499     <p>
500 swift 1.39 There are also packages that provide the same functionality but are implemented
501     differently. For instance, <c>metalogd</c>, <c>sysklogd</c> and <c>syslog-ng</c>
502     are all system loggers. Applications that rely on the availability of "a system
503     logger" cannot depend on, for instance, <c>metalogd</c>, as the other system
504     loggers are as good a choice as any. Portage allows for <e>virtuals</e>: each
505 swift 1.81 system logger is listed as an "exclusive" dependency of the logging service in the
506 swift 1.79 <c>logger</c> virtual package of the <c>virtual</c> category, so that
507 swift 1.81 applications can depend on the <c>virtual/logger</c> package. When installed,
508     the package will pull in the first logging package mentioned in the package,
509     unless a logging package was already installed (in which case the virtual is
510     satisfied).
511 swift 1.3 </p>
512    
513     <p>
514 swift 1.39 Software in the Portage tree can reside in different branches. By default your
515     system only accepts packages that Gentoo deems stable. Most new software titles,
516     when committed, are added to the testing branch, meaning more testing needs to
517     be done before it is marked as stable. Although you will see the ebuilds for
518     those software in the Portage tree, Portage will not update them before they are
519     placed in the stable branch.
520 swift 1.3 </p>
521    
522     <p>
523 swift 1.39 Some software is only available for a few architectures. Or the software doesn't
524     work on the other architectures, or it needs more testing, or the developer that
525     committed the software to the Portage tree is unable to verify if the package
526     works on different architectures.
527 swift 1.25 </p>
528    
529     <p>
530 swift 1.39 Each Gentoo installation adheres to a certain <c>profile</c> which contains,
531     amongst other information, the list of packages that are required for a system
532     to function normally.
533 swift 1.3 </p>
534    
535 swift 1.1 </body>
536     </subsection>
537 swift 1.39 <subsection id="blocked">
538     <title>Blocked Packages</title>
539 swift 1.1 <body>
540    
541 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (with --pretend)">
542 fox2mike 1.55 [blocks B ] mail-mta/ssmtp (is blocking mail-mta/postfix-2.2.2-r1)
543 swift 1.39 </pre>
544 swift 1.3
545 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (without --pretend)">
546 fox2mike 1.55 !!! Error: the mail-mta/postfix package conflicts with another package.
547 swift 1.39 !!! both can't be installed on the same system together.
548     !!! Please use 'emerge --pretend' to determine blockers.
549 swift 1.3 </pre>
550    
551     <p>
552 swift 1.41 Ebuilds contain specific fields that inform Portage about its dependencies.
553 swift 1.39 There are two possible dependencies: build dependencies, declared in
554     <c>DEPEND</c> and run-time dependencies, declared in <c>RDEPEND</c>. When one of
555     these dependencies explicitly marks a package or virtual as being <e>not</e>
556     compatible, it triggers a blockage.
557 swift 1.3 </p>
558    
559 swift 1.11 <p>
560 nightmorph 1.73 While recent versions of Portage are smart enough to work around minor blockages
561     without user intervention, occasionally you will need to fix it yourself, as
562     explained below.
563     </p>
564    
565     <p>
566 swift 1.39 To fix a blockage, you can choose to not install the package or unmerge the
567     conflicting package first. In the given example, you can opt not to install
568 fox2mike 1.55 <c>postfix</c> or to remove <c>ssmtp</c> first.
569 swift 1.11 </p>
570    
571 swift 1.56 <p>
572 nightmorph 1.63 You may also see blocking packages with specific atoms, such as
573 nightmorph 1.73 <b>&lt;</b>media-video/mplayer-1.0_rc1-r2. In this case, updating to a more
574 nightmorph 1.63 recent version of the blocking package would remove the block.
575     </p>
576    
577     <p>
578 swift 1.56 It is also possible that two packages that are yet to be installed are blocking
579     each other. In this rare case, you should find out why you need to install both.
580     In most cases you can do with one of the packages alone. If not, please file a
581 swift 1.86 bug on <uri link="https://bugs.gentoo.org">Gentoo's bugtracking system</uri>.
582 swift 1.56 </p>
583    
584 swift 1.1 </body>
585     </subsection>
586 swift 1.39 <subsection id="masked">
587     <title>Masked Packages</title>
588 swift 1.1 <body>
589    
590 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Portage warning about masked packages">
591     !!! all ebuilds that could satisfy "bootsplash" have been masked.
592     </pre>
593    
594     <pre caption="Portage warning about masked packages - reason">
595     !!! possible candidates are:
596 swift 1.3
597 swift 1.39 - gnome-base/gnome-2.8.0_pre1 (masked by: <i>~x86 keyword</i>)
598     - lm-sensors/lm-sensors-2.8.7 (masked by: <i>-sparc keyword</i>)
599     - sys-libs/glibc-2.3.4.20040808 (masked by: <i>-* keyword</i>)
600     - dev-util/cvsd-1.0.2 (masked by: <i>missing keyword</i>)
601 nightmorph 1.64 - games-fps/unreal-tournament-451 (masked by: <i>package.mask</i>)
602 swift 1.39 - sys-libs/glibc-2.3.2-r11 (masked by: <i>profile</i>)
603 nightmorph 1.74 - net-im/skype-2.1.0.81 (masked by: skype-eula <i>license</i>(s))
604 swift 1.35 </pre>
605    
606 swift 1.3 <p>
607 swift 1.39 When you want to install a package that isn't available for your system, you
608     will receive this masking error. You should try installing a different
609     application that is available for your system or wait until the package is put
610     available. There is always a reason why a package is masked:
611 swift 1.3 </p>
612    
613 swift 1.35 <ul>
614     <li>
615 swift 1.39 <b>~arch keyword</b> means that the application is not tested sufficiently
616     to be put in the stable branch. Wait a few days or weeks and try again.
617 swift 1.35 </li>
618     <li>
619 swift 1.39 <b>-arch keyword</b> or <b>-* keyword</b> means that the application does
620     not work on your architecture. If you believe the package does work file
621 swift 1.86 a bug at our <uri link="https://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> website.
622 swift 1.35 </li>
623     <li>
624 swift 1.39 <b>missing keyword</b> means that the application has not been tested on
625     your architecture yet. Ask the architecture porting team to test the package
626     or test it for them and report your findings on our <uri
627 swift 1.86 link="https://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> website.
628 swift 1.35 </li>
629     <li>
630 swift 1.39 <b>package.mask</b> means that the package has been found corrupt, unstable
631     or worse and has been deliberately marked as do-not-use.
632 swift 1.35 </li>
633     <li>
634 swift 1.39 <b>profile</b> means that the package has been found not suitable for your
635     profile. The application might break your system if you installed it or is
636     just not compatible with the profile you use.
637 swift 1.35 </li>
638 nightmorph 1.74 <li>
639     <b>license</b> means that the package's license is not compatible with your
640     <c>ACCEPT_LICENSE</c> setting. You must explicitly permit its license or
641 swift 1.80 license group by setting it in <path>/etc/portage/make.conf</path> or in
642 nightmorph 1.74 <path>/etc/portage/package.license</path>. Refer to <uri
643     link="#license">Licenses</uri> to learn how licenses work.
644     </li>
645 swift 1.35 </ul>
646    
647 swift 1.1 </body>
648     </subsection>
649 swift 1.76 <subsection id="USEdependency">
650     <title>Necessary USE Flag Changes</title>
651     <body>
652    
653     <pre caption="Portage warning about USE flag change requirement">
654     The following USE changes are necessary to proceed:
655     #required by app-text/happypackage-2.0, required by happypackage (argument)
656     >=app-text/feelings-1.0.0 test
657     </pre>
658    
659     <p>
660     The error message might also be displayed as follows, if <c>--autounmask</c>
661     isn't set:
662     </p>
663    
664     <pre caption="Portage error about USE flag change requirement">
665     emerge: there are no ebuilds built with USE flags to satisfy "app-text/feelings[test]".
666     !!! One of the following packages is required to complete your request:
667     - app-text/feelings-1.0.0 (Change USE: +test)
668     (dependency required by "app-text/happypackage-2.0" [ebuild])
669     (dependency required by "happypackage" [argument])
670     </pre>
671    
672     <p>
673     Such warning or error occurs when you want to install a package which not only
674     depends on another package, but also requires that that package is built with a
675     particular USE flag (or set of USE flags). In the given example, the package
676     <c>app-text/feelings</c> needs to be built with <c>USE="test"</c>, but this USE
677     flag is not set on the system.
678     </p>
679    
680     <p>
681     To resolve this, either add the requested USE flag to your global USE flags in
682 swift 1.80 <path>/etc/portage/make.conf</path>, or set it for the specific package in
683 swift 1.76 <path>/etc/portage/package.use</path>.
684     </p>
685    
686     </body>
687     </subsection>
688 swift 1.39 <subsection id="missingdependencies">
689     <title>Missing Dependencies</title>
690 swift 1.1 <body>
691    
692 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Portage warning about missing dependency">
693 neysx 1.48 emerge: there are no ebuilds to satisfy "&gt;=sys-devel/gcc-3.4.2-r4".
694 swift 1.3
695 swift 1.39 !!! Problem with ebuild sys-devel/gcc-3.4.2-r2
696     !!! Possibly a DEPEND/*DEPEND problem.
697 swift 1.3 </pre>
698    
699     <p>
700 swift 1.39 The application you are trying to install depends on another package that is not
701     available for your system. Please check <uri
702 swift 1.86 link="https://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> if the issue is known and if not,
703 swift 1.39 please report it. Unless you are mixing branches this should not occur and is
704     therefore a bug.
705 swift 1.3 </p>
706    
707 swift 1.39 </body>
708     </subsection>
709     <subsection id="ambiguousebuild">
710     <title>Ambiguous Ebuild Name</title>
711     <body>
712 swift 1.3
713 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Portage warning about ambiguous ebuild names">
714 nightmorph 1.73 [ Results for search key : listen ]
715     [ Applications found : 2 ]
716    
717     * dev-tinyos/listen [ Masked ]
718     Latest version available: 1.1.15
719     Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
720     Size of files: 10,032 kB
721     Homepage: http://www.tinyos.net/
722     Description: Raw listen for TinyOS
723     License: BSD
724    
725     * media-sound/listen [ Masked ]
726     Latest version available: 0.6.3
727     Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
728     Size of files: 859 kB
729     Homepage: http://www.listen-project.org
730     Description: A Music player and management for GNOME
731     License: GPL-2
732 swift 1.35
733 nightmorph 1.73 !!! The short ebuild name "listen" is ambiguous. Please specify
734     !!! one of the above fully-qualified ebuild names instead.
735 swift 1.3 </pre>
736    
737     <p>
738 swift 1.39 The application you want to install has a name that corresponds with more than
739     one package. You need to supply the category name as well. Portage will inform
740     you of possible matches to choose from.
741 swift 1.35 </p>
742    
743 swift 1.39 </body>
744     </subsection>
745     <subsection id="circulardependencies">
746     <title>Circular Dependencies</title>
747     <body>
748 swift 1.35
749 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Portage warning about circular dependencies">
750     !!! Error: circular dependencies:
751 swift 1.35
752 swift 1.39 ebuild / net-print/cups-1.1.15-r2 depends on ebuild / app-text/ghostscript-7.05.3-r1
753     ebuild / app-text/ghostscript-7.05.3-r1 depends on ebuild / net-print/cups-1.1.15-r2
754 swift 1.35 </pre>
755    
756     <p>
757 swift 1.39 Two (or more) packages you want to install depend on each other and can
758     therefore not be installed. This is most likely a bug in the Portage tree.
759     Please resync after a while and try again. You can also check <uri
760 swift 1.86 link="https://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> if the issue is known and if not,
761 swift 1.39 report it.
762 swift 1.3 </p>
763    
764 swift 1.39 </body>
765     </subsection>
766     <subsection id="fetchfailed">
767     <title>Fetch failed</title>
768     <body>
769 swift 1.29
770 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Portage warning about fetch failed">
771     !!! Fetch failed for sys-libs/ncurses-5.4-r5, continuing...
772     <comment>(...)</comment>
773     !!! Some fetch errors were encountered. Please see above for details.
774 swift 1.3 </pre>
775    
776 swift 1.35 <p>
777 swift 1.39 Portage was unable to download the sources for the given application and will
778     try to continue installing the other applications (if applicable). This failure
779     can be due to a mirror that has not synchronised correctly or because the ebuild
780     points to an incorrect location. The server where the sources reside can also be
781     down for some reason.
782 swift 1.35 </p>
783    
784     <p>
785 swift 1.39 Retry after one hour to see if the issue still persists.
786 swift 1.35 </p>
787    
788 swift 1.1 </body>
789     </subsection>
790 swift 1.39 <subsection id="profileprotect">
791     <title>System Profile Protection</title>
792 swift 1.1 <body>
793 swift 1.3
794 swift 1.39 <pre caption="Portage warning about profile-protected package">
795     !!! Trying to unmerge package(s) in system profile. 'sys-apps/portage'
796     !!! This could be damaging to your system.
797 swift 1.3 </pre>
798    
799     <p>
800 swift 1.39 You have asked to remove a package that is part of your system's core packages.
801     It is listed in your profile as required and should therefore not be removed
802     from the system.
803 swift 1.3 </p>
804    
805 swift 1.1 </body>
806     </subsection>
807 nightmorph 1.59 <subsection id="digesterror">
808 nightmorph 1.71 <title>Digest Verification Failures</title>
809 nightmorph 1.59 <body>
810    
811     <p>
812     Sometimes, when you attempt to emerge a package, it will fail with the message:
813     </p>
814    
815     <pre caption="Digest verification failure">
816 nightmorph 1.71 &gt;&gt;&gt; checking ebuild checksums
817 nightmorph 1.59 !!! Digest verification failed:
818     </pre>
819    
820     <p>
821     This is a sign that something is wrong with the Portage tree -- often, it is
822     because a developer may have made a mistake when committing a package to the
823     tree.
824     </p>
825    
826     <p>
827     When the digest verification fails, do <e>not</e> try to re-digest the package
828 nightmorph 1.72 yourself. Running <c>ebuild foo manifest</c> will not fix the problem; it will
829 nightmorph 1.59 almost certainly make it worse!
830     </p>
831    
832     <p>
833     Instead, wait an hour or two for the tree to settle down. It's likely that the
834     error was noticed right away, but it can take a little time for the fix to
835     trickle down the Portage tree. While you're waiting, check <uri
836 swift 1.86 link="https://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri> and see if anyone has reported
837 nightmorph 1.59 the problem yet. If not, go ahead and file a bug for the broken package.
838     </p>
839    
840     <p>
841     Once you see that the bug has been fixed, you may want to re-sync to pick up
842     the fixed digest.
843     </p>
844    
845     <impo>
846     This does <e>not</e> mean that you can re-sync your tree multiple times! As
847     stated in the rsync policy (when you run <c>emerge --sync</c>), users who sync
848     too often will be banned! In fact, it's better to just wait until your next
849     scheduled sync, so that you don't overload the rsync servers.
850     </impo>
851    
852     </body>
853     </subsection>
854 swift 1.1 </section>
855     </sections>

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