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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.19 2004/01/09 10:52:18 dertobi123 Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.74 2010/03/03 00:36:42 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10
11<abstract>
12This chapter explains the "simple" steps a user definitely needs to know to
13maintain the software on his system.
14</abstract>
15
16<version>1.67</version>
17<date>2010-03-02</date>
18
10<section> 19<section>
11<title>Obtaining Package Information</title> 20<title>Welcome to Portage</title>
12<subsection>
13<title>The Lord of All Tools: emerge</title>
14<body> 21<body>
15 22
16<p>
17The main Portage tool that most users will use is <c>emerge</c>. We have already
18used it during the Gentoo installation and in the previous chapter, but we just
19briefly explained how to use it. This chapter will elaborate on <c>emerge</c>
20and teach you how to use <c>emerge</c> to fix all your software-related needs.
21</p> 23<p>
22 24Portage is probably Gentoo's most notable innovation in software management.
25With its high flexibility and enormous amount of features it is frequently seen
26as the best software management tool available for Linux.
23<p> 27</p>
24<c>emerge</c> is the command used to install, remove, query and maintain 28
25software packages. It is a front-end for <c>ebuild</c>; people interested in
26becoming Gentoo professionals will learn how to use <c>ebuild</c> later on. For
27now, we will focus on <c>emerge</c> as it has functionality that <c>ebuild</c>
28lacks (such as resolving dependencies, searching the Portage tree, etc.).
29</p> 29<p>
30 30Portage is completely written in <uri link="http://www.python.org">Python</uri>
31and <uri link="http://www.gnu.org/software/bash">Bash</uri> and therefore fully
32visible to the users as both are scripting languages.
31<p> 33</p>
32Since <c>emerge</c> is the most important tool for Gentoo users, it has an 34
33extensive manpage you can read by issuing <c>man emerge</c>. You can also view
34the in-command help by running <c>emerge --help</c>.
35</p> 35<p>
36Most users will work with Portage through the <c>emerge</c> tool. This chapter
37is not meant to duplicate the information available from the emerge man page.
38For a complete rundown of emerge's options, please consult the man page:
39</p>
36 40
37<pre caption="Retrieving help for emerge"> 41<pre caption="Reading the emerge man page">
38# <i>man emerge</i> 42$ <i>man emerge</i>
39# <i>emerge --help</i>
40</pre> 43</pre>
41 44
42</body>
43</subsection>
44<subsection>
45<title>The Portage Tree</title>
46<body> 45</body>
47
48<p>
49Before we continue describing <c>emerge</c>, let us first take a look at the
50Portage Tree. Go to <path>/usr/portage</path> and do a listing of the available
51directories. We use <c>ls --classify</c> to list the contents of a
52directory as it will show directories with a trailing "/".
53</p>
54
55<pre caption="Viewing the Portage Tree">
56# <i>cd /usr/portage; ls --classify</i>
57app-admin/ dev-ml/ gnome-libs/ net-print/
58app-arch/ dev-perl/ gnome-office/ net-wireless/
59app-benchmarks/ dev-php/ header.txt net-www/
60app-cdr/ dev-python/ incoming/ net-zope/
61app-crypt/ dev-ruby/ jython/ packages/
62app-dicts/ dev-tcltk/ kde-apps/ profiles/
63app-doc/ dev-tex/ kde-base/ releases/
64app-editors/ dev-util/ kde-i18n/ scripts/
65app-emacs/ distfiles/ kde-libs/ sec-policy/
66app-emulation/ eclass/ licenses/ skel.ChangeLog
67app-games/ experimental/ media-fonts/ skel.ebuild
68app-gnustep/ files/ media-gfx/ skel.metadata.xml
69app-i18n/ fresco-base/ media-libs/ snapshots/
70app-misc/ games-action/ media-plugins/ sys-apps/
71app-office/ games-arcade/ media-radio/ sys-build/
72app-pda/ games-board/ media-sound/ sys-cluster/
73app-portage/ games-emulation/ media-tv/ sys-devel/
74app-sci/ games-engines/ media-video/ sys-fs/
75app-shells/ games-fps/ metadata/ sys-kernel/
76app-text/ games-kids/ net-analyzer/ sys-kmods/
77app-vim/ games-misc/ net-apache/ sys-libs/
78app-xemacs/ games-mud/ net-dialup/ unix2tcp/
79berlin-base/ games-puzzle/ net-dns/ x11-base/
80dev-ada/ games-roguelike/ net-firewall/ x11-libs/
81dev-cpp/ games-rpg/ net-fs/ x11-misc/
82dev-db/ games-server/ net-ftp/ x11-plugins/
83dev-dotnet/ games-simulation/ net-im/ x11-terms/
84dev-embedded/ games-sports/ net-irc/ x11-themes/
85dev-games/ games-strategy/ net-libs/ x11-wm/
86dev-haskell/ games-util/ net-mail/ xfce-base/
87dev-java/ glep/ net-misc/ xfce-extra/
88dev-lang/ gnome-apps/ net-nds/
89dev-libs/ gnome-base/ net-news/
90dev-lisp/ gnome-extra/ net-p2p/
91</pre>
92
93<p>
94As you can see, the Portage tree has several subdirectories. Most of them are
95the <e>categories</e> in which the Gentoo packages, called <e>ebuilds</e>,
96reside. Take a look at, for instance, <path>app-office</path>:
97</p>
98
99<pre caption="Viewing a category">
100# <i>cd app-office; ls --classify</i>
101abiword/ gnotime/ kmymoney2/ ooodi/ plan/ timestamp.x
102dia/ gnucash/ koffice/ oooqs/ qhacc/
103dia2code/ gnumeric/ lxbank/ openoffice/ sc/
104facturalux/ ical/ lyx/ openoffice-bin/ scribus/
105gaby/ kbudget/ mdbtools/ openoffice-ximian/ siag/
106gnofin/ khacc/ mrproject/ phprojekt/ texmacs/
107</pre>
108
109<p>
110Inside a category you will find the packages belonging to that category, with a
111separate directory for each package. Let us take a look at the <c>openoffice</c>
112package:
113</p>
114
115<pre caption="Viewing a package">
116# <i>cd openoffice; ls --classify</i>
117ChangeLog files/ openoffice-1.0.3-r1.ebuild openoffice-1.1.0-r2.ebuild
118Manifest metadata.xml openoffice-1.1.0-r1.ebuild openoffice-1.1.0.ebuild
119</pre>
120
121<p>
122Remember that we told you that a Gentoo package is called an ebuild? Well, in
123the example directory four of such ebuilds are stored. Their naming is
124almost identical: they only differ in the version name.
125You are free to view the contents of such a package: they are plain scripts. We
126will not discuss it right now as it isn't important to know if you plan on just
127using Gentoo.
128</p>
129
130<p>
131The other files are the <path>ChangeLog</path> (which contains a listing of all
132the changes done to the ebuilds), <path>Manifest</path> (which contains the
133checksums and permissions of all the files in the directory) and
134<path>metadata.xml</path> (which contains more information about the package,
135such as the responsible development group -- called <e>herd</e> -- and a more
136extensive description).
137</p>
138
139<p>
140Inside the <path>files</path> directory you will find extra files, needed by
141Portage: digests (checksums and permissions of the files needed by a single
142version of the package), patches, example configuration files, etc.
143</p>
144
145<pre caption="Viewing the extra files">
146# <i>cd files; ls --classify</i>
1471.0.3/ digest-openoffice-1.0.3-r1 digest-openoffice-1.1.0-r1
1481.1.0/ digest-openoffice-1.1.0 digest-openoffice-1.1.0-r2
149# <i>cd 1.1.0; ls --classify</i>
150fixed-gcc.patch ooffice-wrapper-1.3
151newstlportfix.patch openoffice-1.1.0-linux-2.6-fix.patch
152no-mozab.patch openoffice-1.1.0-sparc64-fix.patch
153nptl.patch
154</pre>
155
156<p>
157If you go back to the root of the Portage tree (<path>/usr/portage</path>) you
158will notice that there are other, non-category directories too. We will discuss
159those later in this chapter.
160</p>
161
162</body>
163</subsection>
164<subsection>
165<title>Search for a Package</title>
166<body>
167
168<p>
169If you are new to Linux or Gentoo, you might not know what tool you need for
170what job. To facilitate searching, <c>emerge</c> provides you with a way to
171search through the available packages on your system. There are two ways you can
172search through packages: by <e>name</e>, or by <e>name</e> and
173<e>description</e>.
174</p>
175
176<p>
177To search through the Portage tree by name, use <c>emerge search</c>. For
178instance, to find out more about <c>mozilla</c>:
179</p>
180
181<pre caption="Showing information about mozilla">
182# <i>emerge search mozilla</i>
183Searching...
184[ Results for search key : mozilla ]
185[ Applications found : 5 ]
186<comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
187* net-www/mozilla
188 Latest version available: 1.5-r1
189 Latest version installed: 1.4-r3
190 Size of downloaded files: 29,153 kB
191 Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org
192 Description: The Mozilla Web Browser
193
194* net-www/mozilla-firebird
195 Latest version available: 0.7
196 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
197 Size of downloaded files: 37,850 kB
198 Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org/projects/firebird/
199 Description: The Mozilla Firebird Web Browser
200<comment>(...)</comment>
201</pre>
202
203<p>
204If you want to include a search through the descriptions too, use the
205<c>--searchdesc</c> argument:
206</p>
207
208<pre caption="Search through the descriptions too">
209# <i>emerge --searchdesc mozilla</i>
210Searching...
211[ Results for search key : mozilla ]
212[ Applications found : 10 ]
213<comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
214* dev-libs/nss-3.8
215 Latest version available: 3.8
216 Latest version installed: 3.8
217 Size of downloaded files: 2,782 kB
218 Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org/projects/security/pki/nss/
219 Description: Mozilla's Netscape Security Services Library that implements PKI support
220</pre>
221
222<p>
223As you can see, the output of <c>emerge</c> informs you about the category and
224name of the package, the available version, the currently installed version,
225the size of the downloaded files, the homepage and the small description.
226</p>
227
228<p>
229You see something new? Yes, <e>downloaded files</e>. When you tell Portage to
230install a package, it of course needs to have the necessary sources (or
231precompiled packages) available. It therefore checks the contents of
232<path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> (for source code) or
233<path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> (for precompiled packages) to see if the
234necessary files are already available. If not, it downloads the necessary files
235and places them in those directories.
236</p>
237
238<!--
239<note>
240Searching the Portage Tree, especially when using <c>- -searchdesc</c>, is very
241time consuming. There are other, more performant tools available. We will
242describe those in the chapter on <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=7">Gentoolkit and
243Other Tools</uri>.
244</note>
245-->
246
247</body>
248</subsection>
249<subsection>
250<title>Viewing the ChangeLog</title>
251<body>
252
253<p>
254While browsing through the Portage Tree, you saw that there was a ChangeLog for
255each package. You can view the ChangeLog entries between the available version
256and the installed version with <c>emerge</c> too. Use the
257<c>--pretend --changelog</c> (<c>-pl</c> in short) options. As an example we
258will view the ChangeLog entries for <c>gnumeric</c>:
259</p>
260
261<pre caption="Viewing the ChangeLog entries for gnumeric">
262# <i>emerge --pretend --changelog gnumeric</i>
263<comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
264*gnumeric-1.2.2
265
266 27 Nov 2003; foser &lt;foser@gentoo.org&gt; gnumeric-1.2.2.ebuild :
267 New release, requested in #34492
268 updated deps
269
270 12 Nov 2003; Jason Wever &lt;weeve@gentoo.org&gt; gnumeric-1.2.0.ebuild:
271 Marked stable on sparc, fixes bug #32405.
272
273 14 Oct 2003; Jason Wever &lt;weeve@gentoo.org&gt; gnumeric-1.0.8.ebuild:
274 Added ~sparc keyword. Fixes bug #31150.
275</pre>
276
277</body>
278</subsection>
279</section> 46</section>
280<section> 47<section>
281<title>Updating Portage</title> 48<title>The Portage Tree</title>
282<subsection>
283<title>Introduction</title>
284<body>
285
286<p>
287Searching through Portage is nice, but if you don't update your Portage Tree
288regularly, you will be stuck with the packages and versions available on your
289system. This means that your system will get outdated pretty soon and that
290you will be missing bugfixes and remedies for possible security problems.
291</p>
292
293<p>
294There are several ways to update your Portage Tree. The most popular method is
295by using one of our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">rsync mirrors</uri>.
296Another one is by using a Portage snapshot (in case a firewall or unavailability
297of a network prohibits the use of the rsync server).
298</p>
299
300</body>
301</subsection> 49<subsection>
50<title>Ebuilds</title>
51<body>
52
53<p>
54When we talk about packages, we often mean software titles that are available to
55the Gentoo users through the Portage tree. The Portage tree is a collection of
56<e>ebuilds</e>, files that contain all information Portage needs to maintain
57software (install, search, query, ...). These ebuilds reside in
58<path>/usr/portage</path> by default.
59</p>
60
61<p>
62Whenever you ask Portage to perform some action regarding software titles, it
63will use the ebuilds on your system as a base. It is therefore important that
64you regularly update the ebuilds on your system so Portage knows about new
65software, security updates, etc.
66</p>
67
68</body>
302<subsection> 69</subsection>
303<title>Selecting a Mirror for rsync</title>
304<body>
305
306<p>
307It is adviseable to first select a fast <uri
308link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror</uri> close to you. You can do this manually
309(by setting the <c>SYNC</c> variable in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>) or use
310<c>mirrorselect</c> to do this for you automatically. As the <c>SYNC</c>
311variable will be discussed later on, we will focus on using <c>mirrorselect</c>.
312First install <c>mirrorselect</c> by emerging it:
313</p>
314
315<pre caption="Installing mirrorselect">
316# <i>emerge --usepkg mirrorselect</i>
317</pre>
318
319<p>
320Now run <c>mirrorselect</c> to automatically select mirrors for you (it will
321also setup Portage to use a mirror for the source code):
322</p>
323
324<pre caption="Running mirrorselect">
325# <i>mirrorselect -a -s3</i>
326</pre>
327
328</body>
329</subsection> 70<subsection>
330<subsection>
331<title>Updating Portage</title> 71<title>Updating the Portage Tree</title>
332<body> 72<body>
333 73
334<p>
335To update Portage using rsync, simply run <c>emerge sync</c>:
336</p> 74<p>
75The Portage tree is usually updated with <uri
76link="http://rsync.samba.org/">rsync</uri>, a fast incremental file transfer
77utility. Updating is fairly simple as the <c>emerge</c> command provides a
78front-end for rsync:
79</p>
337 80
338<pre caption="Updating Portage using emerge sync"> 81<pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
339# <i>emerge sync</i> 82# <i>emerge --sync</i>
340</pre> 83</pre>
341 84
342<p>
343If this fails (due to network problems, or a firewall), you can try using
344<c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will download a Portage Tree snapshot using
345<c>wget</c>. This also means that you can use proxies if you want. We discussed
346how to setup your system to use proxies during the Gentoo installation.
347</p> 85<p>
86If you are unable to rsync due to firewall restrictions you can still update
87your Portage tree by using our daily generated Portage tree snapshots. The
88<c>emerge-webrsync</c> tool automatically fetches and installs the latest
89snapshot on your system:
90</p>
348 91
349<pre caption="Updating Portage using emerge-webrsync"> 92<pre caption="Running emerge-webrsync">
350# <i>emerge-webrsync</i> 93# <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
351</pre> 94</pre>
352 95
353</body> 96</body>
354</subsection> 97</subsection>
355</section> 98</section>
356<section> 99<section>
357<title>Maintaining Software</title> 100<title>Maintaining Software</title>
358<subsection> 101<subsection>
359<title>Building or Prebuilt?</title> 102<title>Searching for Software</title>
360<body>
361
362<p>
363Gentoo provides ebuilds, the Gentoo packages if you like. But when you want to
364install such an ebuild, you can choose between <e>building</e> the package and
365using a <e>prebuilt</e> package. But what are the advantages/disadvantages of
366both approaches, and can they be used next to each other?
367</p>
368
369<p>
370As you probably have guessed, building packages takes a lot of time (especially
371if you have little resources or want to build big packages, such as <uri
372link="http://www.kde.org">KDE</uri>, <uri
373link="http://www.openoffice.org">OpenOffice.org</uri>, etc.). By building the
374package, you can use the <c>USE</c> setting to tweak the package to your system.
375Of course, you can also define high optimization options (in the <c>CFLAGS</c>
376and <c>CXXFLAGS</c> variables) to compile the package with.
377</p>
378
379<p>
380Using prebuilt packages improves the installation time (as no more compilation
381is needed), but you will lose the advantages of the <c>USE</c> setting and the
382<c>CFLAGS</c> &amp; <c>CXXFLAGS</c> variables.
383</p>
384
385<p>
386As previously stated, prebuilt packages are stored in the
387<path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> directory, while the source code of the
388packages is placed in <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. If you have finished
389installing a package you can remove the package or source code from the
390respective directory. However, you might want to keep the package/source code of
391the latest version, just in case you want to reinstall the package (so you don't
392have to redownload it).
393</p>
394
395</body> 103<body>
396</subsection> 104
105<p>
106To search through the Portage tree after software titles, you can use
107<c>emerge</c> built-in search capabilities. By default, <c>emerge --search</c>
108returns the names of packages whose title matches (either fully or partially)
109the given search term.
110</p>
111
112<p>
113For instance, to search for all packages who have "pdf" in their name:
114</p>
115
116<pre caption="Searching for pdf-named packages">
117$ <i>emerge --search pdf</i>
118</pre>
119
120<p>
121If you want to search through the descriptions as well you can use the
122<c>--searchdesc</c> (or <c>-S</c>) switch:
123</p>
124
125<pre caption="Searching for pdf-related packages">
126$ <i>emerge --searchdesc pdf</i>
127</pre>
128
129<p>
130When you take a look at the output, you'll notice that it gives you a lot of
131information. The fields are clearly labelled so we won't go further into their
132meanings:
133</p>
134
135<pre caption="Example 'emerge --search' output">
136* net-print/cups-pdf
137 Latest version available: 1.5.2
138 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
139 Size of downloaded files: 15 kB
140 Homepage: http://cip.physik.uni-wuerzburg.de/~vrbehr/cups-pdf/
141 Description: Provides a virtual printer for CUPS to produce PDF files.
142 License: GPL-2
143</pre>
144
145</body>
397<subsection> 146</subsection>
147<subsection>
398<title>Installing Software from Sources</title> 148<title>Installing Software</title>
399<body> 149<body>
400 150
401<p> 151<p>
402Okay, enough talking, let's cut to the chase. To install a package, you will use 152Once you've found a software title to your liking, you can easily install it
403the <c>emerge</c> command. If you don't want to use any prebuilt packages, you 153with <c>emerge</c>: just add the package name. For instance, to install
404can just use <c>emerge &lt;package-name&gt;</c> or <c>emerge
405&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package-name&gt;</c>. As an example we'll install
406<c>gnumeric</c>: 154<c>gnumeric</c>:
407</p> 155</p>
408 156
409<pre caption="Building gnumeric"> 157<pre caption="Installing gnumeric">
410# <i>emerge gnumeric</i> 158# <i>emerge gnumeric</i>
411</pre> 159</pre>
412 160
413<p> 161<p>
414This will download the source code for you and unpacks, compiles and installs 162Since many applications depend on each other, any attempt to install a certain
415the package on your system. It will also do the same for all the dependencies. 163software package might result in the installation of several dependencies as
416If you want to see what dependencies will be installed with it, use the 164well. Don't worry, Portage handles dependencies well. If you want to find out
417<c>--pretend</c> option (<c>-p</c> in short): 165what Portage <e>would</e> install when you ask it to install a certain package,
166add the <c>--pretend</c> switch. For instance:
418</p> 167</p>
419 168
420<pre caption="Pretending to build gnumeric"> 169<pre caption="Pretend to install gnumeric">
421# <i>emerge --pretend gnumeric</i> 170# <i>emerge --pretend gnumeric</i>
422</pre> 171</pre>
423 172
424<p> 173<p>
425If you want to download the source code of the package and its dependencies, 174When you ask Portage to install a package, it will download the necessary source
426but don't want to build the package, use the <c>--fetchonly</c> option 175code from the internet (if necessary) and store it by default in
427(<c>-f</c> in short): 176<path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. After this it will unpack, compile and
177install the package. If you want Portage to only download the sources without
178installing them, add the <c>--fetchonly</c> option to the <c>emerge</c> command:
428</p> 179</p>
429 180
430<pre caption="Fetching sources for gnumeric"> 181<pre caption="Download the sourcecode for gnumeric">
431# <i>emerge --fetchonly gnumeric</i> 182# <i>emerge --fetchonly gnumeric</i>
432</pre> 183</pre>
433 184
434<p>
435If you want to see where <c>emerge</c> downloads the sources from, combine the
436<c>--fetchonly</c> and <c>--pretend</c> options:
437</p>
438
439<pre caption="Showing URLs of the sources for gnumeric">
440# <i>emerge --fetchonly --pretend gnumeric</i>
441</pre>
442
443<p>
444You can also opt to install a specific version of a package.
445For instance, if you want to install a gnumeric version older than 1.2 -- for
446any reason whatsoever :) you would type:
447</p>
448
449<pre caption="Installing a specific gnumeric version">
450# <i>emerge "&lt;gnumeric-1.2"</i>
451</pre>
452
453<p>
454Other possibilities are of course "&gt;" (later version) and "=" (the exact
455version).
456</p>
457
458</body> 185</body>
459</subsection>
460<subsection> 186</subsection>
461<title>Installing Prebuilt Packages</title>
462<body>
463
464<p>
465When you want to install a prebuilt package, you should use the <c>--usepkg</c>
466option (<c>-k</c> in short). This will use the binary package available in
467<path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> <e>if</e> the package and the version of
468the application you want to install match.
469</p>
470
471<pre caption="Installing a prebuilt package for gnumeric">
472# <i>emerge --usepkg gnumeric</i>
473</pre>
474
475<p>
476If you want to use the binary package, even if the versions don't match, use
477<c>--usepkgonly</c> (<c>-K</c> in short).
478</p>
479
480<pre caption="Installing the prebuilt package for gnumeric">
481# <i>emerge --usepkgonly gnumeric</i>
482</pre>
483
484<p>
485If you don't have the prebuilt package on your system yet, you can have
486<c>emerge</c> download it from a mirror, defined in the <c>PORTAGE_BINHOST</c>
487variable declared in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>.
488</p>
489
490<p>
491To download the binary package in case this package doesn't exist on
492your system already, use <c>--getbinpkg</c> (<c>-g</c> in short):
493</p>
494
495<pre caption="Downloading and installing a prebuilt package for gnumeric">
496# <i>emerge --getbinpkg gnumeric</i>
497</pre>
498
499<p>
500This will download the package and the package-related information for you and
501install it on your system, together with the dependencies. If you want to see
502what dependencies will be installed with it, use the <c>--pretend</c> option
503(<c>-p</c> in short):
504</p>
505
506<pre caption="Pretending to download the prebuilt packages for gnumeric">
507# <i>emerge --getbinpkg --pretend gnumeric</i>
508</pre>
509
510<p>
511You can also opt to download the prebuilt package (and the package-related
512information) <e>without</e> checking the information on your local system and
513<e>without</e> using the prebuilt package already on your system (if
514applicable), use the <c>--getbinpkgonly</c> option (<c>-G</c> in short):
515</p>
516
517<pre caption="Installing a prebuilt package without using local information">
518# <i>emerge --getbinpkgonly gnumeric</i>
519</pre>
520
521<p>
522You can also opt to install a specific version of a package.
523For instance, if you want to install a gnumeric version older than 1.2 -- for
524any reason whatsoever :) you would type:
525</p>
526
527<pre caption="Installing a specific gnumeric version">
528# <i>emerge --usepkg "&lt;gnumeric-1.2"</i>
529</pre>
530
531<p>
532Other possibilities are of course "&gt;" (later version) and "=" (the exact
533version).
534</p>
535
536
537</body>
538</subsection> 187<subsection>
188<title>Finding Installed Package Documentation</title>
189<body>
190
191<p>
192Many packages come with their own documentation. Sometimes, the <c>doc</c> USE
193flag determines whether the package documentation should be installed or not.
194You can check the existence of a <c>doc</c> USE flag with the <c>emerge -vp
195&lt;package name&gt;</c> command.
196</p>
197
198<pre caption="Checking the existence of a doc USE flag">
199<comment>(alsa-lib is just an example, of course.)</comment>
200# <i>emerge -vp alsa-lib</i>
201[ebuild N ] media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1 -debug +doc 698 kB
202</pre>
203
204<p>
205The best way of enabling the <c>doc</c> USE flag is doing it on a per-package
206basis via <path>/etc/portage/package.use</path>, so that you get documentation
207only for packages that you are interested in. Enabling this flag globally is
208known to cause problems with circular dependencies. For more information, please
209read the <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE Flags</uri> chapter.
210</p>
211
212<p>
213Once the package installed, its documentation is generally found in a
214subdirectory named after the package under the <path>/usr/share/doc</path>
215directory. You can also list all installed files with the <c>equery</c> tool
216which is part of the <c>app-portage/gentoolkit</c> <uri
217link="/doc/en/gentoolkit.xml">package</uri>.
218</p>
219
220<pre caption="Locating package documentation">
221# <i>ls -l /usr/share/doc/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1</i>
222total 28
223-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 669 May 17 21:54 ChangeLog.gz
224-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 9373 May 17 21:54 COPYING.gz
225drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 8560 May 17 21:54 html
226-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 196 May 17 21:54 TODO.gz
227
228<comment>(Alternatively, use equery to locate interesting files:)</comment>
229# <i>equery files alsa-lib | less</i>
230media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1
231* Contents of media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1:
232/usr
233/usr/bin
234/usr/bin/alsalisp
235<comment>(Output truncated)</comment>
236</pre>
237
238</body>
539<subsection> 239</subsection>
540<title>Working with Dependencies</title> 240<subsection>
241<title>Removing Software</title>
541<body> 242<body>
542 243
543<p>
544Portage has an extensive support for dependency handling. Although you usually
545don't need to even think about this (as dependencies are automatically handled
546by Portage) some users might want to know how you can work with <c>emerge</c>
547and dependencies.
548</p> 244<p>
549 245When you want to remove a software package from your system, use <c>emerge
246--unmerge</c>. This will tell Portage to remove all files installed by that
247package from your system <e>except</e> the configuration files of that
248application if you have altered those after the installation. Leaving the
249configuration files allows you to continue working with the package if you ever
250decide to install it again.
550<p> 251</p>
551For instance, if you want Portage to pretend that none of the dependencies of a 252
552package are installed, you can use <c>--emptytree</c> (<c>-e</c> in short). This
553is useful with <c>--pretend</c> to display a complete tree of dependencies for
554any particular package. Without <c>--pretend</c>, <c>emerge</c> will (re)compile
555all listed packages. However, <c>glibc</c> will <e>not</e> be listed as
556dependency for safety reasons.
557</p> 253<p>
558 254However, a <brite>big warning</brite> applies: Portage will <e>not</e> check if
559<pre caption="Show all dependencies of gnumeric"> 255the package you want to remove is required by another package. It will however
560# <i>emerge --emptytree --pretend gnumeric</i> 256warn you when you want to remove an important package that breaks your system
561</pre> 257if you unmerge it.
562
563<p> 258</p>
564Another argument is <c>--nodeps</c>, which will ask Portage to try install the
565given package without taking care of the dependencies. It is trivial that this
566can lead to failures.
567</p>
568 259
569<pre caption="Installing gnumeric without taking care of the dependencies"> 260<pre caption="Removing gnumeric from the system">
570# <i>emerge --nodeps gnumeric</i> 261# <i>emerge --unmerge gnumeric</i>
571</pre> 262</pre>
572 263
573<p>
574The opposite of <c>--nodeps</c> is <c>--onlydeps</c>, which will have Portage
575install all dependencies of a given package, but not the package itself:
576</p> 264<p>
577 265When you remove a package from your system, the dependencies of that package
578<pre caption="Installing the dependencies of gnumeric"> 266that were installed automatically when you installed the software are left. To
579# <i>emerge --onlydeps gnumeric</i> 267have Portage locate all dependencies that can now be removed, use
268<c>emerge</c>'s <c>--depclean</c> functionality. We will talk about this later
269on.
580</pre> 270</p>
581 271
582</body> 272</body>
583</subsection> 273</subsection>
584<subsection> 274<subsection>
585<title>Updating your System</title> 275<title>Updating your System</title>
586<body> 276<body>
587 277
588<p> 278<p>
589Portage knows two special tags to denote a set of software packages: 279To keep your system in perfect shape (and not to mention install the latest
590<e>system</e> and <e>world</e>. You have already seen the former while 280security updates) you need to update your system regularly. Since Portage only
591installing Gentoo if you didn't use a <e>stage3</e> installation. To refresh 281checks the ebuilds in your Portage tree you first have to update your Portage
592things: <e>system</e> is the collection of <e>core</e> packages, necessary to 282tree. When your Portage tree is updated, you can update your system with
593have a working Gentoo system. 283<c>emerge --update world</c>. In the next example, we'll also use the
594</p> 284<c>--ask</c> switch which will tell Portage to display the list of packages it
595 285wants to upgrade and ask you if you want to continue:
596<p> 286</p>
597The <e>world</e> tag consists of all software you have installed yourself on 287
598your system plus the <e>system</e> information. In other words, every time you 288<pre caption="Updating your system">
599emerge a package using <c>emerge &lt;package-name&gt;</c>, the 289# <i>emerge --update --ask world</i>
600<c>&lt;package-name&gt;</c> is registered in the <e>world</e> file 290</pre>
601(<path>/var/cache/edb/world</path>). Dependencies are <e>not</e> part of the 291
602<e>world</e> file, but we will get to that later.
603</p> 292<p>
604 293Portage will then search for newer version of the applications you have
605<p> 294installed. However, it will only verify the versions for the applications you
606If you want to update the system packages, use the <c>--update</c> option 295have <e>explicitly</e> installed (the applications listed in
607(<c>-u</c> in short): 296<path>/var/lib/portage/world</path>) - it does not thoroughly check their
608</p> 297dependencies. If you want to update <e>every single package</e> on your system,
609 298add the <c>--deep</c> argument:
610<pre caption="Updating the system packages">
611# <i>emerge --update system</i>
612</pre>
613
614<p>
615An identical approach can be used for the world packages:
616</p> 299</p>
617 300
618<pre caption="Updating your entire system"> 301<pre caption="Updating your entire system">
619# <i>emerge --update world</i> 302# <i>emerge --update --deep world</i>
620</pre> 303</pre>
621 304
622<p>
623Again, if you want to see what <c>emerge</c> wants to update, use the
624<c>--pretend</c> option together with the <c>--update</c> option:
625</p> 305<p>
626 306Since security updates also happen in packages you have not explicitly installed
627<pre caption="Pretending to update your entire system"> 307on your system (but that are pulled in as dependencies of other programs), it
628# <i>emerge --pretend --update world</i> 308is recommended to run this command once in a while.
629<comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
630[ebuild U ] net-misc/wget-1.9-r1 [1.9]
631[ebuild UD] media-video/dvdauthor-0.5.0 [0.5.3]
632[ebuild U ] net-analyzer/ethereal-0.9.16 [0.9.14]
633</pre>
634
635<p> 309</p>
636Right next to the word "ebuild" you will notice a letter (or combination of 310
637letters) which gives you more information about the package: 311<p>
312If you have altered any of your <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>
313lately you might want to add <c>--newuse</c> as well. Portage will then verify
314if the change requires the installation of new packages or recompilation of
315existing ones:
316</p>
317
318<pre caption="Performing a full update">
319# <i>emerge --update --deep --newuse world</i>
320</pre>
321
322</body>
323</subsection>
324<subsection>
325<title>Metapackages</title>
326<body>
327
328<p>
329Some packages in the Portage tree don't have any real content but are used to
330install a collection of packages. For instance, the <c>kde-meta</c> package will
331install a complete KDE environment on your system by pulling in various
332KDE-related packages as dependencies.
333</p>
334
335<p>
336If you ever want to remove such a package from your system, running <c>emerge
337--unmerge</c> on the package won't have much effect as the dependencies remain
338on the system.
339</p>
340
341<p>
342Portage has the functionality to remove orphaned dependencies as well, but since
343the availability of software is dynamically dependent you first need to update
344your entire system fully, including the new changes you applied when changing
345USE flags. After this you can run <c>emerge --depclean</c> to remove the
346orphaned dependencies. When this is done, you need to rebuild the applications
347that were dynamically linked to the now-removed software titles but don't
348require them anymore.
349</p>
350
351<p>
352All this is handled with the following three commands:
353</p>
354
355<pre caption="Removing orphaned dependencies">
356# <i>emerge --update --deep --newuse world</i>
357# <i>emerge --depclean</i>
358# <i>revdep-rebuild</i>
359</pre>
360
361<p>
362<c>revdep-rebuild</c> is provided by the <c>gentoolkit</c> package; don't forget
363to emerge it first:
364</p>
365
366<pre caption="Installing the gentoolkit package">
367# <i>emerge gentoolkit</i>
368</pre>
369
370</body>
371</subsection>
372</section>
373<section id="license">
374<title>Licenses</title>
375<subsection>
376<body>
377
378<p>
379Beginning with Portage version 2.1.7, you can accept or reject software
380installation based on its license. All packages in the tree contain a
381<c>LICENSE</c> entry in their ebuilds. Running <c>emerge --search
382packagename</c> will tell you the package's license.
383</p>
384
385<p>
386By default, Portage permits all licenses, except End User License Agreements
387(EULAs) that require reading and signing an acceptance agreement.
388</p>
389
390<p>
391The variable that controls permitted licenses is <c>ACCEPT_LICENSE</c>, which
392can be set in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
393</p>
394
395<pre caption="Default ACCEPT_LICENSE in /etc/make.conf">
396ACCEPT_LICENSE="* -@EULA"
397</pre>
398
399<p>
400With this configuration, packages that require interaction during installation
401to approve their EULA <e>will not</e> be installed. Packages without an EULA
402<e>will</e> be installed.
403</p>
404
405<p>
406You can set <c>ACCEPT_LICENSE</c> globally in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, or
407you can specify it on a per-package basis in
408<path>/etc/portage/package.license</path>.
409</p>
410
411<p>
412For example, if you want to allow the <c>truecrypt-2.7</c> license for
413<c>app-crypt/truecrypt</c>, add the following to
414<path>/etc/portage/package.license</path>:
415</p>
416
417<pre caption="Specifying a truecrypt license in package.license">
418app-crypt/truecrypt truecrypt-2.7
419</pre>
420
421<p>
422This permits installation of truecrypt versions that have the
423<c>truecrypt-2.7</c> license, but not versions with the <c>truecrypt-2.8</c>
424license.
425</p>
426
427<impo>
428Licenses are stored in <path>/usr/portage/licenses</path>, and license groups
429are kept in <path>/usr/portage/license_groups</path>. The first entry of each
430line in CAPITAL letters is the name of the license group, and every entry after
431that is an individual license.
432</impo>
433
434<p>
435License groups defined in <c>ACCEPT_LICENSE</c> are prefixed with an <b>@</b>
436sign. Here's an example of a system that globally permits the GPL-compatible
437license group, as well as a few other groups and individual licenses:
438</p>
439
440<pre caption="ACCEPT_LICENSE in /etc/make.conf">
441ACCEPT_LICENSE="@GPL-COMPATIBLE @OSI-APPROVED @EULA atheros-hal BitstreamVera"
442</pre>
443
444<p>
445If you want only free software and documentation on your system, you might use
446the following setup:
447</p>
448
449<pre caption="Use only free licenses">
450ACCEPT_LICENSE="-* @FREE"
451</pre>
452
453<p>
454In this case, "free" is mostly defined by the <uri
455link="http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/free-sw.html">FSF</uri> and <uri
456link="http://www.opensource.org/docs/osd">OSI</uri>. Any package whose license
457does not meet these requirements will not be installed on your system.
458</p>
459
460</body>
461</subsection>
462</section>
463<section>
464<title>When Portage is Complaining...</title>
465<subsection>
466<title>About SLOTs, Virtuals, Branches, Architectures and Profiles</title>
467<body>
468
469<p>
470As we stated before, Portage is extremely powerful and supports many features
471that other software management tools lack. To understand this, we explain a few
472aspects of Portage without going into too much detail.
473</p>
474
475<p>
476With Portage different versions of a single package can coexist on a system.
477While other distributions tend to name their package to those versions (like
478<c>freetype</c> and <c>freetype2</c>) Portage uses a technology called
479<e>SLOT</e>s. An ebuild declares a certain SLOT for its version. Ebuilds with
480different SLOTs can coexist on the same system. For instance, the
481<c>freetype</c> package has ebuilds with <c>SLOT="1"</c> and <c>SLOT="2"</c>.
482</p>
483
484<p>
485There are also packages that provide the same functionality but are implemented
486differently. For instance, <c>metalogd</c>, <c>sysklogd</c> and <c>syslog-ng</c>
487are all system loggers. Applications that rely on the availability of "a system
488logger" cannot depend on, for instance, <c>metalogd</c>, as the other system
489loggers are as good a choice as any. Portage allows for <e>virtuals</e>: each
490system logger provides <c>virtual/syslog</c> so that applications can depend on
491<c>virtual/syslog</c>.
492</p>
493
494<p>
495Software in the Portage tree can reside in different branches. By default your
496system only accepts packages that Gentoo deems stable. Most new software titles,
497when committed, are added to the testing branch, meaning more testing needs to
498be done before it is marked as stable. Although you will see the ebuilds for
499those software in the Portage tree, Portage will not update them before they are
500placed in the stable branch.
501</p>
502
503<p>
504Some software is only available for a few architectures. Or the software doesn't
505work on the other architectures, or it needs more testing, or the developer that
506committed the software to the Portage tree is unable to verify if the package
507works on different architectures.
508</p>
509
510<p>
511Each Gentoo installation adheres to a certain <c>profile</c> which contains,
512amongst other information, the list of packages that are required for a system
513to function normally.
514</p>
515
516</body>
517</subsection>
518<subsection id="blocked">
519<title>Blocked Packages</title>
520<body>
521
522<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (with --pretend)">
523[blocks B ] mail-mta/ssmtp (is blocking mail-mta/postfix-2.2.2-r1)
524</pre>
525
526<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (without --pretend)">
527!!! Error: the mail-mta/postfix package conflicts with another package.
528!!! both can't be installed on the same system together.
529!!! Please use 'emerge --pretend' to determine blockers.
530</pre>
531
532<p>
533Ebuilds contain specific fields that inform Portage about its dependencies.
534There are two possible dependencies: build dependencies, declared in
535<c>DEPEND</c> and run-time dependencies, declared in <c>RDEPEND</c>. When one of
536these dependencies explicitly marks a package or virtual as being <e>not</e>
537compatible, it triggers a blockage.
538</p>
539
540<p>
541While recent versions of Portage are smart enough to work around minor blockages
542without user intervention, occasionally you will need to fix it yourself, as
543explained below.
544</p>
545
546<p>
547To fix a blockage, you can choose to not install the package or unmerge the
548conflicting package first. In the given example, you can opt not to install
549<c>postfix</c> or to remove <c>ssmtp</c> first.
550</p>
551
552<p>
553You may also see blocking packages with specific atoms, such as
554<b>&lt;</b>media-video/mplayer-1.0_rc1-r2. In this case, updating to a more
555recent version of the blocking package would remove the block.
556</p>
557
558<p>
559It is also possible that two packages that are yet to be installed are blocking
560each other. In this rare case, you should find out why you need to install both.
561In most cases you can do with one of the packages alone. If not, please file a
562bug on <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">Gentoo's bugtracking system</uri>.
563</p>
564
565</body>
566</subsection>
567<subsection id="masked">
568<title>Masked Packages</title>
569<body>
570
571<pre caption="Portage warning about masked packages">
572!!! all ebuilds that could satisfy "bootsplash" have been masked.
573</pre>
574
575<pre caption="Portage warning about masked packages - reason">
576!!! possible candidates are:
577
578- gnome-base/gnome-2.8.0_pre1 (masked by: <i>~x86 keyword</i>)
579- lm-sensors/lm-sensors-2.8.7 (masked by: <i>-sparc keyword</i>)
580- sys-libs/glibc-2.3.4.20040808 (masked by: <i>-* keyword</i>)
581- dev-util/cvsd-1.0.2 (masked by: <i>missing keyword</i>)
582- games-fps/unreal-tournament-451 (masked by: <i>package.mask</i>)
583- sys-libs/glibc-2.3.2-r11 (masked by: <i>profile</i>)
584- net-im/skype-2.1.0.81 (masked by: skype-eula <i>license</i>(s))
585</pre>
586
587<p>
588When you want to install a package that isn't available for your system, you
589will receive this masking error. You should try installing a different
590application that is available for your system or wait until the package is put
591available. There is always a reason why a package is masked:
638</p> 592</p>
639 593
640<ul> 594<ul>
641 <li> 595 <li>
642 <e>B</e> (blocks) The package listed to the left is blocking the emerge of 596 <b>~arch keyword</b> means that the application is not tested sufficiently
643 the package listed to the right 597 to be put in the stable branch. Wait a few days or weeks and try again.
644 </li> 598 </li>
645 <li> 599 <li>
646 <e>N</e> (new) The package is new to your system and will be emerged for the 600 <b>-arch keyword</b> or <b>-* keyword</b> means that the application does
647 first time 601 not work on your architecture. If you believe the package does work file
602 a bug at our <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> website.
648 </li> 603 </li>
649 <li> 604 <li>
650 <e>R</e> (reemerge) The package isn't new, but needs to be reemerged 605 <b>missing keyword</b> means that the application has not been tested on
606 your architecture yet. Ask the architecture porting team to test the package
607 or test it for them and report your findings on our <uri
608 link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> website.
651 </li> 609 </li>
652 <li> 610 <li>
653 <e>F</e> (fetch) The package requires that you download the source code 611 <b>package.mask</b> means that the package has been found corrupt, unstable
654 manually (for instance due to licencing issues) 612 or worse and has been deliberately marked as do-not-use.
655 </li> 613 </li>
656 <li> 614 <li>
657 <e>U</e> (update) The package already exists on your system but will be 615 <b>profile</b> means that the package has been found not suitable for your
658 upgraded 616 profile. The application might break your system if you installed it or is
617 just not compatible with the profile you use.
659 </li> 618 </li>
660 <li> 619 <li>
661 <e>UD</e> (downgrade) The package already exists on your system but will be 620 <b>license</b> means that the package's license is not compatible with your
662 downgraded 621 <c>ACCEPT_LICENSE</c> setting. You must explicitly permit its license or
663 </li> 622 license group by setting it in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> or in
664 <li> 623 <path>/etc/portage/package.license</path>. Refer to <uri
665 <e>U-</e> (slot warning) The package you have installed on your system 624 link="#license">Licenses</uri> to learn how licenses work.
666 is listed as a package that can not coexist with a different version, but
667 your update does. The update will be installed and the older version will be
668 removed.
669 </li> 625 </li>
670</ul> 626</ul>
671 627
672<p>
673In certain cases, an update may mean a downgrade (i.e. install an older version
674instead of a newer version). If you don't want this to happen, use the
675<c>--upgradeonly</c> option (<c>-U</c> in short):
676</p>
677
678<pre caption="Upgrading your entire system">
679# <i>emerge --update --upgradeonly world</i>
680</pre>
681
682<p>
683Of course, we are talking here about <e>system</e> and <e>world</e>, but you can
684perform the same actions for individual software packages.
685</p>
686
687</body> 628</body>
688</subsection>
689<subsection> 629</subsection>
690<title>Removing Software</title> 630<subsection id="missingdependencies">
691<body> 631<title>Missing Dependencies</title>
692
693<p>
694If you want to remove software from your system, you can use the <c>unmerge</c>
695option (<c>-C</c> - capital C - in short):
696</p>
697
698<pre caption="Uninstalling software">
699# <i>emerge unmerge gnumeric</i>
700</pre>
701
702<p>
703If you want to test a removal (but not perform it), you can use <c>--pretend</c>
704again:
705</p>
706
707<pre caption="Pretending to uninstall software">
708# <i>emerge --pretend unmerge gnumeric</i>
709</pre>
710
711<warn>
712Portage doesn't verify if a package is a dependency for another
713installed package. It also doesn't warn you if the package is part of
714<e>system</e>, i.e. a core application necessary for the correct functioning of
715your system!
716</warn>
717
718<p>
719Once the unmerge begins you will see a long list of filenames belonging to the
720package. Some of these filenames will have a flag displayed to the
721left of the filename. The flags <c>!mtime</c>, <c>!empty</c>, and <c>cfgpro</c>
722specify reasons why certain files are not being removed while the package is.
723Files listed without any of these three flags are removed from the
724filesystem successfully. The three flags specify the following reasons:
725</p>
726
727<ul>
728 <li>
729 <c>!mtime</c> : The listed file has been changed since it was installed,
730 probably by you or some tool
731 </li>
732 <li>
733 <c>!empty</c> : The listed directory is not empty
734 </li>
735 <li>
736 <c>cfgpro</c> : This file is located inside a protected directory and will
737 not be touched for safety
738 </li>
739</ul>
740
741</body> 632<body>
742</subsection> 633
743</section> 634<pre caption="Portage warning about missing dependency">
744<section> 635emerge: there are no ebuilds to satisfy "&gt;=sys-devel/gcc-3.4.2-r4".
745<title>Software Availability</title> 636
637!!! Problem with ebuild sys-devel/gcc-3.4.2-r2
638!!! Possibly a DEPEND/*DEPEND problem.
639</pre>
640
641<p>
642The application you are trying to install depends on another package that is not
643available for your system. Please check <uri
644link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> if the issue is known and if not,
645please report it. Unless you are mixing branches this should not occur and is
646therefore a bug.
647</p>
648
649</body>
746<subsection> 650</subsection>
747<title>ARCH or not?</title> 651<subsection id="ambiguousebuild">
748<body> 652<title>Ambiguous Ebuild Name</title>
749
750<p>
751Gentoo places its packages in two possible stadia called <e>ARCH</e> and
752<e>~ARCH</e>. Don't take this literally: the stadia depend on the architecture
753you are using. In other words, for x86-based systems you have <e>x86</e> and
754<e>~x86</e>, for ppc-based systems you have <e>ppc</e> and <e>~ppc</e> etc.
755</p>
756
757<p>
758The <e>~ARCH</e> stadium means that the package works for the developer in
759charge of the package, but that the package hasn't been tested thoroughly enough
760by the community to be placed in <e>ARCH</e>. <e>~ARCH</e> packages usually go
761to <e>ARCH</e> after being bugfree for a sufficient amount of time.
762</p>
763
764<p>
765Your system will use <e>ARCH</e> packages per default. If you want to live on
766the edge, don't mind having a broken package once in a while, and you like
767submitting bugreports to <uri
768link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugs.gentoo.org</uri>, then you can opt to use
769<e>~ARCH</e> packages. To "move" your system to a <e>~ARCH</e>-using system,
770edit the <c>ACCEPT_KEYWORDS</c> variable in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so that
771it reads <e>~ARCH</e> (again: for x86-based systems: <e>~x86</e>, etc.).
772</p>
773
774<p>
775If you want to update your system now, you will notice that <e>a lot</e> of
776packages will be updated!
777</p>
778
779</body> 653<body>
780</subsection> 654
655<pre caption="Portage warning about ambiguous ebuild names">
656[ Results for search key : listen ]
657[ Applications found : 2 ]
658
659* dev-tinyos/listen [ Masked ]
660 Latest version available: 1.1.15
661 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
662 Size of files: 10,032 kB
663 Homepage: http://www.tinyos.net/
664 Description: Raw listen for TinyOS
665 License: BSD
666
667* media-sound/listen [ Masked ]
668 Latest version available: 0.6.3
669 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
670 Size of files: 859 kB
671 Homepage: http://www.listen-project.org
672 Description: A Music player and management for GNOME
673 License: GPL-2
674
675!!! The short ebuild name "listen" is ambiguous. Please specify
676!!! one of the above fully-qualified ebuild names instead.
677</pre>
678
679<p>
680The application you want to install has a name that corresponds with more than
681one package. You need to supply the category name as well. Portage will inform
682you of possible matches to choose from.
683</p>
684
685</body>
781<subsection> 686</subsection>
782<title>Masked Packages</title> 687<subsection id="circulardependencies">
783<body> 688<title>Circular Dependencies</title>
784
785<p>
786When you want to install a package, you might come across the following message:
787</p>
788
789<pre caption="Message about masked packages">
790Calculating dependencies
791!!! <comment>all ebuilds that could satisfy </comment>&lt;your package&gt;<comment> have been masked.</comment>
792</pre>
793
794<p>
795A package can be masked due to two reasons:
796</p>
797
798<ol>
799 <li>The package is in <e>~ARCH</e> while you use <e>ARCH</e></li>
800 <li>The package is hard-masked explicitly</li>
801</ol>
802
803<p>
804If the package is masked because of the first reason, and you <e>really</e> want
805to install it (knowing that there <e>is</e> a reason why it isn't available in
806<e>ARCH</e>), you can temporarily accept <e>~ARCH</e> packages:
807</p>
808
809<pre caption="Temporarily accepting ~ARCH packages">
810# <i>ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~x86" emerge gnumeric</i>
811</pre>
812
813<p>
814A package is hardmasked if it is listed in
815<path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path>. If you read this file, you
816will also read the reason why the package is hardmasked (it is usually added as
817a comment). If you want to install the package nevertheless (despite all the
818possible warnings we could ever throw at your head about "breaking your system",
819"breaks other packages", or "badly needs testing"), create the
820<path>/etc/portage/package.unmask</path> file and list the package in it (use
821the same format as is used in <path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path>).
822</p>
823
824<p>
825Do <e>not</e> alter the <path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path> file as
826all changes are undone the next time you update your Portage tree. If you want
827to hardmask a package create <path>/etc/portage/package.mask</path> and list the
828package in it (use the same format as mentioned above).
829</p>
830
831<p>
832Another trick to circumvent the "masked package" problem is to install the
833package using the full path. This will ignore both the <c>ACCEPT_KEYWORD</c>
834settings and the <path>package.mask</path> listing.
835</p>
836
837<pre caption="Installing a package without checking for stadium / masking">
838# <i>emerge /usr/portage/app-office/gnumeric/gnumeric-1.2.0.ebuild</i>
839</pre>
840
841</body> 689<body>
842</subsection> 690
691<pre caption="Portage warning about circular dependencies">
692!!! Error: circular dependencies:
693
694ebuild / net-print/cups-1.1.15-r2 depends on ebuild / app-text/ghostscript-7.05.3-r1
695ebuild / app-text/ghostscript-7.05.3-r1 depends on ebuild / net-print/cups-1.1.15-r2
696</pre>
697
698<p>
699Two (or more) packages you want to install depend on each other and can
700therefore not be installed. This is most likely a bug in the Portage tree.
701Please resync after a while and try again. You can also check <uri
702link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> if the issue is known and if not,
703report it.
704</p>
705
706</body>
843<subsection> 707</subsection>
844<title>Blocked Packages</title> 708<subsection id="fetchfailed">
709<title>Fetch failed</title>
710<body>
711
712<pre caption="Portage warning about fetch failed">
713!!! Fetch failed for sys-libs/ncurses-5.4-r5, continuing...
714<comment>(...)</comment>
715!!! Some fetch errors were encountered. Please see above for details.
716</pre>
717
718<p>
719Portage was unable to download the sources for the given application and will
720try to continue installing the other applications (if applicable). This failure
721can be due to a mirror that has not synchronised correctly or because the ebuild
722points to an incorrect location. The server where the sources reside can also be
723down for some reason.
724</p>
725
726<p>
727Retry after one hour to see if the issue still persists.
728</p>
729
845<body> 730</body>
731</subsection>
732<subsection id="profileprotect">
733<title>System Profile Protection</title>
734<body>
846 735
847<p> 736<pre caption="Portage warning about profile-protected package">
848You have a situation when you receive the following error on your screen: 737!!! Trying to unmerge package(s) in system profile. 'sys-apps/portage'
738!!! This could be damaging to your system.
739</pre>
740
849</p> 741<p>
850 742You have asked to remove a package that is part of your system's core packages.
851<pre caption="Blocking package"> 743It is listed in your profile as required and should therefore not be removed
852[blocks B ] gnome-base/bonobo-activation (from pkg gnome-base/libbonobo-2.4.0) 744from the system.
853</pre>
854
855<p> 745</p>
856In the above example, the package <c>bonobo-activation</c> is blocking the 746
857emerge of <c>libbonobo</c>. To resolve this issue, remove the 747</body>
858<c>bonobo-activation</c> package and continue: 748</subsection>
749<subsection id="digesterror">
750<title>Digest Verification Failures</title>
751<body>
752
859</p> 753<p>
860 754Sometimes, when you attempt to emerge a package, it will fail with the message:
861<pre caption="Resolving a blocking situation">
862# <i>emerge unmerge bonobo-activation</i>
863</pre> 755</p>
756
757<pre caption="Digest verification failure">
758&gt;&gt;&gt; checking ebuild checksums
759!!! Digest verification failed:
760</pre>
761
762<p>
763This is a sign that something is wrong with the Portage tree -- often, it is
764because a developer may have made a mistake when committing a package to the
765tree.
766</p>
767
768<p>
769When the digest verification fails, do <e>not</e> try to re-digest the package
770yourself. Running <c>ebuild foo manifest</c> will not fix the problem; it will
771almost certainly make it worse!
772</p>
773
774<p>
775Instead, wait an hour or two for the tree to settle down. It's likely that the
776error was noticed right away, but it can take a little time for the fix to
777trickle down the Portage tree. While you're waiting, check <uri
778link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri> and see if anyone has reported
779the problem yet. If not, go ahead and file a bug for the broken package.
780</p>
781
782<p>
783Once you see that the bug has been fixed, you may want to re-sync to pick up
784the fixed digest.
785</p>
786
787<impo>
788This does <e>not</e> mean that you can re-sync your tree multiple times! As
789stated in the rsync policy (when you run <c>emerge --sync</c>), users who sync
790too often will be banned! In fact, it's better to just wait until your next
791scheduled sync, so that you don't overload the rsync servers.
792</impo>
864 793
865</body> 794</body>
866</subsection> 795</subsection>
867</section> 796</section>
868</sections> 797</sections>

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