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2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
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3 6
4<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.1 2003/11/20 10:52:35 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.22 2004/02/03 20:25:45 swift Exp $ -->
5 8
6<sections> 9<sections>
7<section> 10<section>
8<title>Obtaining Package Information</title> 11<title>Obtaining Package Information</title>
9<subsection> 12<subsection>
10<title>The Lord of All Tools: emerge</title> 13<title>The Lord of All Tools: emerge</title>
11<body> 14<body>
12 15
16<p>
17The main Portage tool that most users will use is <c>emerge</c>. We have already
18used it during the Gentoo installation and in the previous chapter, but we just
19briefly explained how to use it. This chapter will elaborate on <c>emerge</c>
20and teach you how to use <c>emerge</c> to fix all your software-related needs.
21</p>
22
23<p>
24<c>emerge</c> is the command used to install, remove, query and maintain
25software packages. It is a front-end for <c>ebuild</c>; people interested in
26becoming Gentoo professionals will learn how to use <c>ebuild</c> later on. For
27now, we will focus on <c>emerge</c> as it has functionality that <c>ebuild</c>
28lacks (such as resolving dependencies, searching the Portage tree, etc.).
29</p>
30
31<p>
32Since <c>emerge</c> is the most important tool for Gentoo users, it has an
33extensive manpage you can read by issuing <c>man emerge</c>. You can also view
34the in-command help by running <c>emerge --help</c>.
35</p>
36
37<pre caption="Retrieving help for emerge">
38# <i>man emerge</i>
39# <i>emerge --help</i>
40</pre>
41
42</body>
43</subsection>
44<subsection>
45<title>The Portage Tree</title>
46<body>
47
48<p>
49Before we continue describing <c>emerge</c>, let us first take a look at the
50Portage Tree. Go to <path>/usr/portage</path> and do a listing of the available
51directories. We use <c>ls --classify</c> to list the contents of a
52directory as it will show directories with a trailing "/".
53</p>
54
55<pre caption="Viewing the Portage Tree">
56# <i>cd /usr/portage; ls --classify</i>
57app-admin/ dev-ml/ gnome-libs/ net-print/
58app-arch/ dev-perl/ gnome-office/ net-wireless/
59app-benchmarks/ dev-php/ header.txt net-www/
60app-cdr/ dev-python/ incoming/ net-zope/
61app-crypt/ dev-ruby/ jython/ packages/
62app-dicts/ dev-tcltk/ kde-apps/ profiles/
63app-doc/ dev-tex/ kde-base/ releases/
64app-editors/ dev-util/ kde-i18n/ scripts/
65app-emacs/ distfiles/ kde-libs/ sec-policy/
66app-emulation/ eclass/ licenses/ skel.ChangeLog
67app-games/ experimental/ media-fonts/ skel.ebuild
68app-gnustep/ files/ media-gfx/ skel.metadata.xml
69app-i18n/ fresco-base/ media-libs/ snapshots/
70app-misc/ games-action/ media-plugins/ sys-apps/
71app-office/ games-arcade/ media-radio/ sys-build/
72app-pda/ games-board/ media-sound/ sys-cluster/
73app-portage/ games-emulation/ media-tv/ sys-devel/
74app-sci/ games-engines/ media-video/ sys-fs/
75app-shells/ games-fps/ metadata/ sys-kernel/
76app-text/ games-kids/ net-analyzer/ sys-kmods/
77app-vim/ games-misc/ net-apache/ sys-libs/
78app-xemacs/ games-mud/ net-dialup/ unix2tcp/
79berlin-base/ games-puzzle/ net-dns/ x11-base/
80dev-ada/ games-roguelike/ net-firewall/ x11-libs/
81dev-cpp/ games-rpg/ net-fs/ x11-misc/
82dev-db/ games-server/ net-ftp/ x11-plugins/
83dev-dotnet/ games-simulation/ net-im/ x11-terms/
84dev-embedded/ games-sports/ net-irc/ x11-themes/
85dev-games/ games-strategy/ net-libs/ x11-wm/
86dev-haskell/ games-util/ net-mail/ xfce-base/
87dev-java/ glep/ net-misc/ xfce-extra/
88dev-lang/ gnome-apps/ net-nds/
89dev-libs/ gnome-base/ net-news/
90dev-lisp/ gnome-extra/ net-p2p/
91</pre>
92
93<p>
94As you can see, the Portage tree has several subdirectories. Most of them are
95the <e>categories</e> in which the Gentoo packages, called <e>ebuilds</e>,
96reside. Take a look at, for instance, <path>app-office</path>:
97</p>
98
99<pre caption="Viewing a category">
100# <i>cd app-office; ls --classify</i>
101abiword/ gnotime/ kmymoney2/ ooodi/ plan/ timestamp.x
102dia/ gnucash/ koffice/ oooqs/ qhacc/
103dia2code/ gnumeric/ lxbank/ openoffice/ sc/
104facturalux/ ical/ lyx/ openoffice-bin/ scribus/
105gaby/ kbudget/ mdbtools/ openoffice-ximian/ siag/
106gnofin/ khacc/ mrproject/ phprojekt/ texmacs/
107</pre>
108
109<p>
110Inside a category you will find the packages belonging to that category, with a
111separate directory for each package. Let us take a look at the <c>openoffice</c>
112package:
113</p>
114
115<pre caption="Viewing a package">
116# <i>cd openoffice; ls --classify</i>
117ChangeLog files/ openoffice-1.0.3-r1.ebuild openoffice-1.1.0-r2.ebuild
118Manifest metadata.xml openoffice-1.1.0-r1.ebuild openoffice-1.1.0.ebuild
119</pre>
120
121<p>
122Remember that we told you that a Gentoo package is called an ebuild? Well, in
123the example directory four of such ebuilds are stored. Their naming is
124almost identical: they only differ in the version name.
125You are free to view the contents of such a package: they are plain scripts. We
126will not discuss it right now as it isn't important to know if you plan on just
127using Gentoo.
128</p>
129
130<p>
131The other files are the <path>ChangeLog</path> (which contains a listing of all
132the changes done to the ebuilds), <path>Manifest</path> (which contains the
133checksums and filesizes of all the files in the directory) and
134<path>metadata.xml</path> (which contains more information about the package,
135such as the responsible development group -- called <e>herd</e> -- and a more
136extensive description).
137</p>
138
139<p>
140Inside the <path>files</path> directory you will find extra files, needed by
141Portage: digests (checksums and permissions of the files needed by a single
142version of the package), patches, example configuration files, etc.
143</p>
144
145<pre caption="Viewing the extra files">
146# <i>cd files; ls --classify</i>
1471.0.3/ digest-openoffice-1.0.3-r1 digest-openoffice-1.1.0-r1
1481.1.0/ digest-openoffice-1.1.0 digest-openoffice-1.1.0-r2
149# <i>cd 1.1.0; ls --classify</i>
150fixed-gcc.patch ooffice-wrapper-1.3
151newstlportfix.patch openoffice-1.1.0-linux-2.6-fix.patch
152no-mozab.patch openoffice-1.1.0-sparc64-fix.patch
153nptl.patch
154</pre>
155
156<p>
157If you go back to the root of the Portage tree (<path>/usr/portage</path>) you
158will notice that there are other, non-category directories too. We will discuss
159those later in this chapter.
160</p>
161
13</body> 162</body>
14</subsection> 163</subsection>
15<subsection> 164<subsection>
16<title>Search for a Package</title> 165<title>Search for a Package</title>
17<body> 166<body>
167
168<p>
169If you are new to Linux or Gentoo, you might not know what tool you need for
170what job. To facilitate searching, <c>emerge</c> provides you with a way to
171search through the available packages on your system. There are two ways you can
172search through packages: by <e>name</e>, or by <e>name</e> and
173<e>description</e>.
174</p>
175
176<p>
177To search through the Portage tree by name, use <c>emerge search</c>. For
178instance, to find out more about <c>mozilla</c>:
179</p>
180
181<pre caption="Showing information about mozilla">
182# <i>emerge search mozilla</i>
183Searching...
184[ Results for search key : mozilla ]
185[ Applications found : 5 ]
186<comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
187* net-www/mozilla
188 Latest version available: 1.5-r1
189 Latest version installed: 1.4-r3
190 Size of downloaded files: 29,153 kB
191 Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org
192 Description: The Mozilla Web Browser
193
194* net-www/mozilla-firebird
195 Latest version available: 0.7
196 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
197 Size of downloaded files: 37,850 kB
198 Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org/projects/firebird/
199 Description: The Mozilla Firebird Web Browser
200<comment>(...)</comment>
201</pre>
202
203<p>
204If you want to include a search through the descriptions too, use the
205<c>--searchdesc</c> argument:
206</p>
207
208<pre caption="Search through the descriptions too">
209# <i>emerge --searchdesc mozilla</i>
210Searching...
211[ Results for search key : mozilla ]
212[ Applications found : 10 ]
213<comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
214* dev-libs/nss-3.8
215 Latest version available: 3.8
216 Latest version installed: 3.8
217 Size of downloaded files: 2,782 kB
218 Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org/projects/security/pki/nss/
219 Description: Mozilla's Netscape Security Services Library that implements PKI support
220</pre>
221
222<p>
223As you can see, the output of <c>emerge</c> informs you about the category and
224name of the package, the available version, the currently installed version,
225the size of the downloaded files, the homepage and the small description.
226</p>
227
228<p>
229You see something new? Yes, <e>downloaded files</e>. When you tell Portage to
230install a package, it of course needs to have the necessary sources (or
231precompiled packages) available. It therefore checks the contents of
232<path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> (for source code) or
233<path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> (for precompiled packages) to see if the
234necessary files are already available. If not, it downloads the necessary files
235and places them in those directories.
236</p>
237
238<!--
239<note>
240Searching the Portage Tree, especially when using <c>- -searchdesc</c>, is very
241time consuming. There are other, more performant tools available. We will
242describe those in the chapter on <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=7">Gentoolkit and
243Other Tools</uri>.
244</note>
245-->
246
247</body>
248</subsection>
249<subsection>
250<title>Viewing the ChangeLog</title>
251<body>
252
253<p>
254While browsing through the Portage Tree, you saw that there was a ChangeLog for
255each package. You can view the ChangeLog entries between the available version
256and the installed version with <c>emerge</c> too. Use the
257<c>--pretend --changelog</c> (<c>-pl</c> in short) options. As an example we
258will view the ChangeLog entries for <c>gnumeric</c>:
259</p>
260
261<pre caption="Viewing the ChangeLog entries for gnumeric">
262# <i>emerge --pretend --changelog gnumeric</i>
263<comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
264*gnumeric-1.2.2
265
266 27 Nov 2003; foser &lt;foser@gentoo.org&gt; gnumeric-1.2.2.ebuild :
267 New release, requested in #34492
268 updated deps
269
270 12 Nov 2003; Jason Wever &lt;weeve@gentoo.org&gt; gnumeric-1.2.0.ebuild:
271 Marked stable on sparc, fixes bug #32405.
272
273 14 Oct 2003; Jason Wever &lt;weeve@gentoo.org&gt; gnumeric-1.0.8.ebuild:
274 Added ~sparc keyword. Fixes bug #31150.
275</pre>
18 276
19</body> 277</body>
20</subsection> 278</subsection>
21</section> 279</section>
22<section> 280<section>
23<title>Updating Portage</title> 281<title>Updating Portage</title>
24<subsection> 282<subsection>
25<title>Using rsync</title> 283<title>Introduction</title>
26<body>
27
28</body> 284<body>
29</subsection> 285
286<p>
287Searching through Portage is nice, but if you don't update your Portage Tree
288regularly, you will be stuck with the packages and versions available on your
289system. This means that your system will get outdated pretty soon and that
290you will be missing bugfixes and remedies for possible security problems.
291</p>
292
293<p>
294There are several ways to update your Portage Tree. The most popular method is
295by using one of our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">rsync mirrors</uri>.
296Another one is by using a Portage snapshot (in case a firewall or unavailability
297of a network prohibits the use of the rsync server).
298</p>
299
300</body>
30<subsection> 301</subsection>
31<title>Using a Downloaded Snapshot</title> 302<subsection>
303<title>Selecting a Mirror for rsync</title>
304<body>
305
306<p>
307It is adviseable to first select a fast <uri
308link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror</uri> close to you. You can do this manually
309(by setting the <c>SYNC</c> variable in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>) or use
310<c>mirrorselect</c> to do this for you automatically. As the <c>SYNC</c>
311variable will be discussed later on, we will focus on using <c>mirrorselect</c>.
312First install <c>mirrorselect</c> by emerging it:
313</p>
314
315<pre caption="Installing mirrorselect">
316# <i>emerge --usepkg mirrorselect</i>
317</pre>
318
319<p>
320Now run <c>mirrorselect</c> to automatically select mirrors for you (it will
321also setup Portage to use a mirror for the source code):
322</p>
323
324<pre caption="Running mirrorselect">
325# <i>mirrorselect -a -s3</i>
326</pre>
327
32<body> 328</body>
329</subsection>
330<subsection>
331<title>Updating Portage</title>
332<body>
333
334<p>
335To update Portage using rsync, simply run <c>emerge sync</c>:
336</p>
337
338<pre caption="Updating Portage using emerge sync">
339# <i>emerge sync</i>
340</pre>
341
342<p>
343If this fails (due to network problems, or a firewall), you can try using
344<c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will download a Portage Tree snapshot using
345<c>wget</c>. This also means that you can use proxies if you want. We discussed
346how to setup your system to use proxies during the Gentoo installation.
347</p>
348
349<pre caption="Updating Portage using emerge-webrsync">
350# <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
351</pre>
33 352
34</body> 353</body>
35</subsection> 354</subsection>
36</section> 355</section>
37<section> 356<section>
38<title>Maintaining Software</title> 357<title>Maintaining Software</title>
39<subsection> 358<subsection>
40<title>Installing Software</title> 359<title>Building or Prebuilt?</title>
41<body>
42
43</body> 360<body>
44</subsection> 361
362<p>
363Gentoo provides ebuilds, the Gentoo packages if you like. But when you want to
364install such an ebuild, you can choose between <e>building</e> the package and
365using a <e>prebuilt</e> package. But what are the advantages/disadvantages of
366both approaches, and can they be used next to each other?
367</p>
368
369<p>
370As you probably have guessed, building packages takes a lot of time (especially
371if you have little resources or want to build big packages, such as <uri
372link="http://www.kde.org">KDE</uri>, <uri
373link="http://www.openoffice.org">OpenOffice.org</uri>, etc.). By building the
374package, you can use the <c>USE</c> setting to tweak the package to your system.
375Of course, you can also define high optimization options (in the <c>CFLAGS</c>
376and <c>CXXFLAGS</c> variables) to compile the package with.
377</p>
378
379<p>
380Using prebuilt packages improves the installation time (as no more compilation
381is needed), but you will lose the advantages of the <c>USE</c> setting and the
382<c>CFLAGS</c> &amp; <c>CXXFLAGS</c> variables.
383</p>
384
385<p>
386As previously stated, prebuilt packages are stored in the
387<path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> directory, while the source code of the
388packages is placed in <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. If you have finished
389installing a package you can remove the package or source code from the
390respective directory. However, you might want to keep the package/source code of
391the latest version, just in case you want to reinstall the package (so you don't
392have to redownload it).
393</p>
394
395</body>
45<subsection> 396</subsection>
46<title>Updating Software</title> 397<subsection>
398<title>Installing Software from Sources</title>
399<body>
400
401<p>
402Okay, enough talking, let's cut to the chase. To install a package, you will use
403the <c>emerge</c> command. If you don't want to use any prebuilt packages, you
404can just use <c>emerge &lt;package-name&gt;</c> or <c>emerge
405&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package-name&gt;</c>. As an example we'll install
406<c>gnumeric</c>:
407</p>
408
409<pre caption="Building gnumeric">
410# <i>emerge gnumeric</i>
411</pre>
412
413<p>
414This will download the source code for you and unpacks, compiles and installs
415the package on your system. It will also do the same for all the dependencies.
416If you want to see what dependencies will be installed with it, use the
417<c>--pretend</c> option (<c>-p</c> in short):
418</p>
419
420<pre caption="Pretending to build gnumeric">
421# <i>emerge --pretend gnumeric</i>
422</pre>
423
424<p>
425If you want to download the source code of the package and its dependencies,
426but don't want to build the package, use the <c>--fetchonly</c> option
427(<c>-f</c> in short):
428</p>
429
430<pre caption="Fetching sources for gnumeric">
431# <i>emerge --fetchonly gnumeric</i>
432</pre>
433
434<p>
435If you want to see where <c>emerge</c> downloads the sources from, combine the
436<c>--fetchonly</c> and <c>--pretend</c> options:
437</p>
438
439<pre caption="Showing URLs of the sources for gnumeric">
440# <i>emerge --fetchonly --pretend gnumeric</i>
441</pre>
442
443<p>
444You can also opt to install a specific version of a package.
445For instance, if you want to install a gnumeric version older than 1.2 -- for
446any reason whatsoever :) you would type:
447</p>
448
449<pre caption="Installing a specific gnumeric version">
450# <i>emerge "&lt;gnumeric-1.2"</i>
451</pre>
452
453<p>
454Other possibilities are of course "&gt;" (later version) and "=" (the exact
455version).
456</p>
457
47<body> 458</body>
459</subsection>
460<subsection>
461<title>Installing Prebuilt Packages</title>
462<body>
463
464<p>
465When you want to install a prebuilt package, you should use the <c>--usepkg</c>
466option (<c>-k</c> in short). This will use the binary package available in
467<path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> <e>if</e> the package and the version of
468the application you want to install match.
469</p>
470
471<pre caption="Installing a prebuilt package for gnumeric">
472# <i>emerge --usepkg gnumeric</i>
473</pre>
474
475<p>
476If you want to use the binary package, even if the versions don't match, use
477<c>--usepkgonly</c> (<c>-K</c> in short).
478</p>
479
480<pre caption="Installing the prebuilt package for gnumeric">
481# <i>emerge --usepkgonly gnumeric</i>
482</pre>
483
484<p>
485If you don't have the prebuilt package on your system yet, you can have
486<c>emerge</c> download it from a mirror, defined in the <c>PORTAGE_BINHOST</c>
487variable declared in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>.
488</p>
489
490<p>
491To download the binary package in case this package doesn't exist on
492your system already, use <c>--getbinpkg</c> (<c>-g</c> in short):
493</p>
494
495<pre caption="Downloading and installing a prebuilt package for gnumeric">
496# <i>emerge --getbinpkg gnumeric</i>
497</pre>
498
499<p>
500This will download the package and the package-related information for you and
501install it on your system, together with the dependencies. If you want to see
502what dependencies will be installed with it, use the <c>--pretend</c> option
503(<c>-p</c> in short):
504</p>
505
506<pre caption="Pretending to download the prebuilt packages for gnumeric">
507# <i>emerge --getbinpkg --pretend gnumeric</i>
508</pre>
509
510<p>
511You can also opt to download the prebuilt package (and the package-related
512information) <e>without</e> checking the information on your local system and
513<e>without</e> using the prebuilt package already on your system (if
514applicable), use the <c>--getbinpkgonly</c> option (<c>-G</c> in short):
515</p>
516
517<pre caption="Installing a prebuilt package without using local information">
518# <i>emerge --getbinpkgonly gnumeric</i>
519</pre>
520
521<p>
522You can also opt to install a specific version of a package.
523For instance, if you want to install a gnumeric version older than 1.2 -- for
524any reason whatsoever :) you would type:
525</p>
526
527<pre caption="Installing a specific gnumeric version">
528# <i>emerge --usepkg "&lt;gnumeric-1.2"</i>
529</pre>
530
531<p>
532Other possibilities are of course "&gt;" (later version) and "=" (the exact
533version).
534</p>
535
536
537</body>
538</subsection>
539<subsection>
540<title>Working with Dependencies</title>
541<body>
542
543<p>
544Portage has an extensive support for dependency handling. Although you usually
545don't need to even think about this (as dependencies are automatically handled
546by Portage) some users might want to know how you can work with <c>emerge</c>
547and dependencies.
548</p>
549
550<p>
551For instance, if you want Portage to pretend that none of the dependencies of a
552package are installed, you can use <c>--emptytree</c> (<c>-e</c> in short). This
553is useful with <c>--pretend</c> to display a complete tree of dependencies for
554any particular package. Without <c>--pretend</c>, <c>emerge</c> will (re)compile
555all listed packages. However, <c>glibc</c> will <e>not</e> be listed as
556dependency for safety reasons.
557</p>
558
559<pre caption="Show all dependencies of gnumeric">
560# <i>emerge --emptytree --pretend gnumeric</i>
561</pre>
562
563<p>
564Another argument is <c>--nodeps</c>, which will ask Portage to try install the
565given package without taking care of the dependencies. It is trivial that this
566can lead to failures.
567</p>
568
569<pre caption="Installing gnumeric without taking care of the dependencies">
570# <i>emerge --nodeps gnumeric</i>
571</pre>
572
573<p>
574The opposite of <c>--nodeps</c> is <c>--onlydeps</c>, which will have Portage
575install all dependencies of a given package, but not the package itself:
576</p>
577
578<pre caption="Installing the dependencies of gnumeric">
579# <i>emerge --onlydeps gnumeric</i>
580</pre>
581
582</body>
583</subsection>
584<subsection>
585<title>Updating your System</title>
586<body>
587
588<p>
589Portage knows two special tags to denote a set of software packages:
590<e>system</e> and <e>world</e>. You have already seen the former while
591installing Gentoo if you didn't use a <e>stage3</e> installation. To refresh
592things: <e>system</e> is the collection of <e>core</e> packages, necessary to
593have a working Gentoo system.
594</p>
595
596<p>
597The <e>world</e> tag consists of all software you have installed yourself on
598your system plus the <e>system</e> information. In other words, every time you
599emerge a package using <c>emerge &lt;package-name&gt;</c>, the
600<c>&lt;package-name&gt;</c> is registered in the <e>world</e> file
601(<path>/var/cache/edb/world</path>). Dependencies are <e>not</e> part of the
602<e>world</e> file, but we will get to that later.
603</p>
604
605<p>
606If you want to update the system packages, use the <c>--update</c> option
607(<c>-u</c> in short):
608</p>
609
610<pre caption="Updating the system packages">
611# <i>emerge --update system</i>
612</pre>
613
614<p>
615An identical approach can be used for the world packages:
616</p>
617
618<pre caption="Updating your entire system">
619# <i>emerge --update world</i>
620</pre>
621
622<p>
623Again, if you want to see what <c>emerge</c> wants to update, use the
624<c>--pretend</c> option together with the <c>--update</c> option:
625</p>
626
627<pre caption="Pretending to update your entire system">
628# <i>emerge --pretend --update world</i>
629<comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
630[ebuild U ] net-misc/wget-1.9-r1 [1.9]
631[ebuild UD] media-video/dvdauthor-0.5.0 [0.5.3]
632[ebuild U ] net-analyzer/ethereal-0.9.16 [0.9.14]
633</pre>
634
635<p>
636Right next to the word "ebuild" you will notice a letter (or combination of
637letters) which gives you more information about the package:
638</p>
639
640<ul>
641 <li>
642 <e>B</e> (blocks) The package listed to the left is blocking the emerge of
643 the package listed to the right
644 </li>
645 <li>
646 <e>N</e> (new) The package is new to your system and will be emerged for the
647 first time
648 </li>
649 <li>
650 <e>R</e> (reemerge) The package isn't new, but needs to be reemerged
651 </li>
652 <li>
653 <e>F</e> (fetch) The package requires that you download the source code
654 manually (for instance due to licencing issues)
655 </li>
656 <li>
657 <e>U</e> (update) The package already exists on your system but will be
658 upgraded
659 </li>
660 <li>
661 <e>UD</e> (downgrade) The package already exists on your system but will be
662 downgraded
663 </li>
664 <li>
665 <e>U-</e> (slot warning) The package you have installed on your system
666 is listed as a package that can not coexist with a different version, but
667 your update does. The update will be installed and the older version will be
668 removed.
669 </li>
670</ul>
671
672<p>
673In certain cases, an update may mean a downgrade (i.e. install an older version
674instead of a newer version). If you don't want this to happen, use the
675<c>--upgradeonly</c> option (<c>-U</c> in short):
676</p>
677
678<pre caption="Upgrading your entire system">
679# <i>emerge --update --upgradeonly world</i>
680</pre>
681
682<p>
683Of course, we are talking here about <e>system</e> and <e>world</e>, but you can
684perform the same actions for individual software packages.
685</p>
48 686
49</body> 687</body>
50</subsection> 688</subsection>
51<subsection> 689<subsection>
52<title>Removing Software</title> 690<title>Removing Software</title>
53<body> 691<body>
692
693<p>
694If you want to remove software from your system, you can use the <c>unmerge</c>
695option (<c>-C</c> - capital C - in short):
696</p>
697
698<pre caption="Uninstalling software">
699# <i>emerge unmerge gnumeric</i>
700</pre>
701
702<p>
703If you want to test a removal (but not perform it), you can use <c>--pretend</c>
704again:
705</p>
706
707<pre caption="Pretending to uninstall software">
708# <i>emerge --pretend unmerge gnumeric</i>
709</pre>
710
711<warn>
712Portage doesn't verify if a package is a dependency for another
713installed package. It also doesn't warn you if the package is part of
714<e>system</e>, i.e. a core application necessary for the correct functioning of
715your system!
716</warn>
717
718<p>
719Once the unmerge begins you will see a long list of filenames belonging to the
720package. Some of these filenames will have a flag displayed to the
721left of the filename. The flags <c>!mtime</c>, <c>!empty</c>, and <c>cfgpro</c>
722specify reasons why certain files are not being removed while the package is.
723Files listed without any of these three flags are removed from the
724filesystem successfully. The three flags specify the following reasons:
725</p>
726
727<ul>
728 <li>
729 <c>!mtime</c> : The listed file has been changed since it was installed,
730 probably by you or some tool
731 </li>
732 <li>
733 <c>!empty</c> : The listed directory is not empty
734 </li>
735 <li>
736 <c>cfgpro</c> : This file is located inside a protected directory and will
737 not be touched for safety
738 </li>
739</ul>
54 740
55</body> 741</body>
56</subsection> 742</subsection>
57</section> 743</section>
58<section> 744<section>
59<title>Software Availability</title> 745<title>Software Availability</title>
60<subsection> 746<subsection>
61<title>ARCH or not?</title> 747<title>ARCH or not?</title>
62<body> 748<body>
63 749
750<p>
751Gentoo places its packages in two possible stadia called <e>ARCH</e> and
752<e>~ARCH</e>. Don't take this literally: the stadia depend on the architecture
753you are using. In other words, for x86-based systems you have <e>x86</e> and
754<e>~x86</e>, for ppc-based systems you have <e>ppc</e> and <e>~ppc</e> etc.
755</p>
756
757<p>
758The <e>~ARCH</e> stadium means that the package works for the developer in
759charge of the package, but that the package hasn't been tested thoroughly enough
760by the community to be placed in <e>ARCH</e>. <e>~ARCH</e> packages usually go
761to <e>ARCH</e> after being bugfree for a sufficient amount of time.
762</p>
763
764<p>
765Your system will use <e>ARCH</e> packages per default. If you want to live on
766the edge, don't mind having a broken package once in a while, know how to deal
767with a broken system and you like submitting bugreports to <uri
768link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugs.gentoo.org</uri>, then you can opt to use
769<e>~ARCH</e> packages. To "move" your system to a <e>~ARCH</e>-using system,
770edit the <c>ACCEPT_KEYWORDS</c> variable in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so that
771it reads <e>~ARCH</e> (again: for x86-based systems: <e>~x86</e>, etc.).
772</p>
773
774<p>
775Note though that it is far from trivial (if even impossible) to go back to
776<e>ARCH</e> from <e>~ARCH</e>.
777</p>
778
779<p>
780If you want to update your system now, you will notice that <e>a lot</e> of
781packages will be updated!
782</p>
783
64</body> 784</body>
65</subsection> 785</subsection>
66<subsection> 786<subsection>
67<title>Masked Packages</title> 787<title>Masked Packages</title>
68<body> 788<body>
69 789
790<p>
791When you want to install a package, you might come across the following message:
792</p>
793
794<pre caption="Message about masked packages">
795Calculating dependencies
796!!! <comment>all ebuilds that could satisfy </comment>&lt;your package&gt;<comment> have been masked.</comment>
797</pre>
798
799<p>
800A package can be masked due to two reasons:
801</p>
802
803<ol>
804 <li>The package is in <e>~ARCH</e> while you use <e>ARCH</e></li>
805 <li>The package is hard-masked explicitly</li>
806</ol>
807
808<p>
809If the package is masked because of the first reason, and you <e>really</e> want
810to install it (knowing that there <e>is</e> a reason why it isn't available in
811<e>ARCH</e>), you can temporarily accept <e>~ARCH</e> packages:
812</p>
813
814<pre caption="Temporarily accepting ~ARCH packages">
815# <i>ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~x86" emerge gnumeric</i>
816</pre>
817
818<p>
819A package is hardmasked if it is listed in
820<path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path>. If you read this file, you
821will also read the reason why the package is hardmasked (it is usually added as
822a comment). If you want to install the package nevertheless (despite all the
823possible warnings we could ever throw at your head about "breaking your system",
824"breaks other packages", or "badly needs testing"), create the
825<path>/etc/portage/package.unmask</path> file and list the package in it (use
826the same format as is used in <path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path>).
827</p>
828
829<p>
830Do <e>not</e> alter the <path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path> file as
831all changes are undone the next time you update your Portage tree. If you want
832to hardmask a package create <path>/etc/portage/package.mask</path> and list the
833package in it (use the same format as mentioned above).
834</p>
835
836<!--
837<p>
838Another trick to circumvent the "masked package" problem is to install the
839package using the full path. This will ignore both the <c>ACCEPT_KEYWORD</c>
840settings and the <path>package.mask</path> listing.
841</p>
842
843<pre caption="Installing a package without checking for stadium / masking">
844# <i>emerge /usr/portage/app-office/gnumeric/gnumeric-1.2.0.ebuild</i>
845</pre>
846-->
847
70</body> 848</body>
71</subsection> 849</subsection>
72<subsection> 850<subsection>
73<title>Blocked Packages</title> 851<title>Blocked Packages</title>
74<body> 852<body>
853
854<p>
855You have a situation when you receive the following error on your screen:
856</p>
857
858<pre caption="Blocking package">
859[blocks B ] gnome-base/bonobo-activation (from pkg gnome-base/libbonobo-2.4.0)
860</pre>
861
862<p>
863In the above example, the package <c>bonobo-activation</c> is blocking the
864emerge of <c>libbonobo</c>. To resolve this issue, remove the
865<c>bonobo-activation</c> package and continue:
866</p>
867
868<pre caption="Resolving a blocking situation">
869# <i>emerge unmerge bonobo-activation</i>
870</pre>
75 871
76</body> 872</body>
77</subsection> 873</subsection>
78</section> 874</section>
79</sections> 875</sections>

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