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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.22 2004/02/03 20:25:45 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.67 2007/11/01 01:28:56 jkt Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10
11<abstract>
12This chapter explains the "simple" steps a user definitely needs to know to
13maintain the software on his system.
14</abstract>
15
16<version>1.60</version>
17<date>2007-11-01</date>
18
10<section> 19<section>
11<title>Obtaining Package Information</title> 20<title>Welcome to Portage</title>
12<subsection>
13<title>The Lord of All Tools: emerge</title>
14<body> 21<body>
15 22
16<p>
17The main Portage tool that most users will use is <c>emerge</c>. We have already
18used it during the Gentoo installation and in the previous chapter, but we just
19briefly explained how to use it. This chapter will elaborate on <c>emerge</c>
20and teach you how to use <c>emerge</c> to fix all your software-related needs.
21</p> 23<p>
22 24Portage is probably Gentoo's most notable innovation in software management.
25With its high flexibility and enormous amount of features it is frequently seen
26as the best software management tool available for Linux.
23<p> 27</p>
24<c>emerge</c> is the command used to install, remove, query and maintain 28
25software packages. It is a front-end for <c>ebuild</c>; people interested in
26becoming Gentoo professionals will learn how to use <c>ebuild</c> later on. For
27now, we will focus on <c>emerge</c> as it has functionality that <c>ebuild</c>
28lacks (such as resolving dependencies, searching the Portage tree, etc.).
29</p> 29<p>
30 30Portage is completely written in <uri link="http://www.python.org">Python</uri>
31and <uri link="http://www.gnu.org/software/bash">Bash</uri> and therefore fully
32visible to the users as both are scripting languages.
31<p> 33</p>
32Since <c>emerge</c> is the most important tool for Gentoo users, it has an 34
33extensive manpage you can read by issuing <c>man emerge</c>. You can also view
34the in-command help by running <c>emerge --help</c>.
35</p> 35<p>
36Most users will work with Portage through the <c>emerge</c> tool. This chapter
37is not meant to duplicate the information available from the emerge man page.
38For a complete rundown of emerge's options, please consult the man page:
39</p>
36 40
37<pre caption="Retrieving help for emerge"> 41<pre caption="Reading the emerge man page">
38# <i>man emerge</i> 42$ <i>man emerge</i>
39# <i>emerge --help</i>
40</pre> 43</pre>
41 44
42</body>
43</subsection>
44<subsection>
45<title>The Portage Tree</title>
46<body> 45</body>
47
48<p>
49Before we continue describing <c>emerge</c>, let us first take a look at the
50Portage Tree. Go to <path>/usr/portage</path> and do a listing of the available
51directories. We use <c>ls --classify</c> to list the contents of a
52directory as it will show directories with a trailing "/".
53</p>
54
55<pre caption="Viewing the Portage Tree">
56# <i>cd /usr/portage; ls --classify</i>
57app-admin/ dev-ml/ gnome-libs/ net-print/
58app-arch/ dev-perl/ gnome-office/ net-wireless/
59app-benchmarks/ dev-php/ header.txt net-www/
60app-cdr/ dev-python/ incoming/ net-zope/
61app-crypt/ dev-ruby/ jython/ packages/
62app-dicts/ dev-tcltk/ kde-apps/ profiles/
63app-doc/ dev-tex/ kde-base/ releases/
64app-editors/ dev-util/ kde-i18n/ scripts/
65app-emacs/ distfiles/ kde-libs/ sec-policy/
66app-emulation/ eclass/ licenses/ skel.ChangeLog
67app-games/ experimental/ media-fonts/ skel.ebuild
68app-gnustep/ files/ media-gfx/ skel.metadata.xml
69app-i18n/ fresco-base/ media-libs/ snapshots/
70app-misc/ games-action/ media-plugins/ sys-apps/
71app-office/ games-arcade/ media-radio/ sys-build/
72app-pda/ games-board/ media-sound/ sys-cluster/
73app-portage/ games-emulation/ media-tv/ sys-devel/
74app-sci/ games-engines/ media-video/ sys-fs/
75app-shells/ games-fps/ metadata/ sys-kernel/
76app-text/ games-kids/ net-analyzer/ sys-kmods/
77app-vim/ games-misc/ net-apache/ sys-libs/
78app-xemacs/ games-mud/ net-dialup/ unix2tcp/
79berlin-base/ games-puzzle/ net-dns/ x11-base/
80dev-ada/ games-roguelike/ net-firewall/ x11-libs/
81dev-cpp/ games-rpg/ net-fs/ x11-misc/
82dev-db/ games-server/ net-ftp/ x11-plugins/
83dev-dotnet/ games-simulation/ net-im/ x11-terms/
84dev-embedded/ games-sports/ net-irc/ x11-themes/
85dev-games/ games-strategy/ net-libs/ x11-wm/
86dev-haskell/ games-util/ net-mail/ xfce-base/
87dev-java/ glep/ net-misc/ xfce-extra/
88dev-lang/ gnome-apps/ net-nds/
89dev-libs/ gnome-base/ net-news/
90dev-lisp/ gnome-extra/ net-p2p/
91</pre>
92
93<p>
94As you can see, the Portage tree has several subdirectories. Most of them are
95the <e>categories</e> in which the Gentoo packages, called <e>ebuilds</e>,
96reside. Take a look at, for instance, <path>app-office</path>:
97</p>
98
99<pre caption="Viewing a category">
100# <i>cd app-office; ls --classify</i>
101abiword/ gnotime/ kmymoney2/ ooodi/ plan/ timestamp.x
102dia/ gnucash/ koffice/ oooqs/ qhacc/
103dia2code/ gnumeric/ lxbank/ openoffice/ sc/
104facturalux/ ical/ lyx/ openoffice-bin/ scribus/
105gaby/ kbudget/ mdbtools/ openoffice-ximian/ siag/
106gnofin/ khacc/ mrproject/ phprojekt/ texmacs/
107</pre>
108
109<p>
110Inside a category you will find the packages belonging to that category, with a
111separate directory for each package. Let us take a look at the <c>openoffice</c>
112package:
113</p>
114
115<pre caption="Viewing a package">
116# <i>cd openoffice; ls --classify</i>
117ChangeLog files/ openoffice-1.0.3-r1.ebuild openoffice-1.1.0-r2.ebuild
118Manifest metadata.xml openoffice-1.1.0-r1.ebuild openoffice-1.1.0.ebuild
119</pre>
120
121<p>
122Remember that we told you that a Gentoo package is called an ebuild? Well, in
123the example directory four of such ebuilds are stored. Their naming is
124almost identical: they only differ in the version name.
125You are free to view the contents of such a package: they are plain scripts. We
126will not discuss it right now as it isn't important to know if you plan on just
127using Gentoo.
128</p>
129
130<p>
131The other files are the <path>ChangeLog</path> (which contains a listing of all
132the changes done to the ebuilds), <path>Manifest</path> (which contains the
133checksums and filesizes of all the files in the directory) and
134<path>metadata.xml</path> (which contains more information about the package,
135such as the responsible development group -- called <e>herd</e> -- and a more
136extensive description).
137</p>
138
139<p>
140Inside the <path>files</path> directory you will find extra files, needed by
141Portage: digests (checksums and permissions of the files needed by a single
142version of the package), patches, example configuration files, etc.
143</p>
144
145<pre caption="Viewing the extra files">
146# <i>cd files; ls --classify</i>
1471.0.3/ digest-openoffice-1.0.3-r1 digest-openoffice-1.1.0-r1
1481.1.0/ digest-openoffice-1.1.0 digest-openoffice-1.1.0-r2
149# <i>cd 1.1.0; ls --classify</i>
150fixed-gcc.patch ooffice-wrapper-1.3
151newstlportfix.patch openoffice-1.1.0-linux-2.6-fix.patch
152no-mozab.patch openoffice-1.1.0-sparc64-fix.patch
153nptl.patch
154</pre>
155
156<p>
157If you go back to the root of the Portage tree (<path>/usr/portage</path>) you
158will notice that there are other, non-category directories too. We will discuss
159those later in this chapter.
160</p>
161
162</body>
163</subsection>
164<subsection>
165<title>Search for a Package</title>
166<body>
167
168<p>
169If you are new to Linux or Gentoo, you might not know what tool you need for
170what job. To facilitate searching, <c>emerge</c> provides you with a way to
171search through the available packages on your system. There are two ways you can
172search through packages: by <e>name</e>, or by <e>name</e> and
173<e>description</e>.
174</p>
175
176<p>
177To search through the Portage tree by name, use <c>emerge search</c>. For
178instance, to find out more about <c>mozilla</c>:
179</p>
180
181<pre caption="Showing information about mozilla">
182# <i>emerge search mozilla</i>
183Searching...
184[ Results for search key : mozilla ]
185[ Applications found : 5 ]
186<comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
187* net-www/mozilla
188 Latest version available: 1.5-r1
189 Latest version installed: 1.4-r3
190 Size of downloaded files: 29,153 kB
191 Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org
192 Description: The Mozilla Web Browser
193
194* net-www/mozilla-firebird
195 Latest version available: 0.7
196 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
197 Size of downloaded files: 37,850 kB
198 Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org/projects/firebird/
199 Description: The Mozilla Firebird Web Browser
200<comment>(...)</comment>
201</pre>
202
203<p>
204If you want to include a search through the descriptions too, use the
205<c>--searchdesc</c> argument:
206</p>
207
208<pre caption="Search through the descriptions too">
209# <i>emerge --searchdesc mozilla</i>
210Searching...
211[ Results for search key : mozilla ]
212[ Applications found : 10 ]
213<comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
214* dev-libs/nss-3.8
215 Latest version available: 3.8
216 Latest version installed: 3.8
217 Size of downloaded files: 2,782 kB
218 Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org/projects/security/pki/nss/
219 Description: Mozilla's Netscape Security Services Library that implements PKI support
220</pre>
221
222<p>
223As you can see, the output of <c>emerge</c> informs you about the category and
224name of the package, the available version, the currently installed version,
225the size of the downloaded files, the homepage and the small description.
226</p>
227
228<p>
229You see something new? Yes, <e>downloaded files</e>. When you tell Portage to
230install a package, it of course needs to have the necessary sources (or
231precompiled packages) available. It therefore checks the contents of
232<path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> (for source code) or
233<path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> (for precompiled packages) to see if the
234necessary files are already available. If not, it downloads the necessary files
235and places them in those directories.
236</p>
237
238<!--
239<note>
240Searching the Portage Tree, especially when using <c>- -searchdesc</c>, is very
241time consuming. There are other, more performant tools available. We will
242describe those in the chapter on <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=7">Gentoolkit and
243Other Tools</uri>.
244</note>
245-->
246
247</body>
248</subsection>
249<subsection>
250<title>Viewing the ChangeLog</title>
251<body>
252
253<p>
254While browsing through the Portage Tree, you saw that there was a ChangeLog for
255each package. You can view the ChangeLog entries between the available version
256and the installed version with <c>emerge</c> too. Use the
257<c>--pretend --changelog</c> (<c>-pl</c> in short) options. As an example we
258will view the ChangeLog entries for <c>gnumeric</c>:
259</p>
260
261<pre caption="Viewing the ChangeLog entries for gnumeric">
262# <i>emerge --pretend --changelog gnumeric</i>
263<comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
264*gnumeric-1.2.2
265
266 27 Nov 2003; foser &lt;foser@gentoo.org&gt; gnumeric-1.2.2.ebuild :
267 New release, requested in #34492
268 updated deps
269
270 12 Nov 2003; Jason Wever &lt;weeve@gentoo.org&gt; gnumeric-1.2.0.ebuild:
271 Marked stable on sparc, fixes bug #32405.
272
273 14 Oct 2003; Jason Wever &lt;weeve@gentoo.org&gt; gnumeric-1.0.8.ebuild:
274 Added ~sparc keyword. Fixes bug #31150.
275</pre>
276
277</body>
278</subsection>
279</section> 46</section>
280<section> 47<section>
281<title>Updating Portage</title> 48<title>The Portage Tree</title>
282<subsection>
283<title>Introduction</title>
284<body>
285
286<p>
287Searching through Portage is nice, but if you don't update your Portage Tree
288regularly, you will be stuck with the packages and versions available on your
289system. This means that your system will get outdated pretty soon and that
290you will be missing bugfixes and remedies for possible security problems.
291</p>
292
293<p>
294There are several ways to update your Portage Tree. The most popular method is
295by using one of our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">rsync mirrors</uri>.
296Another one is by using a Portage snapshot (in case a firewall or unavailability
297of a network prohibits the use of the rsync server).
298</p>
299
300</body>
301</subsection> 49<subsection>
50<title>Ebuilds</title>
51<body>
52
53<p>
54When we talk about packages, we often mean software titles that are available to
55the Gentoo users through the Portage tree. The Portage tree is a collection of
56<e>ebuilds</e>, files that contain all information Portage needs to maintain
57software (install, search, query, ...). These ebuilds reside in
58<path>/usr/portage</path> by default.
59</p>
60
61<p>
62Whenever you ask Portage to perform some action regarding software titles, it
63will use the ebuilds on your system as a base. It is therefore important that
64you regularly update the ebuilds on your system so Portage knows about new
65software, security updates, etc.
66</p>
67
68</body>
302<subsection> 69</subsection>
303<title>Selecting a Mirror for rsync</title>
304<body>
305
306<p>
307It is adviseable to first select a fast <uri
308link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror</uri> close to you. You can do this manually
309(by setting the <c>SYNC</c> variable in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>) or use
310<c>mirrorselect</c> to do this for you automatically. As the <c>SYNC</c>
311variable will be discussed later on, we will focus on using <c>mirrorselect</c>.
312First install <c>mirrorselect</c> by emerging it:
313</p>
314
315<pre caption="Installing mirrorselect">
316# <i>emerge --usepkg mirrorselect</i>
317</pre>
318
319<p>
320Now run <c>mirrorselect</c> to automatically select mirrors for you (it will
321also setup Portage to use a mirror for the source code):
322</p>
323
324<pre caption="Running mirrorselect">
325# <i>mirrorselect -a -s3</i>
326</pre>
327
328</body>
329</subsection> 70<subsection>
330<subsection>
331<title>Updating Portage</title> 71<title>Updating the Portage Tree</title>
332<body> 72<body>
333 73
334<p>
335To update Portage using rsync, simply run <c>emerge sync</c>:
336</p> 74<p>
75The Portage tree is usually updated with <uri
76link="http://rsync.samba.org/">rsync</uri>, a fast incremental file transfer
77utility. Updating is fairly simple as the <c>emerge</c> command provides a
78front-end for rsync:
79</p>
337 80
338<pre caption="Updating Portage using emerge sync"> 81<pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
339# <i>emerge sync</i> 82# <i>emerge --sync</i>
340</pre> 83</pre>
341 84
342<p>
343If this fails (due to network problems, or a firewall), you can try using
344<c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will download a Portage Tree snapshot using
345<c>wget</c>. This also means that you can use proxies if you want. We discussed
346how to setup your system to use proxies during the Gentoo installation.
347</p> 85<p>
86If you are unable to rsync due to firewall restrictions you can still update
87your Portage tree by using our daily generated Portage tree snapshots. The
88<c>emerge-webrsync</c> tool automatically fetches and installs the latest
89snapshot on your system:
90</p>
348 91
349<pre caption="Updating Portage using emerge-webrsync"> 92<pre caption="Running emerge-webrsync">
350# <i>emerge-webrsync</i> 93# <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
351</pre> 94</pre>
352 95
353</body> 96</body>
354</subsection> 97</subsection>
355</section> 98</section>
356<section> 99<section>
357<title>Maintaining Software</title> 100<title>Maintaining Software</title>
358<subsection> 101<subsection>
359<title>Building or Prebuilt?</title> 102<title>Searching for Software</title>
360<body>
361
362<p>
363Gentoo provides ebuilds, the Gentoo packages if you like. But when you want to
364install such an ebuild, you can choose between <e>building</e> the package and
365using a <e>prebuilt</e> package. But what are the advantages/disadvantages of
366both approaches, and can they be used next to each other?
367</p>
368
369<p>
370As you probably have guessed, building packages takes a lot of time (especially
371if you have little resources or want to build big packages, such as <uri
372link="http://www.kde.org">KDE</uri>, <uri
373link="http://www.openoffice.org">OpenOffice.org</uri>, etc.). By building the
374package, you can use the <c>USE</c> setting to tweak the package to your system.
375Of course, you can also define high optimization options (in the <c>CFLAGS</c>
376and <c>CXXFLAGS</c> variables) to compile the package with.
377</p>
378
379<p>
380Using prebuilt packages improves the installation time (as no more compilation
381is needed), but you will lose the advantages of the <c>USE</c> setting and the
382<c>CFLAGS</c> &amp; <c>CXXFLAGS</c> variables.
383</p>
384
385<p>
386As previously stated, prebuilt packages are stored in the
387<path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> directory, while the source code of the
388packages is placed in <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. If you have finished
389installing a package you can remove the package or source code from the
390respective directory. However, you might want to keep the package/source code of
391the latest version, just in case you want to reinstall the package (so you don't
392have to redownload it).
393</p>
394
395</body> 103<body>
396</subsection> 104
105<p>
106To search through the Portage tree after software titles, you can use
107<c>emerge</c> built-in search capabilities. By default, <c>emerge --search</c>
108returns the names of packages whose title matches (either fully or partially)
109the given search term.
110</p>
111
112<p>
113For instance, to search for all packages who have "pdf" in their name:
114</p>
115
116<pre caption="Searching for pdf-named packages">
117$ <i>emerge --search pdf</i>
118</pre>
119
120<p>
121If you want to search through the descriptions as well you can use the
122<c>--searchdesc</c> (or <c>-S</c>) switch:
123</p>
124
125<pre caption="Searching for pdf-related packages">
126$ <i>emerge --searchdesc pdf</i>
127</pre>
128
129<p>
130When you take a look at the output, you'll notice that it gives you a lot of
131information. The fields are clearly labelled so we won't go further into their
132meanings:
133</p>
134
135<pre caption="Example 'emerge --search' output">
136* net-print/cups-pdf
137 Latest version available: 1.5.2
138 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
139 Size of downloaded files: 15 kB
140 Homepage: http://cip.physik.uni-wuerzburg.de/~vrbehr/cups-pdf/
141 Description: Provides a virtual printer for CUPS to produce PDF files.
142 License: GPL-2
143</pre>
144
145</body>
397<subsection> 146</subsection>
147<subsection>
398<title>Installing Software from Sources</title> 148<title>Installing Software</title>
399<body> 149<body>
400 150
401<p> 151<p>
402Okay, enough talking, let's cut to the chase. To install a package, you will use 152Once you've found a software title to your liking, you can easily install it
403the <c>emerge</c> command. If you don't want to use any prebuilt packages, you 153with <c>emerge</c>: just add the package name. For instance, to install
404can just use <c>emerge &lt;package-name&gt;</c> or <c>emerge
405&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package-name&gt;</c>. As an example we'll install
406<c>gnumeric</c>: 154<c>gnumeric</c>:
407</p> 155</p>
408 156
409<pre caption="Building gnumeric"> 157<pre caption="Installing gnumeric">
410# <i>emerge gnumeric</i> 158# <i>emerge gnumeric</i>
411</pre> 159</pre>
412 160
413<p> 161<p>
414This will download the source code for you and unpacks, compiles and installs 162Since many applications depend on each other, any attempt to install a certain
415the package on your system. It will also do the same for all the dependencies. 163software package might result in the installation of several dependencies as
416If you want to see what dependencies will be installed with it, use the 164well. Don't worry, Portage handles dependencies well. If you want to find out
417<c>--pretend</c> option (<c>-p</c> in short): 165what Portage <e>would</e> install when you ask it to install a certain package,
166add the <c>--pretend</c> switch. For instance:
418</p> 167</p>
419 168
420<pre caption="Pretending to build gnumeric"> 169<pre caption="Pretend to install gnumeric">
421# <i>emerge --pretend gnumeric</i> 170# <i>emerge --pretend gnumeric</i>
422</pre> 171</pre>
423 172
424<p> 173<p>
425If you want to download the source code of the package and its dependencies, 174When you ask Portage to install a package, it will download the necessary source
426but don't want to build the package, use the <c>--fetchonly</c> option 175code from the internet (if necessary) and store it by default in
427(<c>-f</c> in short): 176<path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. After this it will unpack, compile and
177install the package. If you want Portage to only download the sources without
178installing them, add the <c>--fetchonly</c> option to the <c>emerge</c> command:
428</p> 179</p>
429 180
430<pre caption="Fetching sources for gnumeric"> 181<pre caption="Download the sourcecode for gnumeric">
431# <i>emerge --fetchonly gnumeric</i> 182# <i>emerge --fetchonly gnumeric</i>
432</pre> 183</pre>
433 184
434<p>
435If you want to see where <c>emerge</c> downloads the sources from, combine the
436<c>--fetchonly</c> and <c>--pretend</c> options:
437</p>
438
439<pre caption="Showing URLs of the sources for gnumeric">
440# <i>emerge --fetchonly --pretend gnumeric</i>
441</pre>
442
443<p>
444You can also opt to install a specific version of a package.
445For instance, if you want to install a gnumeric version older than 1.2 -- for
446any reason whatsoever :) you would type:
447</p>
448
449<pre caption="Installing a specific gnumeric version">
450# <i>emerge "&lt;gnumeric-1.2"</i>
451</pre>
452
453<p>
454Other possibilities are of course "&gt;" (later version) and "=" (the exact
455version).
456</p>
457
458</body> 185</body>
459</subsection>
460<subsection> 186</subsection>
461<title>Installing Prebuilt Packages</title>
462<body>
463
464<p>
465When you want to install a prebuilt package, you should use the <c>--usepkg</c>
466option (<c>-k</c> in short). This will use the binary package available in
467<path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> <e>if</e> the package and the version of
468the application you want to install match.
469</p>
470
471<pre caption="Installing a prebuilt package for gnumeric">
472# <i>emerge --usepkg gnumeric</i>
473</pre>
474
475<p>
476If you want to use the binary package, even if the versions don't match, use
477<c>--usepkgonly</c> (<c>-K</c> in short).
478</p>
479
480<pre caption="Installing the prebuilt package for gnumeric">
481# <i>emerge --usepkgonly gnumeric</i>
482</pre>
483
484<p>
485If you don't have the prebuilt package on your system yet, you can have
486<c>emerge</c> download it from a mirror, defined in the <c>PORTAGE_BINHOST</c>
487variable declared in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>.
488</p>
489
490<p>
491To download the binary package in case this package doesn't exist on
492your system already, use <c>--getbinpkg</c> (<c>-g</c> in short):
493</p>
494
495<pre caption="Downloading and installing a prebuilt package for gnumeric">
496# <i>emerge --getbinpkg gnumeric</i>
497</pre>
498
499<p>
500This will download the package and the package-related information for you and
501install it on your system, together with the dependencies. If you want to see
502what dependencies will be installed with it, use the <c>--pretend</c> option
503(<c>-p</c> in short):
504</p>
505
506<pre caption="Pretending to download the prebuilt packages for gnumeric">
507# <i>emerge --getbinpkg --pretend gnumeric</i>
508</pre>
509
510<p>
511You can also opt to download the prebuilt package (and the package-related
512information) <e>without</e> checking the information on your local system and
513<e>without</e> using the prebuilt package already on your system (if
514applicable), use the <c>--getbinpkgonly</c> option (<c>-G</c> in short):
515</p>
516
517<pre caption="Installing a prebuilt package without using local information">
518# <i>emerge --getbinpkgonly gnumeric</i>
519</pre>
520
521<p>
522You can also opt to install a specific version of a package.
523For instance, if you want to install a gnumeric version older than 1.2 -- for
524any reason whatsoever :) you would type:
525</p>
526
527<pre caption="Installing a specific gnumeric version">
528# <i>emerge --usepkg "&lt;gnumeric-1.2"</i>
529</pre>
530
531<p>
532Other possibilities are of course "&gt;" (later version) and "=" (the exact
533version).
534</p>
535
536
537</body>
538</subsection> 187<subsection>
188<title>Finding Installed Package Documentation</title>
189<body>
190
191<p>
192Many packages come with their own documentation. Sometimes, the <c>doc</c> USE
193flag determines whether the package documentation should be installed or not.
194You can check the existence of a <c>doc</c> USE flag with the <c>emerge -vp
195&lt;package name&gt;</c> command.
196</p>
197
198<pre caption="Checking the existence of a doc USE flag">
199<comment>(alsa-lib is just an example, of course.)</comment>
200# <i>emerge -vp alsa-lib</i>
201[ebuild N ] media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1 -debug +doc 698 kB
202</pre>
203
204<p>
205The best way of enabling the <c>doc</c> USE flag is doing it on a per-package
206basis via the <path>/etc/portage/package.use</path> file, so that you get
207documentation only for packages that you are interested in. Enabling this flag
208globally is known to cause problems with circular dependencies. For more
209information, please read the <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE Flags</uri>
210chapter.
211</p>
212
213<p>
214Once the package installed, its documentation is generally found in a
215subdirectory named after the package under the <path>/usr/share/doc</path>
216directory. You can also list all installed files with the <c>equery</c> tool
217which is part of the <c>app-portage/gentoolkit</c> <uri
218link="/doc/en/gentoolkit.xml">package</uri>.
219</p>
220
221<pre caption="Locating package documentation">
222# <i>ls -l /usr/share/doc/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1</i>
223total 28
224-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 669 May 17 21:54 ChangeLog.gz
225-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 9373 May 17 21:54 COPYING.gz
226drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 8560 May 17 21:54 html
227-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 196 May 17 21:54 TODO.gz
228
229<comment>(Alternatively, use equery to locate interesting files:)</comment>
230# <i>equery files alsa-lib | less</i>
231media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1
232* Contents of media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1:
233/usr
234/usr/bin
235/usr/bin/alsalisp
236<comment>(Output truncated)</comment>
237</pre>
238
239</body>
539<subsection> 240</subsection>
540<title>Working with Dependencies</title> 241<subsection>
242<title>Removing Software</title>
541<body> 243<body>
542 244
543<p>
544Portage has an extensive support for dependency handling. Although you usually
545don't need to even think about this (as dependencies are automatically handled
546by Portage) some users might want to know how you can work with <c>emerge</c>
547and dependencies.
548</p> 245<p>
549 246When you want to remove a software package from your system, use <c>emerge
247--unmerge</c>. This will tell Portage to remove all files installed by that
248package from your system <e>except</e> the configuration files of that
249application if you have altered those after the installation. Leaving the
250configuration files allows you to continue working with the package if you ever
251decide to install it again.
550<p> 252</p>
551For instance, if you want Portage to pretend that none of the dependencies of a 253
552package are installed, you can use <c>--emptytree</c> (<c>-e</c> in short). This
553is useful with <c>--pretend</c> to display a complete tree of dependencies for
554any particular package. Without <c>--pretend</c>, <c>emerge</c> will (re)compile
555all listed packages. However, <c>glibc</c> will <e>not</e> be listed as
556dependency for safety reasons.
557</p> 254<p>
558 255However, a <brite>big warning</brite> applies: Portage will <e>not</e> check if
559<pre caption="Show all dependencies of gnumeric"> 256the package you want to remove is required by another package. It will however
560# <i>emerge --emptytree --pretend gnumeric</i> 257warn you when you want to remove an important package that breaks your system
561</pre> 258if you unmerge it.
562
563<p> 259</p>
564Another argument is <c>--nodeps</c>, which will ask Portage to try install the
565given package without taking care of the dependencies. It is trivial that this
566can lead to failures.
567</p>
568 260
569<pre caption="Installing gnumeric without taking care of the dependencies"> 261<pre caption="Removing gnumeric from the system">
570# <i>emerge --nodeps gnumeric</i> 262# <i>emerge --unmerge gnumeric</i>
571</pre> 263</pre>
572 264
573<p>
574The opposite of <c>--nodeps</c> is <c>--onlydeps</c>, which will have Portage
575install all dependencies of a given package, but not the package itself:
576</p> 265<p>
577 266When you remove a package from your system, the dependencies of that package
578<pre caption="Installing the dependencies of gnumeric"> 267that were installed automatically when you installed the software are left. To
579# <i>emerge --onlydeps gnumeric</i> 268have Portage locate all dependencies that can now be removed, use
269<c>emerge</c>'s <c>--depclean</c> functionality. We will talk about this later
270on.
580</pre> 271</p>
581 272
582</body> 273</body>
583</subsection> 274</subsection>
584<subsection> 275<subsection>
585<title>Updating your System</title> 276<title>Updating your System</title>
586<body> 277<body>
587 278
588<p> 279<p>
589Portage knows two special tags to denote a set of software packages: 280To keep your system in perfect shape (and not to mention install the latest
590<e>system</e> and <e>world</e>. You have already seen the former while 281security updates) you need to update your system regularly. Since Portage only
591installing Gentoo if you didn't use a <e>stage3</e> installation. To refresh 282checks the ebuilds in your Portage tree you first have to update your Portage
592things: <e>system</e> is the collection of <e>core</e> packages, necessary to 283tree. When your Portage tree is updated, you can update your system with
593have a working Gentoo system. 284<c>emerge --update world</c>. In the next example, we'll also use the
594</p> 285<c>--ask</c> switch which will tell Portage to display the list of packages it
595 286wants to upgrade and ask you if you want to continue:
596<p> 287</p>
597The <e>world</e> tag consists of all software you have installed yourself on 288
598your system plus the <e>system</e> information. In other words, every time you 289<pre caption="Updating your system">
599emerge a package using <c>emerge &lt;package-name&gt;</c>, the 290# <i>emerge --update --ask world</i>
600<c>&lt;package-name&gt;</c> is registered in the <e>world</e> file 291</pre>
601(<path>/var/cache/edb/world</path>). Dependencies are <e>not</e> part of the 292
602<e>world</e> file, but we will get to that later.
603</p> 293<p>
604 294Portage will then search for newer version of the applications you have
605<p> 295installed. However, it will only verify the versions for the applications you
606If you want to update the system packages, use the <c>--update</c> option 296have <e>explicitly</e> installed (the applications listed in
607(<c>-u</c> in short): 297<path>/var/lib/portage/world</path>) - it does not thoroughly check their
608</p> 298dependencies. If you want to update <e>every single package</e> on your system,
609 299add the <c>--deep</c> argument:
610<pre caption="Updating the system packages">
611# <i>emerge --update system</i>
612</pre>
613
614<p>
615An identical approach can be used for the world packages:
616</p> 300</p>
617 301
618<pre caption="Updating your entire system"> 302<pre caption="Updating your entire system">
619# <i>emerge --update world</i> 303# <i>emerge --update --deep world</i>
620</pre> 304</pre>
621 305
622<p>
623Again, if you want to see what <c>emerge</c> wants to update, use the
624<c>--pretend</c> option together with the <c>--update</c> option:
625</p> 306<p>
626 307Since security updates also happen in packages you have not explicitly installed
627<pre caption="Pretending to update your entire system"> 308on your system (but that are pulled in as dependencies of other programs), it
628# <i>emerge --pretend --update world</i> 309is recommended to run this command once in a while.
629<comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
630[ebuild U ] net-misc/wget-1.9-r1 [1.9]
631[ebuild UD] media-video/dvdauthor-0.5.0 [0.5.3]
632[ebuild U ] net-analyzer/ethereal-0.9.16 [0.9.14]
633</pre>
634
635<p> 310</p>
636Right next to the word "ebuild" you will notice a letter (or combination of 311
637letters) which gives you more information about the package: 312<p>
313If you have altered any of your <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>
314lately you might want to add <c>--newuse</c> as well. Portage will then verify
315if the change requires the installation of new packages or recompilation of
316existing ones:
317</p>
318
319<pre caption="Performing a full update">
320# <i>emerge --update --deep --newuse world</i>
321</pre>
322
323</body>
324</subsection>
325<subsection>
326<title>Metapackages</title>
327<body>
328
329<p>
330Some packages in the Portage tree don't have any real content but are used to
331install a collection of packages. For instance, the <c>kde</c> package will
332install a complete KDE environment on your system by pulling in various
333KDE-related packages as dependencies.
334</p>
335
336<p>
337If you ever want to remove such a package from your system, running <c>emerge
338--unmerge</c> on the package won't have much effect as the dependencies remain
339on the system.
340</p>
341
342<p>
343Portage has the functionality to remove orphaned dependencies as well, but since
344the availability of software is dynamically dependent you first need to update
345your entire system fully, including the new changes you applied when changing
346USE flags. After this you can run <c>emerge --depclean</c> to remove the
347orphaned dependencies. When this is done, you need to rebuild the applications
348that were dynamically linked to the now-removed software titles but don't
349require them anymore.
350</p>
351
352<p>
353All this is handled with the following three commands:
354</p>
355
356<pre caption="Removing orphaned dependencies">
357# <i>emerge --update --deep --newuse world</i>
358# <i>emerge --depclean</i>
359# <i>revdep-rebuild</i>
360</pre>
361
362<p>
363<c>revdep-rebuild</c> is provided by the <c>gentoolkit</c> package; don't forget
364to emerge it first:
365</p>
366
367<pre caption="Installing the gentoolkit package">
368# <i>emerge gentoolkit</i>
369</pre>
370
371</body>
372</subsection>
373</section>
374<section>
375<title>When Portage is Complaining...</title>
376<subsection>
377<title>About SLOTs, Virtuals, Branches, Architectures and Profiles</title>
378<body>
379
380<p>
381As we stated before, Portage is extremely powerful and supports many features
382that other software management tools lack. To understand this, we explain a few
383aspects of Portage without going into too much detail.
384</p>
385
386<p>
387With Portage different versions of a single package can coexist on a system.
388While other distributions tend to name their package to those versions (like
389<c>freetype</c> and <c>freetype2</c>) Portage uses a technology called
390<e>SLOT</e>s. An ebuild declares a certain SLOT for its version. Ebuilds with
391different SLOTs can coexist on the same system. For instance, the
392<c>freetype</c> package has ebuilds with <c>SLOT="1"</c> and <c>SLOT="2"</c>.
393</p>
394
395<p>
396There are also packages that provide the same functionality but are implemented
397differently. For instance, <c>metalogd</c>, <c>sysklogd</c> and <c>syslog-ng</c>
398are all system loggers. Applications that rely on the availability of "a system
399logger" cannot depend on, for instance, <c>metalogd</c>, as the other system
400loggers are as good a choice as any. Portage allows for <e>virtuals</e>: each
401system logger provides <c>virtual/syslog</c> so that applications can depend on
402<c>virtual/syslog</c>.
403</p>
404
405<p>
406Software in the Portage tree can reside in different branches. By default your
407system only accepts packages that Gentoo deems stable. Most new software titles,
408when committed, are added to the testing branch, meaning more testing needs to
409be done before it is marked as stable. Although you will see the ebuilds for
410those software in the Portage tree, Portage will not update them before they are
411placed in the stable branch.
412</p>
413
414<p>
415Some software is only available for a few architectures. Or the software doesn't
416work on the other architectures, or it needs more testing, or the developer that
417committed the software to the Portage tree is unable to verify if the package
418works on different architectures.
419</p>
420
421<p>
422Each Gentoo installation adheres to a certain <c>profile</c> which contains,
423amongst other information, the list of packages that are required for a system
424to function normally.
425</p>
426
427</body>
428</subsection>
429<subsection id="blocked">
430<title>Blocked Packages</title>
431<body>
432
433<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (with --pretend)">
434[blocks B ] mail-mta/ssmtp (is blocking mail-mta/postfix-2.2.2-r1)
435</pre>
436
437<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (without --pretend)">
438!!! Error: the mail-mta/postfix package conflicts with another package.
439!!! both can't be installed on the same system together.
440!!! Please use 'emerge --pretend' to determine blockers.
441</pre>
442
443<p>
444Ebuilds contain specific fields that inform Portage about its dependencies.
445There are two possible dependencies: build dependencies, declared in
446<c>DEPEND</c> and run-time dependencies, declared in <c>RDEPEND</c>. When one of
447these dependencies explicitly marks a package or virtual as being <e>not</e>
448compatible, it triggers a blockage.
449</p>
450
451<p>
452To fix a blockage, you can choose to not install the package or unmerge the
453conflicting package first. In the given example, you can opt not to install
454<c>postfix</c> or to remove <c>ssmtp</c> first.
455</p>
456
457<p>
458You may also see blocking packages with specific atoms, such as
459<b>&lt;</b>media-video/mplayer-bin-1.0_rc1-r2. In this case, updating to a more
460recent version of the blocking package would remove the block.
461</p>
462
463<p>
464It is also possible that two packages that are yet to be installed are blocking
465each other. In this rare case, you should find out why you need to install both.
466In most cases you can do with one of the packages alone. If not, please file a
467bug on <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">Gentoo's bugtracking system</uri>.
468</p>
469
470</body>
471</subsection>
472<subsection id="masked">
473<title>Masked Packages</title>
474<body>
475
476<pre caption="Portage warning about masked packages">
477!!! all ebuilds that could satisfy "bootsplash" have been masked.
478</pre>
479
480<pre caption="Portage warning about masked packages - reason">
481!!! possible candidates are:
482
483- gnome-base/gnome-2.8.0_pre1 (masked by: <i>~x86 keyword</i>)
484- lm-sensors/lm-sensors-2.8.7 (masked by: <i>-sparc keyword</i>)
485- sys-libs/glibc-2.3.4.20040808 (masked by: <i>-* keyword</i>)
486- dev-util/cvsd-1.0.2 (masked by: <i>missing keyword</i>)
487- games-fps/unreal-tournament-451 (masked by: <i>package.mask</i>)
488- sys-libs/glibc-2.3.2-r11 (masked by: <i>profile</i>)
489</pre>
490
491<p>
492When you want to install a package that isn't available for your system, you
493will receive this masking error. You should try installing a different
494application that is available for your system or wait until the package is put
495available. There is always a reason why a package is masked:
638</p> 496</p>
639 497
640<ul> 498<ul>
641 <li> 499 <li>
642 <e>B</e> (blocks) The package listed to the left is blocking the emerge of 500 <b>~arch keyword</b> means that the application is not tested sufficiently
643 the package listed to the right 501 to be put in the stable branch. Wait a few days or weeks and try again.
644 </li> 502 </li>
645 <li> 503 <li>
646 <e>N</e> (new) The package is new to your system and will be emerged for the 504 <b>-arch keyword</b> or <b>-* keyword</b> means that the application does
647 first time 505 not work on your architecture. If you believe the package does work file
506 a bug at our <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> website.
648 </li> 507 </li>
649 <li> 508 <li>
650 <e>R</e> (reemerge) The package isn't new, but needs to be reemerged 509 <b>missing keyword</b> means that the application has not been tested on
510 your architecture yet. Ask the architecture porting team to test the package
511 or test it for them and report your findings on our <uri
512 link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> website.
651 </li> 513 </li>
652 <li> 514 <li>
653 <e>F</e> (fetch) The package requires that you download the source code 515 <b>package.mask</b> means that the package has been found corrupt, unstable
654 manually (for instance due to licencing issues) 516 or worse and has been deliberately marked as do-not-use.
655 </li> 517 </li>
656 <li> 518 <li>
657 <e>U</e> (update) The package already exists on your system but will be 519 <b>profile</b> means that the package has been found not suitable for your
658 upgraded 520 profile. The application might break your system if you installed it or is
659 </li> 521 just not compatible with the profile you use.
660 <li>
661 <e>UD</e> (downgrade) The package already exists on your system but will be
662 downgraded
663 </li>
664 <li>
665 <e>U-</e> (slot warning) The package you have installed on your system
666 is listed as a package that can not coexist with a different version, but
667 your update does. The update will be installed and the older version will be
668 removed.
669 </li> 522 </li>
670</ul> 523</ul>
671 524
672<p>
673In certain cases, an update may mean a downgrade (i.e. install an older version
674instead of a newer version). If you don't want this to happen, use the
675<c>--upgradeonly</c> option (<c>-U</c> in short):
676</p>
677
678<pre caption="Upgrading your entire system">
679# <i>emerge --update --upgradeonly world</i>
680</pre>
681
682<p>
683Of course, we are talking here about <e>system</e> and <e>world</e>, but you can
684perform the same actions for individual software packages.
685</p>
686
687</body> 525</body>
688</subsection>
689<subsection> 526</subsection>
690<title>Removing Software</title> 527<subsection id="missingdependencies">
691<body> 528<title>Missing Dependencies</title>
692
693<p>
694If you want to remove software from your system, you can use the <c>unmerge</c>
695option (<c>-C</c> - capital C - in short):
696</p>
697
698<pre caption="Uninstalling software">
699# <i>emerge unmerge gnumeric</i>
700</pre>
701
702<p>
703If you want to test a removal (but not perform it), you can use <c>--pretend</c>
704again:
705</p>
706
707<pre caption="Pretending to uninstall software">
708# <i>emerge --pretend unmerge gnumeric</i>
709</pre>
710
711<warn>
712Portage doesn't verify if a package is a dependency for another
713installed package. It also doesn't warn you if the package is part of
714<e>system</e>, i.e. a core application necessary for the correct functioning of
715your system!
716</warn>
717
718<p>
719Once the unmerge begins you will see a long list of filenames belonging to the
720package. Some of these filenames will have a flag displayed to the
721left of the filename. The flags <c>!mtime</c>, <c>!empty</c>, and <c>cfgpro</c>
722specify reasons why certain files are not being removed while the package is.
723Files listed without any of these three flags are removed from the
724filesystem successfully. The three flags specify the following reasons:
725</p>
726
727<ul>
728 <li>
729 <c>!mtime</c> : The listed file has been changed since it was installed,
730 probably by you or some tool
731 </li>
732 <li>
733 <c>!empty</c> : The listed directory is not empty
734 </li>
735 <li>
736 <c>cfgpro</c> : This file is located inside a protected directory and will
737 not be touched for safety
738 </li>
739</ul>
740
741</body> 529<body>
742</subsection> 530
743</section> 531<pre caption="Portage warning about missing dependency">
744<section> 532emerge: there are no ebuilds to satisfy "&gt;=sys-devel/gcc-3.4.2-r4".
745<title>Software Availability</title> 533
534!!! Problem with ebuild sys-devel/gcc-3.4.2-r2
535!!! Possibly a DEPEND/*DEPEND problem.
536</pre>
537
538<p>
539The application you are trying to install depends on another package that is not
540available for your system. Please check <uri
541link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> if the issue is known and if not,
542please report it. Unless you are mixing branches this should not occur and is
543therefore a bug.
544</p>
545
546</body>
746<subsection> 547</subsection>
747<title>ARCH or not?</title> 548<subsection id="ambiguousebuild">
748<body> 549<title>Ambiguous Ebuild Name</title>
749
750<p>
751Gentoo places its packages in two possible stadia called <e>ARCH</e> and
752<e>~ARCH</e>. Don't take this literally: the stadia depend on the architecture
753you are using. In other words, for x86-based systems you have <e>x86</e> and
754<e>~x86</e>, for ppc-based systems you have <e>ppc</e> and <e>~ppc</e> etc.
755</p>
756
757<p>
758The <e>~ARCH</e> stadium means that the package works for the developer in
759charge of the package, but that the package hasn't been tested thoroughly enough
760by the community to be placed in <e>ARCH</e>. <e>~ARCH</e> packages usually go
761to <e>ARCH</e> after being bugfree for a sufficient amount of time.
762</p>
763
764<p>
765Your system will use <e>ARCH</e> packages per default. If you want to live on
766the edge, don't mind having a broken package once in a while, know how to deal
767with a broken system and you like submitting bugreports to <uri
768link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugs.gentoo.org</uri>, then you can opt to use
769<e>~ARCH</e> packages. To "move" your system to a <e>~ARCH</e>-using system,
770edit the <c>ACCEPT_KEYWORDS</c> variable in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so that
771it reads <e>~ARCH</e> (again: for x86-based systems: <e>~x86</e>, etc.).
772</p>
773
774<p>
775Note though that it is far from trivial (if even impossible) to go back to
776<e>ARCH</e> from <e>~ARCH</e>.
777</p>
778
779<p>
780If you want to update your system now, you will notice that <e>a lot</e> of
781packages will be updated!
782</p>
783
784</body> 550<body>
785</subsection> 551
552<pre caption="Portage warning about ambiguous ebuild names">
553!!! The short ebuild name "aterm" is ambiguous. Please specify
554!!! one of the following fully-qualified ebuild names instead:
555
556 dev-libs/aterm
557 x11-terms/aterm
558</pre>
559
560<p>
561The application you want to install has a name that corresponds with more than
562one package. You need to supply the category name as well. Portage will inform
563you of possible matches to choose from.
564</p>
565
566</body>
786<subsection> 567</subsection>
787<title>Masked Packages</title> 568<subsection id="circulardependencies">
788<body> 569<title>Circular Dependencies</title>
789
790<p>
791When you want to install a package, you might come across the following message:
792</p>
793
794<pre caption="Message about masked packages">
795Calculating dependencies
796!!! <comment>all ebuilds that could satisfy </comment>&lt;your package&gt;<comment> have been masked.</comment>
797</pre>
798
799<p>
800A package can be masked due to two reasons:
801</p>
802
803<ol>
804 <li>The package is in <e>~ARCH</e> while you use <e>ARCH</e></li>
805 <li>The package is hard-masked explicitly</li>
806</ol>
807
808<p>
809If the package is masked because of the first reason, and you <e>really</e> want
810to install it (knowing that there <e>is</e> a reason why it isn't available in
811<e>ARCH</e>), you can temporarily accept <e>~ARCH</e> packages:
812</p>
813
814<pre caption="Temporarily accepting ~ARCH packages">
815# <i>ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~x86" emerge gnumeric</i>
816</pre>
817
818<p>
819A package is hardmasked if it is listed in
820<path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path>. If you read this file, you
821will also read the reason why the package is hardmasked (it is usually added as
822a comment). If you want to install the package nevertheless (despite all the
823possible warnings we could ever throw at your head about "breaking your system",
824"breaks other packages", or "badly needs testing"), create the
825<path>/etc/portage/package.unmask</path> file and list the package in it (use
826the same format as is used in <path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path>).
827</p>
828
829<p>
830Do <e>not</e> alter the <path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path> file as
831all changes are undone the next time you update your Portage tree. If you want
832to hardmask a package create <path>/etc/portage/package.mask</path> and list the
833package in it (use the same format as mentioned above).
834</p>
835
836<!--
837<p>
838Another trick to circumvent the "masked package" problem is to install the
839package using the full path. This will ignore both the <c>ACCEPT_KEYWORD</c>
840settings and the <path>package.mask</path> listing.
841</p>
842
843<pre caption="Installing a package without checking for stadium / masking">
844# <i>emerge /usr/portage/app-office/gnumeric/gnumeric-1.2.0.ebuild</i>
845</pre>
846-->
847
848</body> 570<body>
849</subsection> 571
572<pre caption="Portage warning about circular dependencies">
573!!! Error: circular dependencies:
574
575ebuild / net-print/cups-1.1.15-r2 depends on ebuild / app-text/ghostscript-7.05.3-r1
576ebuild / app-text/ghostscript-7.05.3-r1 depends on ebuild / net-print/cups-1.1.15-r2
577</pre>
578
579<p>
580Two (or more) packages you want to install depend on each other and can
581therefore not be installed. This is most likely a bug in the Portage tree.
582Please resync after a while and try again. You can also check <uri
583link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> if the issue is known and if not,
584report it.
585</p>
586
587</body>
850<subsection> 588</subsection>
851<title>Blocked Packages</title> 589<subsection id="fetchfailed">
590<title>Fetch failed</title>
591<body>
592
593<pre caption="Portage warning about fetch failed">
594!!! Fetch failed for sys-libs/ncurses-5.4-r5, continuing...
595<comment>(...)</comment>
596!!! Some fetch errors were encountered. Please see above for details.
597</pre>
598
599<p>
600Portage was unable to download the sources for the given application and will
601try to continue installing the other applications (if applicable). This failure
602can be due to a mirror that has not synchronised correctly or because the ebuild
603points to an incorrect location. The server where the sources reside can also be
604down for some reason.
605</p>
606
607<p>
608Retry after one hour to see if the issue still persists.
609</p>
610
852<body> 611</body>
612</subsection>
613<subsection id="profileprotect">
614<title>System Profile Protection</title>
615<body>
853 616
854<p> 617<pre caption="Portage warning about profile-protected package">
855You have a situation when you receive the following error on your screen: 618!!! Trying to unmerge package(s) in system profile. 'sys-apps/portage'
619!!! This could be damaging to your system.
620</pre>
621
856</p> 622<p>
857 623You have asked to remove a package that is part of your system's core packages.
858<pre caption="Blocking package"> 624It is listed in your profile as required and should therefore not be removed
859[blocks B ] gnome-base/bonobo-activation (from pkg gnome-base/libbonobo-2.4.0) 625from the system.
860</pre>
861
862<p> 626</p>
863In the above example, the package <c>bonobo-activation</c> is blocking the 627
864emerge of <c>libbonobo</c>. To resolve this issue, remove the 628</body>
865<c>bonobo-activation</c> package and continue: 629</subsection>
630<subsection id="digesterror">
631<title>Digest Verification Failures</title>
632<body>
633
866</p> 634<p>
867 635Sometimes, when you attempt to emerge a package, it will fail with the message:
868<pre caption="Resolving a blocking situation">
869# <i>emerge unmerge bonobo-activation</i>
870</pre> 636</p>
637
638<pre caption="Digest verification failure">
639&gt;&gt;&gt; checking ebuild checksums
640!!! Digest verification failed:
641</pre>
642
643<p>
644This is a sign that something is wrong with the Portage tree -- often, it is
645because a developer may have made a mistake when committing a package to the
646tree.
647</p>
648
649<p>
650When the digest verification fails, do <e>not</e> try to re-digest the package
651yourself. Running <c>ebuild foo digest</c> will not fix the problem; it will
652almost certainly make it worse!
653</p>
654
655<p>
656Instead, wait an hour or two for the tree to settle down. It's likely that the
657error was noticed right away, but it can take a little time for the fix to
658trickle down the Portage tree. While you're waiting, check <uri
659link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri> and see if anyone has reported
660the problem yet. If not, go ahead and file a bug for the broken package.
661</p>
662
663<p>
664Once you see that the bug has been fixed, you may want to re-sync to pick up
665the fixed digest.
666</p>
667
668<impo>
669This does <e>not</e> mean that you can re-sync your tree multiple times! As
670stated in the rsync policy (when you run <c>emerge --sync</c>), users who sync
671too often will be banned! In fact, it's better to just wait until your next
672scheduled sync, so that you don't overload the rsync servers.
673</impo>
871 674
872</body> 675</body>
873</subsection> 676</subsection>
874</section> 677</section>
875</sections> 678</sections>

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