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4<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.1 2003/11/20 10:52:35 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.40 2004/10/21 16:34:46 swift Exp $ -->
5 8
6<sections> 9<sections>
7<section> 10<section>
8<title>Obtaining Package Information</title> 11<title>Welcome to Portage</title>
9<subsection>
10<title>The Lord of All Tools: emerge</title>
11<body>
12
13</body> 12<body>
14</subsection> 13
15<subsection> 14<p>
16<title>Search for a Package</title> 15Portage is probably Gentoo's most notable innovation in software management.
16With its high flexibility and enormous amount of features it is frequently seen
17as the best software management tool available for Linux.
18</p>
19
20<p>
21Portage is completely written in <uri link="http://www.python.org">Python</uri>
22and <uri link="http://www.gnu.org/software/bash">Bash</uri> and therefore fully
23visible to the users as both are scripting languages.
24</p>
25
26<p>
27Most users will work with Portage through the <c>emerge</c> tool. This chapter
28is not meant to duplicate the information available from the emerge man page.
29For a complete rundown of emerge's options, please consult the man page:
30</p>
31
32<pre caption="Reading the emerge man page">
33$ <i>man emerge</i>
34</pre>
35
17<body> 36</body>
18
19</body>
20</subsection>
21</section> 37</section>
22<section> 38<section>
23<title>Updating Portage</title> 39<title>The Portage Tree</title>
24<subsection>
25<title>Using rsync</title>
26<body>
27
28</body>
29</subsection> 40<subsection>
41<title>Ebuilds</title>
42<body>
43
44<p>
45When we talk about packages, we often mean software titles that are available to
46the Gentoo users through the Portage tree. The Portage tree is a collection of
47<e>ebuilds</e>, files that contain all information Portage needs to maintain
48software (install, search, query, ...). These ebuilds reside in
49<path>/usr/portage</path> by default.
50</p>
51
52<p>
53Whenever you ask Portage to perform some action regarding software titles, it
54will use the ebuilds on your system as a base. It is therefore important that
55you regularly update the ebuilds on your system so Portage knows about new
56software, security updates, etc.
57</p>
58
59</body>
30<subsection> 60</subsection>
31<title>Using a Downloaded Snapshot</title> 61<subsection>
62<title>Updating the Portage Tree</title>
32<body> 63<body>
64
65<p>
66The Portage tree is usually updated with <uri
67link="http://rsync.gentoo.org">rsync</uri>, a fast incremental file transfer
68utility. Updating is fairly simple as the <c>emerge</c> command provides a
69front-end for rsync:
70</p>
71
72<pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
73# <i>emerge --sync</i>
74</pre>
75
76<p>
77If you are unable to rsync due to firewall restrictions you can still update
78your Portage tree by using our daily generated Portage tree snapshots. The
79<c>emerge-webrsync</c> tool automatically fetches and installs the latest
80snapshot on your system:
81</p>
82
83<pre caption="Running emerge-webrsync">
84# <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
85</pre>
33 86
34</body> 87</body>
35</subsection> 88</subsection>
36</section> 89</section>
37<section> 90<section>
38<title>Maintaining Software</title> 91<title>Maintaining Software</title>
39<subsection> 92<subsection>
93<title>Searching for Software</title>
94<body>
95
96<p>
97To search through the Portage tree after software titles, you can use
98<c>emerge</c> built-in search capabilities. By default, <c>emerge search</c>
99returns package names whos title corresponds with (either fully or partially)
100the given search term.
101</p>
102
103<p>
104For instance, to search for all packages who have "pdf" in their name:
105</p>
106
107<pre caption="Searching for pdf-named packages">
108$ <i>emerge search pdf</i>
109</pre>
110
111<p>
112If you want to search through the descriptions as well you can use the
113<c>--searchdesc</c> (or <c>-S</c>) switch:
114</p>
115
116<pre caption="Searching for pdf-related packages">
117$ <i>emerge --searchdesc pdf</i>
118</pre>
119
120<p>
121When you take a look at the output, you'll notice that it gives you a lot of
122information. The fields are clearly labelled so we won't go further into their
123meanings:
124</p>
125
126<pre caption="Example emerge search output">
127* net-print/cups-pdf
128 Latest version available: 1.5.2
129 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
130 Size of downloaded files: 15 kB
131 Homepage: http://cip.physik.uni-wuerzburg.de/~vrbehr/cups-pdf/
132 Description: Provides a virtual printer for CUPS to produce PDF files.
133 License: GPL-2
134</pre>
135
136</body>
137</subsection>
138<subsection>
40<title>Installing Software</title> 139<title>Installing Software</title>
41<body> 140<body>
42 141
43</body> 142<p>
44</subsection> 143Once you've found a software title to your liking, you can easily install it
45<subsection> 144with <c>emerge</c>: just add the package name. For instance, to install
46<title>Updating Software</title> 145<c>gnumeric</c>:
47<body> 146</p>
147
148<pre caption="Installing gnumeric">
149# <i>emerge gnumeric</i>
150</pre>
151
152<p>
153Since many applications depend on each other, any attempt to install a certain
154software package might result in the installation of several dependencies as
155well. Don't worry, Portage handles dependencies well. If you want to find out
156what Portage <e>would</e> install when you ask it to install a certain package,
157add the <c>--pretend</c> switch. For instance:
158</p>
159
160<pre caption="Pretend to install gnumeric">
161# <i>emerge --pretend gnumeric</i>
162</pre>
163
164<p>
165When you ask Portage to install a package, it will download the necessary source
166code from the internet (if necessary) and store it by default in
167<path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. After this it will unpack, compile and
168install the package. If you want Portage to only download the sources without
169installing them, add the <c>--fetchonly</c> option to the <c>emerge</c> command:
170</p>
171
172<pre caption="Download the sourcecode for gnumeric">
173# <i>emerge --fetchonly gnumeric</i>
174</pre>
48 175
49</body> 176</body>
50</subsection> 177</subsection>
51<subsection> 178<subsection>
52<title>Removing Software</title> 179<title>Removing Software</title>
53<body> 180<body>
181
182<p>
183When you want to remove a software package from your system, use <c>emerge
184unmerge</c>. This will tell Portage to remove all files installed by that
185package from your system <e>except</e> the configuration files of that
186application if you have altered those after the installation. Leaving the
187configuration files allows you to continue working with the package if you ever
188decide to install it again.
189</p>
190
191<p>
192However, a <brite>big warning</brite> applies: Portage will <e>not</e> check if
193the package you want to remove is required by another package. It will however
194warn you when you want to remove an important package that breaks your system
195if you unmerge it.
196</p>
197
198<pre caption="Removing gnumeric from the system">
199# <i>emerge unmerge gnumeric</i>
200</pre>
201
202<p>
203When you remove a package from your system, the dependencies of that package
204that were installed automatically when you installed the software are left. To
205have Portage locate all dependencies that can now be removed, use
206<c>emerge</c>'s <c>depclean</c> functionality. We will talk about this later on.
207</p>
208
209</body>
210</subsection>
211<subsection>
212<title>Updating your System</title>
213<body>
214
215<p>
216To keep your system in perfect shape (and not to mention install the latest
217security updates) you need to update your system regularly. Since Portage only
218checks the ebuilds in your Portage tree you first have to update your Portage
219tree. When your Portage tree is updated, you can update your system with
220<c>emerge --update world</c>:
221</p>
222
223<pre caption="Updating your system">
224# <i>emerge --update world</i>
225</pre>
226
227<p>
228Portage will then search for newer version of the applications you have
229installed. However, it will only verify the versions for the applications you
230have explicitly installed - not the dependencies. If you want to update every
231single package on your system, add the <c>--deep</c> argument:
232</p>
233
234<pre caption="Updating your entire system">
235# <i>emerge --update --deep world</i>
236</pre>
237
238<p>
239If you have altered any of your <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>
240lately you might want to add <c>--newuse</c> as well. Portage will then verify
241if the change requires the installation of new packages or recompilation of
242existing ones:
243</p>
244
245<pre caption="Performing a full update">
246# <i>emerge --update --deep --newuse world</i>
247</pre>
248
249</body>
250</subsection>
251<subsection>
252<title>Stub Packages</title>
253<body>
254
255<p>
256Some packages in the Portage tree don't have any real content but are used to
257install a collection of packages. For instance, the <c>kde</c> package will
258install a complete KDE environment on your system by pulling in various
259KDE-related packages as dependencies.
260</p>
261
262<p>
263If you ever want to remove such a package from your system, running <c>emerge
264unmerge</c> on the package won't have much effect as the dependencies remain on
265the system.
266</p>
267
268<p>
269Portage has the functionality to remove orphaned dependencies as well, but since
270the availability of software is dynamically dependent you first need to update
271your entire system fully, including the new changes you applied when changing
272USE flags. After this you can run <c>emerge depclean</c> to remove the orphaned
273dependencies. When this is done, you need to rebuild the applications that were
274dynamically linked to the now-removed software titles but don't require them
275anymore.
276</p>
277
278<p>
279All this is handled with the following three commands:
280</p>
281
282<pre caption="Removing orphaned dependencies">
283# <i>emerge --update --deep --newuse world</i>
284# <i>emerge depclean</i>
285# <i>revdep-rebuild</i>
286</pre>
287
288<p>
289<c>revdep-rebuild</c> is provided by the <c>gentoolkit</c> package; don't forget
290to emerge it first:
291</p>
292
293<pre caption="Installing the gentoolkit package">
294# <i>emerge gentoolkit</i>
295</pre>
54 296
55</body> 297</body>
56</subsection> 298</subsection>
57</section> 299</section>
58<section> 300<section>
59<title>Software Availability</title> 301<title>When Portage is Complaining...</title>
60<subsection>
61<title>ARCH or not?</title>
62<body>
63
64</body>
65</subsection> 302<subsection>
303<title>About SLOTs, Virtuals, Branches, Architectures and Profiles</title>
304<body>
305
306<p>
307As we stated before, Portage is extremely powerful and supports many features
308that other software management tools lack. To understand this, we explain a few
309aspects of Portage without going in too much detail.
310</p>
311
312<p>
313With Portage different versions of a single package can coexist on a system.
314While other distributions tend to name their package to those versions (like
315<c>freetype</c> and <c>freetype2</c>) Portage uses a technology called
316<e>SLOT</e>s. An ebuild declares a certain SLOT for its version. Ebuilds with
317different SLOTs can coexist on the same system. For instance, the
318<c>freetype</c> package has ebuilds with <c>SLOT="1"</c> and <c>SLOT="2"</c>.
319</p>
320
321<p>
322There are also packages that provide the same functionality but are implemented
323differently. For instance, <c>metalogd</c>, <c>sysklogd</c> and <c>syslog-ng</c>
324are all system loggers. Applications that rely on the availability of "a system
325logger" cannot depend on, for instance, <c>metalogd</c>, as the other system
326loggers are as good a choice as any. Portage allows for <e>virtuals</e>: each
327system logger provides <c>virtual/syslog</c> so that applications can depend on
328<c>virtual/syslog</c>.
329</p>
330
331<p>
332Software in the Portage tree can reside in different branches. By default your
333system only accepts packages that Gentoo deems stable. Most new software titles,
334when committed, are added to the testing branch, meaning more testing needs to
335be done before it is marked as stable. Although you will see the ebuilds for
336those software in the Portage tree, Portage will not update them before they are
337placed in the stable branch.
338</p>
339
340<p>
341Some software is only available for a few architectures. Or the software doesn't
342work on the other architectures, or it needs more testing, or the developer that
343committed the software to the Portage tree is unable to verify if the package
344works on different architectures.
345</p>
346
347<p>
348Each Gentoo installation adheres to a certain <c>profile</c> which contains,
349amongst other information, the list of packages that are required for a system
350to function normally.
351</p>
352
353</body>
66<subsection> 354</subsection>
355<subsection id="blocked">
356<title>Blocked Packages</title>
357<body>
358
359<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (with --pretend)">
360[blocks B ] gnome-base/bonobo-activation (from pkg gnome-base/libbonobo-2.4.0)
361</pre>
362
363<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (without --pretend)">
364!!! Error: the gnome-base/bonobo-activation package conflicts with another package.
365!!! both can't be installed on the same system together.
366!!! Please use 'emerge --pretend' to determine blockers.
367</pre>
368
369<p>
370Ebuilds contain specific fields that inform Portage about it's dependencies.
371There are two possible dependencies: build dependencies, declared in
372<c>DEPEND</c> and run-time dependencies, declared in <c>RDEPEND</c>. When one of
373these dependencies explicitly marks a package or virtual as being <e>not</e>
374compatible, it triggers a blockage.
375</p>
376
377<p>
378To fix a blockage, you can choose to not install the package or unmerge the
379conflicting package first. In the given example, you can opt not to install
380<c>libbonobo</c> or to remove <c>bonobo-activation</c> first.
381</p>
382
383</body>
384</subsection>
385<subsection id="masked">
67<title>Masked Packages</title> 386<title>Masked Packages</title>
68<body> 387<body>
69 388
389<pre caption="Portage warning about masked packages">
390!!! all ebuilds that could satisfy "bootsplash" have been masked.
391</pre>
392
393<pre caption="Portage warning about masked packages - reason">
394!!! possible candidates are:
395
396- gnome-base/gnome-2.8.0_pre1 (masked by: <i>~x86 keyword</i>)
397- lm-sensors/lm-sensors-2.8.7 (masked by: <i>-sparc keyword</i>)
398- sys-libs/glibc-2.3.4.20040808 (masked by: <i>-* keyword</i>)
399- dev-util/cvsd-1.0.2 (masked by: <i>missing keyword</i>)
400- media-video/ati-gatos-4.3.0 (masked by: <i>package.mask</i>)
401- sys-libs/glibc-2.3.2-r11 (masked by: <i>profile</i>)
402</pre>
403
404<p>
405When you want to install a package that isn't available for your system, you
406will receive this masking error. You should try installing a different
407application that is available for your system or wait until the package is put
408available. There is always a reason why a package is masked:
409</p>
410
411<ul>
412 <li>
413 <b>~arch keyword</b> means that the application is not tested sufficiently
414 to be put in the stable branch. Wait a few days or weeks and try again.
415 </li>
416 <li>
417 <b>-arch keyword</b> or <b>-* keyword</b> means that the application does
418 not work on your architecture. If you believe the package does work file
419 a bug at our <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> website.
420 </li>
421 <li>
422 <b>missing keyword</b> means that the application has not been tested on
423 your architecture yet. Ask the architecture porting team to test the package
424 or test it for them and report your findings on our <uri
425 link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> website.
426 </li>
427 <li>
428 <b>package.mask</b> means that the package has been found corrupt, unstable
429 or worse and has been deliberately marked as do-not-use.
430 </li>
431 <li>
432 <b>profile</b> means that the package has been found not suitable for your
433 profile. The application might break your system if you installed it or is
434 just not compatible with the profile you use.
435 </li>
436</ul>
437
70</body> 438</body>
71</subsection>
72<subsection> 439</subsection>
73<title>Blocked Packages</title> 440<subsection id="missingdependencies">
441<title>Missing Dependencies</title>
442<body>
443
444<pre caption="Portage warning about missing dependency">
445emerge: there are no ebuilds to satisfy "&gt;=sys-devel/gcc-4.2-r4".
446
447!!! Problem with ebuild sys-devel/gcc-3.4.2-r2
448!!! Possibly a DEPEND/*DEPEND problem.
449</pre>
450
451<p>
452The application you are trying to install depends on another package that is not
453available for your system. Please check <uri
454link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> if the issue is known and if not,
455please report it. Unless you are mixing branches this should not occur and is
456therefore a bug.
457</p>
458
74<body> 459</body>
460</subsection>
461<subsection id="ambiguousebuild">
462<title>Ambiguous Ebuild Name</title>
463<body>
464
465<pre caption="Portage warning about ambiguous ebuild names">
466!!! The short ebuild name "aterm" is ambiguous. Please specify
467!!! one of the following fully-qualified ebuild names instead:
468
469 dev-libs/aterm
470 x11-terms/aterm
471</pre>
472
473<p>
474The application you want to install has a name that corresponds with more than
475one package. You need to supply the category name as well. Portage will inform
476you of possible matches to choose from.
477</p>
478
479</body>
480</subsection>
481<subsection id="circulardependencies">
482<title>Circular Dependencies</title>
483<body>
484
485<pre caption="Portage warning about circular dependencies">
486!!! Error: circular dependencies:
487
488ebuild / net-print/cups-1.1.15-r2 depends on ebuild / app-text/ghostscript-7.05.3-r1
489ebuild / app-text/ghostscript-7.05.3-r1 depends on ebuild / net-print/cups-1.1.15-r2
490</pre>
491
492<p>
493Two (or more) packages you want to install depend on each other and can
494therefore not be installed. This is most likely a bug in the Portage tree.
495Please resync after a while and try again. You can also check <uri
496link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> if the issue is known and if not,
497report it.
498</p>
499
500</body>
501</subsection>
502<subsection id="fetchfailed">
503<title>Fetch failed</title>
504<body>
505
506<pre caption="Portage warning about fetch failed">
507!!! Fetch failed for sys-libs/ncurses-5.4-r5, continuing...
508<comment>(...)</comment>
509!!! Some fetch errors were encountered. Please see above for details.
510</pre>
511
512<p>
513Portage was unable to download the sources for the given application and will
514try to continue installing the other applications (if applicable). This failure
515can be due to a mirror that has not synchronised correctly or because the ebuild
516points to an incorrect location. The server where the sources reside can also be
517down for some reason.
518</p>
519
520<p>
521Retry after one hour to see if the issue still persists.
522</p>
523
524</body>
525</subsection>
526<subsection id="profileprotect">
527<title>System Profile Protection</title>
528<body>
529
530<pre caption="Portage warning about profile-protected package">
531!!! Trying to unmerge package(s) in system profile. 'sys-apps/portage'
532!!! This could be damaging to your system.
533</pre>
534
535<p>
536You have asked to remove a package that is part of your system's core packages.
537It is listed in your profile as required and should therefore not be removed
538from the system.
539</p>
75 540
76</body> 541</body>
77</subsection> 542</subsection>
78</section> 543</section>
79</sections> 544</sections>

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