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3 6
4<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.17 2004/01/07 18:01:33 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.40 2004/10/21 16:34:46 swift Exp $ -->
5 8
6<sections> 9<sections>
7<section> 10<section>
8<title>Obtaining Package Information</title> 11<title>Welcome to Portage</title>
9<subsection>
10<title>The Lord of All Tools: emerge</title>
11<body> 12<body>
12 13
13<p>
14The main Portage tool that most users will use is <c>emerge</c>. We have already
15used it during the Gentoo installation and in the previous chapter, but we just
16briefly explained how to use it. This chapter will elaborate on <c>emerge</c>
17and teach you how to use <c>emerge</c> to fix all your software-related needs.
18</p> 14<p>
19 15Portage is probably Gentoo's most notable innovation in software management.
16With its high flexibility and enormous amount of features it is frequently seen
17as the best software management tool available for Linux.
20<p> 18</p>
21<c>emerge</c> is the command used to install, remove, query and maintain 19
22software packages. It is a front-end for <c>ebuild</c>; people interested in
23becoming Gentoo professionals will learn how to use <c>ebuild</c> later on. For
24now, we will focus on <c>emerge</c> as it has functionality that <c>ebuild</c>
25lacks (such as resolving dependencies, searching the Portage tree, etc.).
26</p> 20<p>
27 21Portage is completely written in <uri link="http://www.python.org">Python</uri>
22and <uri link="http://www.gnu.org/software/bash">Bash</uri> and therefore fully
23visible to the users as both are scripting languages.
28<p> 24</p>
29Since <c>emerge</c> is the most important tool for Gentoo users, it has an 25
30extensive manpage you can read by issuing <c>man emerge</c>. You can also view
31the in-command help by running <c>emerge --help</c>.
32</p> 26<p>
27Most users will work with Portage through the <c>emerge</c> tool. This chapter
28is not meant to duplicate the information available from the emerge man page.
29For a complete rundown of emerge's options, please consult the man page:
30</p>
33 31
34<pre caption="Retrieving help for emerge"> 32<pre caption="Reading the emerge man page">
35# <i>man emerge</i> 33$ <i>man emerge</i>
36# <i>emerge --help</i>
37</pre> 34</pre>
38 35
39</body>
40</subsection>
41<subsection>
42<title>The Portage Tree</title>
43<body> 36</body>
44
45<p>
46Before we continue describing <c>emerge</c>, let us first take a look at the
47Portage Tree. Go to <path>/usr/portage</path> and do a listing of the available
48directories. We use <c>ls --classify</c> to list the contents of a
49directory as it will show directories with a trailing "/".
50</p>
51
52<pre caption="Viewing the Portage Tree">
53# <i>cd /usr/portage; ls --classify</i>
54app-admin/ dev-ml/ gnome-libs/ net-print/
55app-arch/ dev-perl/ gnome-office/ net-wireless/
56app-benchmarks/ dev-php/ header.txt net-www/
57app-cdr/ dev-python/ incoming/ net-zope/
58app-crypt/ dev-ruby/ jython/ packages/
59app-dicts/ dev-tcltk/ kde-apps/ profiles/
60app-doc/ dev-tex/ kde-base/ releases/
61app-editors/ dev-util/ kde-i18n/ scripts/
62app-emacs/ distfiles/ kde-libs/ sec-policy/
63app-emulation/ eclass/ licenses/ skel.ChangeLog
64app-games/ experimental/ media-fonts/ skel.ebuild
65app-gnustep/ files/ media-gfx/ skel.metadata.xml
66app-i18n/ fresco-base/ media-libs/ snapshots/
67app-misc/ games-action/ media-plugins/ sys-apps/
68app-office/ games-arcade/ media-radio/ sys-build/
69app-pda/ games-board/ media-sound/ sys-cluster/
70app-portage/ games-emulation/ media-tv/ sys-devel/
71app-sci/ games-engines/ media-video/ sys-fs/
72app-shells/ games-fps/ metadata/ sys-kernel/
73app-text/ games-kids/ net-analyzer/ sys-kmods/
74app-vim/ games-misc/ net-apache/ sys-libs/
75app-xemacs/ games-mud/ net-dialup/ unix2tcp/
76berlin-base/ games-puzzle/ net-dns/ x11-base/
77dev-ada/ games-roguelike/ net-firewall/ x11-libs/
78dev-cpp/ games-rpg/ net-fs/ x11-misc/
79dev-db/ games-server/ net-ftp/ x11-plugins/
80dev-dotnet/ games-simulation/ net-im/ x11-terms/
81dev-embedded/ games-sports/ net-irc/ x11-themes/
82dev-games/ games-strategy/ net-libs/ x11-wm/
83dev-haskell/ games-util/ net-mail/ xfce-base/
84dev-java/ glep/ net-misc/ xfce-extra/
85dev-lang/ gnome-apps/ net-nds/
86dev-libs/ gnome-base/ net-news/
87dev-lisp/ gnome-extra/ net-p2p/
88</pre>
89
90<p>
91As you can see, the Portage tree has several subdirectories. Most of them are
92the <e>categories</e> in which the Gentoo packages, called <e>ebuilds</e>,
93reside. Take a look at, for instance, <path>app-office</path>:
94</p>
95
96<pre caption="Viewing a category">
97# <i>cd app-office; ls --classify</i>
98abiword/ gnotime/ kmymoney2/ ooodi/ plan/ timestamp.x
99dia/ gnucash/ koffice/ oooqs/ qhacc/
100dia2code/ gnumeric/ lxbank/ openoffice/ sc/
101facturalux/ ical/ lyx/ openoffice-bin/ scribus/
102gaby/ kbudget/ mdbtools/ openoffice-ximian/ siag/
103gnofin/ khacc/ mrproject/ phprojekt/ texmacs/
104</pre>
105
106<p>
107Inside a category you will find the packages belonging to that category, with a
108separate directory for each package. Let us take a look at the <c>openoffice</c>
109package:
110</p>
111
112<pre caption="Viewing a package">
113# <i>cd openoffice; ls --classify</i>
114ChangeLog files/ openoffice-1.0.3-r1.ebuild openoffice-1.1.0-r2.ebuild
115Manifest metadata.xml openoffice-1.1.0-r1.ebuild openoffice-1.1.0.ebuild
116</pre>
117
118<p>
119Remember that we told you that a Gentoo package is called an ebuild? Well, in
120the example directory four of such ebuilds are stored. Their naming is
121almost identical: they only differ in the version name.
122You are free to view the contents of such a package: they are plain scripts. We
123will not discuss it right now as it isn't important to know if you plan on just
124using Gentoo.
125</p>
126
127<p>
128The other files are the <path>ChangeLog</path> (which contains a listing of all
129the changes done to the ebuilds), <path>Manifest</path> (which contains the
130checksums and permissions of all the files in the directory) and
131<path>metadata.xml</path> (which contains more information about the package,
132such as the responsible development group -- called <e>herd</e> -- and a more
133extensive description).
134</p>
135
136<p>
137Inside the <path>files</path> directory you will find extra files, needed by
138Portage: digests (checksums and permissions of the files needed by a single
139version of the package), patches, example configuration files, etc.
140</p>
141
142<pre caption="Viewing the extra files">
143# <i>cd files; ls --classify</i>
1441.0.3/ digest-openoffice-1.0.3-r1 digest-openoffice-1.1.0-r1
1451.1.0/ digest-openoffice-1.1.0 digest-openoffice-1.1.0-r2
146# <i>cd 1.1.0; ls --classify</i>
147fixed-gcc.patch ooffice-wrapper-1.3
148newstlportfix.patch openoffice-1.1.0-linux-2.6-fix.patch
149no-mozab.patch openoffice-1.1.0-sparc64-fix.patch
150nptl.patch
151</pre>
152
153<p>
154If you go back to the root of the Portage tree (<path>/usr/portage</path>) you
155will notice that there are other, non-category directories too. We will discuss
156those later in this chapter.
157</p>
158
159</body>
160</subsection>
161<subsection>
162<title>Search for a Package</title>
163<body>
164
165<p>
166If you are new to Linux or Gentoo, you might not know what tool you need for
167what job. To facilitate searching, <c>emerge</c> provides you with a way to
168search through the available packages on your system. There are two ways you can
169search through packages: by <e>name</e>, or by <e>name</e> and
170<e>description</e>.
171</p>
172
173<p>
174To search through the Portage tree by name, use <c>emerge search</c>. For
175instance, to find out more about <c>mozilla</c>:
176</p>
177
178<pre caption="Showing information about mozilla">
179# <i>emerge search mozilla</i>
180Searching...
181[ Results for search key : mozilla ]
182[ Applications found : 5 ]
183<comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
184* net-www/mozilla
185 Latest version available: 1.5-r1
186 Latest version installed: 1.4-r3
187 Size of downloaded files: 29,153 kB
188 Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org
189 Description: The Mozilla Web Browser
190
191* net-www/mozilla-firebird
192 Latest version available: 0.7
193 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
194 Size of downloaded files: 37,850 kB
195 Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org/projects/firebird/
196 Description: The Mozilla Firebird Web Browser
197<comment>(...)</comment>
198</pre>
199
200<p>
201If you want to include a search through the descriptions too, use the
202<c>--searchdesc</c> argument:
203</p>
204
205<pre caption="Search through the descriptions too">
206# <i>emerge --searchdesc mozilla</i>
207Searching...
208[ Results for search key : mozilla ]
209[ Applications found : 10 ]
210<comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
211* dev-libs/nss-3.8
212 Latest version available: 3.8
213 Latest version installed: 3.8
214 Size of downloaded files: 2,782 kB
215 Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org/projects/security/pki/nss/
216 Description: Mozilla's Netscape Security Services Library that implements PKI support
217</pre>
218
219<p>
220As you can see, the output of <c>emerge</c> informs you about the category and
221name of the package, the available version, the currently installed version,
222the size of the downloaded files, the homepage and the small description.
223</p>
224
225<p>
226You see something new? Yes, <e>downloaded files</e>. When you tell Portage to
227install a package, it of course needs to have the necessary sources (or
228precompiled packages) available. It therefore checks the contents of
229<path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> (for source code) or
230<path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> (for precompiled packages) to see if the
231necessary files are already available. If not, it downloads the necessary files
232and places them in those directories.
233</p>
234
235<!--
236<note>
237Searching the Portage Tree, especially when using <c>- -searchdesc</c>, is very
238time consuming. There are other, more performant tools available. We will
239describe those in the chapter on <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=7">Gentoolkit and
240Other Tools</uri>.
241</note>
242-->
243
244</body>
245</subsection>
246<subsection>
247<title>Viewing the ChangeLog</title>
248<body>
249
250<p>
251While browsing through the Portage Tree, you saw that there was a ChangeLog for
252each package. You can view the ChangeLog entries between the available version
253and the installed version with <c>emerge</c> too. Use the
254<c>--pretend --changelog</c> (<c>-pl</c> in short) options. As an example we
255will view the ChangeLog entries for <c>gnumeric</c>:
256</p>
257
258<pre caption="Viewing the ChangeLog entries for gnumeric">
259# <i>emerge --pretend --changelog gnumeric</i>
260<comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
261*gnumeric-1.2.2
262
263 27 Nov 2003; foser &lt;foser@gentoo.org&gt; gnumeric-1.2.2.ebuild :
264 New release, requested in #34492
265 updated deps
266
267 12 Nov 2003; Jason Wever &lt;weeve@gentoo.org&gt; gnumeric-1.2.0.ebuild:
268 Marked stable on sparc, fixes bug #32405.
269
270 14 Oct 2003; Jason Wever &lt;weeve@gentoo.org&gt; gnumeric-1.0.8.ebuild:
271 Added ~sparc keyword. Fixes bug #31150.
272</pre>
273
274</body>
275</subsection>
276</section> 37</section>
277<section> 38<section>
278<title>Updating Portage</title> 39<title>The Portage Tree</title>
279<subsection>
280<title>Introduction</title>
281<body>
282
283<p>
284Searching through Portage is nice, but if you don't update your Portage Tree
285regularly, you will be stuck with the packages and versions available on your
286system. This means that your system will get outdated pretty soon and that
287you will be missing bugfixes and remedies for possible security problems.
288</p>
289
290<p>
291There are several ways to update your Portage Tree. The most popular method is
292by using one of our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">rsync mirrors</uri>.
293Another one is by using a Portage snapshot (in case a firewall or unavailability
294of a network prohibits the use of the rsync server).
295</p>
296
297</body>
298</subsection> 40<subsection>
41<title>Ebuilds</title>
42<body>
43
44<p>
45When we talk about packages, we often mean software titles that are available to
46the Gentoo users through the Portage tree. The Portage tree is a collection of
47<e>ebuilds</e>, files that contain all information Portage needs to maintain
48software (install, search, query, ...). These ebuilds reside in
49<path>/usr/portage</path> by default.
50</p>
51
52<p>
53Whenever you ask Portage to perform some action regarding software titles, it
54will use the ebuilds on your system as a base. It is therefore important that
55you regularly update the ebuilds on your system so Portage knows about new
56software, security updates, etc.
57</p>
58
59</body>
299<subsection> 60</subsection>
300<title>Selecting a Mirror for rsync</title>
301<body>
302
303<p>
304It is adviseable to first select a fast <uri
305link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror</uri> close to you. You can do this manually
306(by setting the <c>SYNC</c> variable in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>) or use
307<c>mirrorselect</c> to do this for you automatically. As the <c>SYNC</c>
308variable will be discussed later on, we will focus on using <c>mirrorselect</c>.
309First install <c>mirrorselect</c> by emerging it:
310</p>
311
312<pre caption="Installing mirrorselect">
313# <i>emerge --usepkg mirrorselect</i>
314</pre>
315
316<p>
317Now run <c>mirrorselect</c> to automatically select mirrors for you (it will
318also setup Portage to use a mirror for the source code):
319</p>
320
321<pre caption="Running mirrorselect">
322# <i>mirrorselect -a -s3</i>
323</pre>
324
325</body>
326</subsection> 61<subsection>
327<subsection>
328<title>Updating Portage</title> 62<title>Updating the Portage Tree</title>
329<body> 63<body>
330 64
331<p>
332To update Portage using rsync, simply run <c>emerge sync</c>:
333</p> 65<p>
66The Portage tree is usually updated with <uri
67link="http://rsync.gentoo.org">rsync</uri>, a fast incremental file transfer
68utility. Updating is fairly simple as the <c>emerge</c> command provides a
69front-end for rsync:
70</p>
334 71
335<pre caption="Updating Portage using emerge sync"> 72<pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
336# <i>emerge sync</i> 73# <i>emerge --sync</i>
337</pre> 74</pre>
338 75
339<p>
340If this fails (due to network problems, or a firewall), you can try using
341<c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will download a Portage Tree snapshot using
342<c>wget</c>. This also means that you can use proxies if you want. We discussed
343how to setup your system to use proxies during the Gentoo installation.
344</p> 76<p>
77If you are unable to rsync due to firewall restrictions you can still update
78your Portage tree by using our daily generated Portage tree snapshots. The
79<c>emerge-webrsync</c> tool automatically fetches and installs the latest
80snapshot on your system:
81</p>
345 82
346<pre caption="Updating Portage using emerge-webrsync"> 83<pre caption="Running emerge-webrsync">
347# <i>emerge-webrsync</i> 84# <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
348</pre> 85</pre>
349 86
350</body> 87</body>
351</subsection> 88</subsection>
352</section> 89</section>
353<section> 90<section>
354<title>Maintaining Software</title> 91<title>Maintaining Software</title>
355<subsection> 92<subsection>
356<title>Building or Prebuilt?</title> 93<title>Searching for Software</title>
357<body>
358
359<p>
360Gentoo provides ebuilds, the Gentoo packages if you like. But when you want to
361install such an ebuild, you can choose between <e>building</e> the package and
362using a <e>prebuilt</e> package. But what are the advantages/disadvantages of
363both approaches, and can they be used next to each other?
364</p>
365
366<p>
367As you probably have guessed, building packages takes a lot of time (especially
368if you have little resources or want to build big packages, such as <uri
369link="http://www.kde.org">KDE</uri>, <uri
370link="http://www.openoffice.org">OpenOffice.org</uri>, etc.). By building the
371package, you can use the <c>USE</c> setting to tweak the package to your system.
372Of course, you can also define high optimization options (in the <c>CFLAGS</c>
373and <c>CXXFLAGS</c> variables) to compile the package with.
374</p>
375
376<p>
377Using prebuilt packages improves the installation time (as no more compilation
378is needed), but you will lose the advantages of the <c>USE</c> setting and the
379<c>CFLAGS</c> &amp; <c>CXXFLAGS</c> variables.
380</p>
381
382<p>
383As previously stated, prebuilt packages are stored in the
384<path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> directory, while the source code of the
385packages is placed in <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. If you have finished
386installing a package you can remove the package or source code from the
387respective directory. However, you might want to keep the package/source code of
388the latest version, just in case you want to reinstall the package (so you don't
389have to redownload it).
390</p>
391
392</body> 94<body>
393</subsection> 95
96<p>
97To search through the Portage tree after software titles, you can use
98<c>emerge</c> built-in search capabilities. By default, <c>emerge search</c>
99returns package names whos title corresponds with (either fully or partially)
100the given search term.
101</p>
102
103<p>
104For instance, to search for all packages who have "pdf" in their name:
105</p>
106
107<pre caption="Searching for pdf-named packages">
108$ <i>emerge search pdf</i>
109</pre>
110
111<p>
112If you want to search through the descriptions as well you can use the
113<c>--searchdesc</c> (or <c>-S</c>) switch:
114</p>
115
116<pre caption="Searching for pdf-related packages">
117$ <i>emerge --searchdesc pdf</i>
118</pre>
119
120<p>
121When you take a look at the output, you'll notice that it gives you a lot of
122information. The fields are clearly labelled so we won't go further into their
123meanings:
124</p>
125
126<pre caption="Example emerge search output">
127* net-print/cups-pdf
128 Latest version available: 1.5.2
129 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
130 Size of downloaded files: 15 kB
131 Homepage: http://cip.physik.uni-wuerzburg.de/~vrbehr/cups-pdf/
132 Description: Provides a virtual printer for CUPS to produce PDF files.
133 License: GPL-2
134</pre>
135
136</body>
394<subsection> 137</subsection>
138<subsection>
395<title>Installing Software from Sources</title> 139<title>Installing Software</title>
396<body> 140<body>
397 141
398<p> 142<p>
399Okay, enough talking, let's cut to the chase. To install a package, you will use 143Once you've found a software title to your liking, you can easily install it
400the <c>emerge</c> command. If you don't want to use any prebuilt packages, you 144with <c>emerge</c>: just add the package name. For instance, to install
401can just use <c>emerge &lt;package-name&gt;</c> or <c>emerge
402&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package-name&gt;</c>. As an example we'll install
403<c>gnumeric</c>: 145<c>gnumeric</c>:
404</p> 146</p>
405 147
406<pre caption="Building gnumeric"> 148<pre caption="Installing gnumeric">
407# <i>emerge gnumeric</i> 149# <i>emerge gnumeric</i>
408</pre> 150</pre>
409 151
410<p> 152<p>
411This will download the source code for you and unpacks, compiles and installs 153Since many applications depend on each other, any attempt to install a certain
412the package on your system. It will also do the same for all the dependencies. 154software package might result in the installation of several dependencies as
413If you want to see what dependencies will be installed with it, use the 155well. Don't worry, Portage handles dependencies well. If you want to find out
414<c>--pretend</c> option (<c>-p</c> in short): 156what Portage <e>would</e> install when you ask it to install a certain package,
157add the <c>--pretend</c> switch. For instance:
415</p> 158</p>
416 159
417<pre caption="Pretending to build gnumeric"> 160<pre caption="Pretend to install gnumeric">
418# <i>emerge --pretend gnumeric</i> 161# <i>emerge --pretend gnumeric</i>
419</pre> 162</pre>
420 163
421<p> 164<p>
422If you want to download the source code of the package and its dependencies, 165When you ask Portage to install a package, it will download the necessary source
423but don't want to build the package, use the <c>--fetchonly</c> option 166code from the internet (if necessary) and store it by default in
424(<c>-f</c> in short): 167<path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. After this it will unpack, compile and
168install the package. If you want Portage to only download the sources without
169installing them, add the <c>--fetchonly</c> option to the <c>emerge</c> command:
425</p> 170</p>
426 171
427<pre caption="Fetching sources for gnumeric"> 172<pre caption="Download the sourcecode for gnumeric">
428# <i>emerge --fetchonly gnumeric</i> 173# <i>emerge --fetchonly gnumeric</i>
429</pre> 174</pre>
430 175
431<p>
432If you want to see where <c>emerge</c> downloads the sources from, combine the
433<c>--fetchonly</c> and <c>--pretend</c> options:
434</p>
435
436<pre caption="Showing URLs of the sources for gnumeric">
437# <i>emerge --fetchonly --pretend gnumeric</i>
438</pre>
439
440<p>
441You can also opt to install a specific version of a package.
442For instance, if you want to install a gnumeric version older than 1.2 -- for
443any reason whatsoever :) you would type:
444</p>
445
446<pre caption="Installing a specific gnumeric version">
447# <i>emerge "&lt;gnumeric-1.2"</i>
448</pre>
449
450<p>
451Other possibilities are of course "&gt;" (later version) and "=" (the exact
452version).
453</p>
454
455</body> 176</body>
456</subsection>
457<subsection> 177</subsection>
458<title>Installing Prebuilt Packages</title>
459<body>
460
461<p>
462When you want to install a prebuilt package, you should use the <c>--usepkg</c>
463option (<c>-k</c> in short). This will use the binary package available in
464<path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> <e>if</e> the package and the version of
465the application you want to install match.
466</p>
467
468<pre caption="Installing a prebuilt package for gnumeric">
469# <i>emerge --usepkg gnumeric</i>
470</pre>
471
472<p>
473If you want to use the binary package, even if the versions don't match, use
474<c>--usepkgonly</c> (<c>-K</c> in short).
475</p>
476
477<pre caption="Installing the prebuilt package for gnumeric">
478# <i>emerge --usepkgonly gnumeric</i>
479</pre>
480
481<p>
482If you don't have the prebuilt package on your system yet, you can have
483<c>emerge</c> download it from a mirror, defined in the <c>PORTAGE_BINHOST</c>
484variable declared in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>.
485</p>
486
487<p>
488To download the binary package in case this package doesn't exist on
489your system already, use <c>--getbinpkg</c> (<c>-g</c> in short):
490</p>
491
492<pre caption="Downloading and installing a prebuilt package for gnumeric">
493# <i>emerge --getbinpkg gnumeric</i>
494</pre>
495
496<p>
497This will download the package and the package-related information for you and
498install it on your system, together with the dependencies. If you want to see
499what dependencies will be installed with it, use the <c>--pretend</c> option
500(<c>-p</c> in short):
501</p>
502
503<pre caption="Pretending to download the prebuilt packages for gnumeric">
504# <i>emerge --getbinpkg --pretend gnumeric</i>
505</pre>
506
507<p>
508You can also opt to download the prebuilt package (and the package-related
509information) <e>without</e> checking the information on your local system and
510<e>without</e> using the prebuilt package already on your system (if
511applicable), use the <c>--getbinpkgonly</c> option (<c>-G</c> in short):
512</p>
513
514<pre caption="Installing a prebuilt package without using local information">
515# <i>emerge --getbinpkgonly gnumeric</i>
516</pre>
517
518<p>
519You can also opt to install a specific version of a package.
520For instance, if you want to install a gnumeric version older than 1.2 -- for
521any reason whatsoever :) you would type:
522</p>
523
524<pre caption="Installing a specific gnumeric version">
525# <i>emerge --usepkg "&lt;gnumeric-1.2"</i>
526</pre>
527
528<p>
529Other possibilities are of course "&gt;" (later version) and "=" (the exact
530version).
531</p>
532
533
534</body>
535</subsection> 178<subsection>
536<subsection> 179<title>Removing Software</title>
537<title>Working with Dependencies</title>
538<body> 180<body>
539 181
540<p>
541Portage has an extensive support for dependency handling. Although you usually
542don't need to even think about this (as dependencies are automatically handled
543by Portage) some users might want to know how you can work with <c>emerge</c>
544and dependencies.
545</p> 182<p>
546 183When you want to remove a software package from your system, use <c>emerge
184unmerge</c>. This will tell Portage to remove all files installed by that
185package from your system <e>except</e> the configuration files of that
186application if you have altered those after the installation. Leaving the
187configuration files allows you to continue working with the package if you ever
188decide to install it again.
547<p> 189</p>
548For instance, if you want Portage to pretend that none of the dependencies of a 190
549package are installed, you can use <c>--emptytree</c> (<c>-e</c> in short). This
550is useful with <c>--pretend</c> to display a complete tree of dependencies for
551any particular package. Without <c>--pretend</c>, <c>emerge</c> will (re)compile
552all listed packages. However, <c>glibc</c> will <e>not</e> be listed as
553dependency for safety reasons.
554</p> 191<p>
555 192However, a <brite>big warning</brite> applies: Portage will <e>not</e> check if
556<pre caption="Show all dependencies of gnumeric"> 193the package you want to remove is required by another package. It will however
557# <i>emerge --emptytree --pretend gnumeric</i> 194warn you when you want to remove an important package that breaks your system
558</pre> 195if you unmerge it.
559
560<p> 196</p>
561Another argument is <c>--nodeps</c>, which will ask Portage to try install the 197
562given package without taking care of the dependencies. It is trivial that this 198<pre caption="Removing gnumeric from the system">
563can lead to failures. 199# <i>emerge unmerge gnumeric</i>
200</pre>
201
564</p> 202<p>
565 203When you remove a package from your system, the dependencies of that package
566<pre caption="Installing gnumeric without taking care of the dependencies"> 204that were installed automatically when you installed the software are left. To
567# <i>emerge --nodeps gnumeric</i> 205have Portage locate all dependencies that can now be removed, use
568</pre> 206<c>emerge</c>'s <c>depclean</c> functionality. We will talk about this later on.
569
570<p> 207</p>
571The opposite of <c>--nodeps</c> is <c>--onlydeps</c>, which will have Portage
572install all dependencies of a given package, but not the package itself:
573</p>
574
575<pre caption="Installing the dependencies of gnumeric">
576# <i>emerge --onlydeps gnumeric</i>
577</pre>
578 208
579</body> 209</body>
580</subsection> 210</subsection>
581<subsection> 211<subsection>
582<title>Updating your System</title> 212<title>Updating your System</title>
583<body> 213<body>
584 214
585<p> 215<p>
586Portage knows two special tags to denote a set of software packages: 216To keep your system in perfect shape (and not to mention install the latest
587<e>system</e> and <e>world</e>. You have already seen the former while 217security updates) you need to update your system regularly. Since Portage only
588installing Gentoo if you didn't use a <e>stage3</e> installation. To refresh 218checks the ebuilds in your Portage tree you first have to update your Portage
589things: <e>system</e> is the collection of <e>core</e> packages, necessary to 219tree. When your Portage tree is updated, you can update your system with
590have a working Gentoo system. 220<c>emerge --update world</c>:
591</p>
592
593<p> 221</p>
594The <e>world</e> tag consists of all software you have installed yourself on 222
595your system plus the <e>system</e> information. In other words, every time you 223<pre caption="Updating your system">
596emerge a package using <c>emerge &lt;package-name&gt;</c>, the 224# <i>emerge --update world</i>
597<c>&lt;package-name&gt;</c> is registered in the <e>world</e> file 225</pre>
598(<path>/var/cache/edb/world</path>). Dependencies are <e>not</e> part of the 226
599<e>world</e> file, but we will get to that later.
600</p> 227<p>
601 228Portage will then search for newer version of the applications you have
602<p> 229installed. However, it will only verify the versions for the applications you
603If you want to update the system packages, use the <c>--update</c> option 230have explicitly installed - not the dependencies. If you want to update every
604(<c>-u</c> in short): 231single package on your system, add the <c>--deep</c> argument:
605</p>
606
607<pre caption="Updating the system packages">
608# <i>emerge --update system</i>
609</pre>
610
611<p>
612An identical approach can be used for the world packages:
613</p> 232</p>
614 233
615<pre caption="Updating your entire system"> 234<pre caption="Updating your entire system">
616# <i>emerge --update world</i> 235# <i>emerge --update --deep world</i>
617</pre> 236</pre>
618 237
619<p>
620Again, if you want to see what <c>emerge</c> wants to update, use the
621<c>--pretend</c> option together with the <c>--update</c> option:
622</p> 238<p>
623 239If you have altered any of your <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>
624<pre caption="Pretending to update your entire system"> 240lately you might want to add <c>--newuse</c> as well. Portage will then verify
625# <i>emerge --pretend --update world</i> 241if the change requires the installation of new packages or recompilation of
626<comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment> 242existing ones:
627[ebuild U ] net-misc/wget-1.9-r1 [1.9]
628[ebuild UD] media-video/dvdauthor-0.5.0 [0.5.3]
629[ebuild U ] net-analyzer/ethereal-0.9.16 [0.9.14]
630</pre>
631
632<p> 243</p>
633Right next to the word "ebuild" you will notice a letter (or combination of 244
634letters) which gives you more information about the package: 245<pre caption="Performing a full update">
246# <i>emerge --update --deep --newuse world</i>
247</pre>
248
249</body>
250</subsection>
251<subsection>
252<title>Stub Packages</title>
253<body>
254
255<p>
256Some packages in the Portage tree don't have any real content but are used to
257install a collection of packages. For instance, the <c>kde</c> package will
258install a complete KDE environment on your system by pulling in various
259KDE-related packages as dependencies.
260</p>
261
262<p>
263If you ever want to remove such a package from your system, running <c>emerge
264unmerge</c> on the package won't have much effect as the dependencies remain on
265the system.
266</p>
267
268<p>
269Portage has the functionality to remove orphaned dependencies as well, but since
270the availability of software is dynamically dependent you first need to update
271your entire system fully, including the new changes you applied when changing
272USE flags. After this you can run <c>emerge depclean</c> to remove the orphaned
273dependencies. When this is done, you need to rebuild the applications that were
274dynamically linked to the now-removed software titles but don't require them
275anymore.
276</p>
277
278<p>
279All this is handled with the following three commands:
280</p>
281
282<pre caption="Removing orphaned dependencies">
283# <i>emerge --update --deep --newuse world</i>
284# <i>emerge depclean</i>
285# <i>revdep-rebuild</i>
286</pre>
287
288<p>
289<c>revdep-rebuild</c> is provided by the <c>gentoolkit</c> package; don't forget
290to emerge it first:
291</p>
292
293<pre caption="Installing the gentoolkit package">
294# <i>emerge gentoolkit</i>
295</pre>
296
297</body>
298</subsection>
299</section>
300<section>
301<title>When Portage is Complaining...</title>
302<subsection>
303<title>About SLOTs, Virtuals, Branches, Architectures and Profiles</title>
304<body>
305
306<p>
307As we stated before, Portage is extremely powerful and supports many features
308that other software management tools lack. To understand this, we explain a few
309aspects of Portage without going in too much detail.
310</p>
311
312<p>
313With Portage different versions of a single package can coexist on a system.
314While other distributions tend to name their package to those versions (like
315<c>freetype</c> and <c>freetype2</c>) Portage uses a technology called
316<e>SLOT</e>s. An ebuild declares a certain SLOT for its version. Ebuilds with
317different SLOTs can coexist on the same system. For instance, the
318<c>freetype</c> package has ebuilds with <c>SLOT="1"</c> and <c>SLOT="2"</c>.
319</p>
320
321<p>
322There are also packages that provide the same functionality but are implemented
323differently. For instance, <c>metalogd</c>, <c>sysklogd</c> and <c>syslog-ng</c>
324are all system loggers. Applications that rely on the availability of "a system
325logger" cannot depend on, for instance, <c>metalogd</c>, as the other system
326loggers are as good a choice as any. Portage allows for <e>virtuals</e>: each
327system logger provides <c>virtual/syslog</c> so that applications can depend on
328<c>virtual/syslog</c>.
329</p>
330
331<p>
332Software in the Portage tree can reside in different branches. By default your
333system only accepts packages that Gentoo deems stable. Most new software titles,
334when committed, are added to the testing branch, meaning more testing needs to
335be done before it is marked as stable. Although you will see the ebuilds for
336those software in the Portage tree, Portage will not update them before they are
337placed in the stable branch.
338</p>
339
340<p>
341Some software is only available for a few architectures. Or the software doesn't
342work on the other architectures, or it needs more testing, or the developer that
343committed the software to the Portage tree is unable to verify if the package
344works on different architectures.
345</p>
346
347<p>
348Each Gentoo installation adheres to a certain <c>profile</c> which contains,
349amongst other information, the list of packages that are required for a system
350to function normally.
351</p>
352
353</body>
354</subsection>
355<subsection id="blocked">
356<title>Blocked Packages</title>
357<body>
358
359<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (with --pretend)">
360[blocks B ] gnome-base/bonobo-activation (from pkg gnome-base/libbonobo-2.4.0)
361</pre>
362
363<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (without --pretend)">
364!!! Error: the gnome-base/bonobo-activation package conflicts with another package.
365!!! both can't be installed on the same system together.
366!!! Please use 'emerge --pretend' to determine blockers.
367</pre>
368
369<p>
370Ebuilds contain specific fields that inform Portage about it's dependencies.
371There are two possible dependencies: build dependencies, declared in
372<c>DEPEND</c> and run-time dependencies, declared in <c>RDEPEND</c>. When one of
373these dependencies explicitly marks a package or virtual as being <e>not</e>
374compatible, it triggers a blockage.
375</p>
376
377<p>
378To fix a blockage, you can choose to not install the package or unmerge the
379conflicting package first. In the given example, you can opt not to install
380<c>libbonobo</c> or to remove <c>bonobo-activation</c> first.
381</p>
382
383</body>
384</subsection>
385<subsection id="masked">
386<title>Masked Packages</title>
387<body>
388
389<pre caption="Portage warning about masked packages">
390!!! all ebuilds that could satisfy "bootsplash" have been masked.
391</pre>
392
393<pre caption="Portage warning about masked packages - reason">
394!!! possible candidates are:
395
396- gnome-base/gnome-2.8.0_pre1 (masked by: <i>~x86 keyword</i>)
397- lm-sensors/lm-sensors-2.8.7 (masked by: <i>-sparc keyword</i>)
398- sys-libs/glibc-2.3.4.20040808 (masked by: <i>-* keyword</i>)
399- dev-util/cvsd-1.0.2 (masked by: <i>missing keyword</i>)
400- media-video/ati-gatos-4.3.0 (masked by: <i>package.mask</i>)
401- sys-libs/glibc-2.3.2-r11 (masked by: <i>profile</i>)
402</pre>
403
404<p>
405When you want to install a package that isn't available for your system, you
406will receive this masking error. You should try installing a different
407application that is available for your system or wait until the package is put
408available. There is always a reason why a package is masked:
635</p> 409</p>
636 410
637<ul> 411<ul>
638 <li> 412 <li>
639 <e>B</e> (blocks) The package listed to the left is blocking the emerge of 413 <b>~arch keyword</b> means that the application is not tested sufficiently
640 the package listed to the right 414 to be put in the stable branch. Wait a few days or weeks and try again.
641 </li> 415 </li>
642 <li> 416 <li>
643 <e>N</e> (new) The package is new to your system and will be emerged for the 417 <b>-arch keyword</b> or <b>-* keyword</b> means that the application does
644 first time 418 not work on your architecture. If you believe the package does work file
419 a bug at our <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> website.
645 </li> 420 </li>
646 <li> 421 <li>
647 <e>R</e> (reemerge) The package isn't new, but needs to be reemerged 422 <b>missing keyword</b> means that the application has not been tested on
423 your architecture yet. Ask the architecture porting team to test the package
424 or test it for them and report your findings on our <uri
425 link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> website.
648 </li> 426 </li>
649 <li> 427 <li>
650 <e>F</e> (fetch) The package requires that you download the source code 428 <b>package.mask</b> means that the package has been found corrupt, unstable
651 manually (for instance due to licencing issues) 429 or worse and has been deliberately marked as do-not-use.
652 </li> 430 </li>
653 <li> 431 <li>
654 <e>U</e> (update) The package already exists on your system but will be 432 <b>profile</b> means that the package has been found not suitable for your
655 upgraded 433 profile. The application might break your system if you installed it or is
656 </li> 434 just not compatible with the profile you use.
657 <li>
658 <e>UD</e> (downgrade) The package already exists on your system but will be
659 downgraded
660 </li>
661 <li>
662 <e>U-</e> (slot warning) The package you have installed on your system
663 is listed as a package that can not coexist with a different version, but
664 your update does. The update will be installed and the older version will be
665 removed.
666 </li> 435 </li>
667</ul> 436</ul>
668 437
669<p>
670In certain cases, an update may mean a downgrade (i.e. install an older version
671instead of a newer version). If you don't want this to happen, use the
672<c>--upgradeonly</c> option (<c>-U</c> in short):
673</p>
674
675<pre caption="Upgrading your entire system">
676# <i>emerge --update --upgradeonly world</i>
677</pre>
678
679<p>
680Of course, we are talking here about <e>system</e> and <e>world</e>, but you can
681perform the same actions for individual software packages.
682</p>
683
684</body> 438</body>
685</subsection>
686<subsection> 439</subsection>
687<title>Removing Software</title> 440<subsection id="missingdependencies">
688<body> 441<title>Missing Dependencies</title>
689
690<p>
691If you want to remove software from your system, you can use the <c>unmerge</c>
692option (<c>-C</c> - capital C - in short):
693</p>
694
695<pre caption="Uninstalling software">
696# <i>emerge unmerge gnumeric</i>
697</pre>
698
699<p>
700If you want to test a removal (but not perform it), you can use <c>--pretend</c>
701again:
702</p>
703
704<pre caption="Pretending to uninstall software">
705# <i>emerge --pretend unmerge gnumeric</i>
706</pre>
707
708<warn>
709Portage doesn't verify if a package is a dependency for another
710installed package. It also doesn't warn you if the package is part of
711<e>system</e>, i.e. a core application necessary for the correct functioning of
712your system!
713</warn>
714
715<p>
716Once the unmerge begins you will see a long list of filenames belonging to the
717package. Some of these filenames will have a flag displayed to the
718left of the filename. The flags <c>!mtime</c>, <c>!empty</c>, and <c>cfgpro</c>
719specify reasons why certain files are not being removed while the package is.
720Files listed without any of these three flags are removed from the
721filesystem successfully. The three flags specify the following reasons:
722</p>
723
724<ul>
725 <li>
726 <c>!mtime</c> : The listed file has been changed since it was installed,
727 probably by you or some tool
728 </li>
729 <li>
730 <c>!empty</c> : The listed directory is not empty
731 </li>
732 <li>
733 <c>cfgpro</c> : This file is located inside a protected directory and will
734 not be touched for safety
735 </li>
736</ul>
737
738</body> 442<body>
739</subsection> 443
740</section> 444<pre caption="Portage warning about missing dependency">
741<section> 445emerge: there are no ebuilds to satisfy "&gt;=sys-devel/gcc-4.2-r4".
742<title>Software Availability</title> 446
447!!! Problem with ebuild sys-devel/gcc-3.4.2-r2
448!!! Possibly a DEPEND/*DEPEND problem.
449</pre>
450
451<p>
452The application you are trying to install depends on another package that is not
453available for your system. Please check <uri
454link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> if the issue is known and if not,
455please report it. Unless you are mixing branches this should not occur and is
456therefore a bug.
457</p>
458
459</body>
743<subsection> 460</subsection>
744<title>ARCH or not?</title> 461<subsection id="ambiguousebuild">
745<body> 462<title>Ambiguous Ebuild Name</title>
746
747<p>
748Gentoo places its packages in two possible stadia called <e>ARCH</e> and
749<e>~ARCH</e>. Don't take this literally: the stadia depend on the architecture
750you are using. In other words, for x86-based systems you have <e>x86</e> and
751<e>~x86</e>, for ppc-based systems you have <e>ppc</e> and <e>~ppc</e> etc.
752</p>
753
754<p>
755The <e>~ARCH</e> stadium means that the package works for the developer in
756charge of the package, but that the package hasn't been tested thoroughly enough
757by the community to be placed in <e>ARCH</e>. <e>~ARCH</e> packages usually go
758to <e>ARCH</e> after being bugfree for a sufficient amount of time.
759</p>
760
761<p>
762Your system will use <e>ARCH</e> packages per default. If you want to live on
763the edge, don't mind having a broken package once in a while, and you like
764submitting bugreports to <uri
765link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugs.gentoo.org</uri>, then you can opt to use
766<e>~ARCH</e> packages. To "move" your system to a <e>~ARCH</e>-using system,
767edit the <c>ACCEPT_KEYWORDS</c> variable in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so that
768it reads <e>~ARCH</e> (again: for x86-based systems: <e>~x86</e>, etc.).
769</p>
770
771<p>
772If you want to update your system now, you will notice that <e>a lot</e> of
773packages will be updated!
774</p>
775
776</body> 463<body>
777</subsection> 464
465<pre caption="Portage warning about ambiguous ebuild names">
466!!! The short ebuild name "aterm" is ambiguous. Please specify
467!!! one of the following fully-qualified ebuild names instead:
468
469 dev-libs/aterm
470 x11-terms/aterm
471</pre>
472
473<p>
474The application you want to install has a name that corresponds with more than
475one package. You need to supply the category name as well. Portage will inform
476you of possible matches to choose from.
477</p>
478
479</body>
778<subsection> 480</subsection>
779<title>Masked Packages</title> 481<subsection id="circulardependencies">
780<body> 482<title>Circular Dependencies</title>
781
782<p>
783When you want to install a package, you might come across the following message:
784</p>
785
786<pre caption="Message about masked packages">
787Calculating dependencies
788!!! <comment>all ebuilds that could satisfy </comment>&lt;your package&gt;<comment> have been masked.</comment>
789</pre>
790
791<p>
792A package can be masked due to two reasons:
793</p>
794
795<ol>
796 <li>The package is in <e>~ARCH</e> while you use <e>ARCH</e></li>
797 <li>The package is hard-masked explicitly</li>
798</ol>
799
800<p>
801If the package is masked because of the first reason, and you <e>really</e> want
802to install it (knowing that there <e>is</e> a reason why it isn't available in
803<e>ARCH</e>), you can temporarily accept <e>~ARCH</e> packages:
804</p>
805
806<pre caption="Temporarily accepting ~ARCH packages">
807# <i>ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~x86" emerge gnumeric</i>
808</pre>
809
810<p>
811A package is hardmasked if it is listed in
812<path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path>. If you read this file, you
813will also read the reason why the package is hardmasked (it is usually added as
814a comment). If you want to install the package nevertheless (despite all the
815possible warnings we could ever throw at your head about "breaking your system",
816"breaks other packages", or "badly needs testing"), create the
817<path>/etc/portage/package.unmask</path> file and list the package in it (use
818the same format as is used in <path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path>).
819</p>
820
821<p>
822Do <e>not</e> alter the <path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path> file as
823all changes are undone the next time you update your Portage tree.
824</p>
825
826<p>
827Another trick to circumvent the "masked package" problem is to install the
828package using the full path. This will ignore both the <c>ACCEPT_KEYWORD</c>
829settings and the <path>package.mask</path> listing.
830</p>
831
832<pre caption="Installing a package without checking for stadium / masking">
833# <i>emerge /usr/portage/app-office/gnumeric/gnumeric-1.2.0.ebuild</i>
834</pre>
835
836</body> 483<body>
837</subsection> 484
485<pre caption="Portage warning about circular dependencies">
486!!! Error: circular dependencies:
487
488ebuild / net-print/cups-1.1.15-r2 depends on ebuild / app-text/ghostscript-7.05.3-r1
489ebuild / app-text/ghostscript-7.05.3-r1 depends on ebuild / net-print/cups-1.1.15-r2
490</pre>
491
492<p>
493Two (or more) packages you want to install depend on each other and can
494therefore not be installed. This is most likely a bug in the Portage tree.
495Please resync after a while and try again. You can also check <uri
496link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> if the issue is known and if not,
497report it.
498</p>
499
500</body>
838<subsection> 501</subsection>
839<title>Blocked Packages</title> 502<subsection id="fetchfailed">
503<title>Fetch failed</title>
504<body>
505
506<pre caption="Portage warning about fetch failed">
507!!! Fetch failed for sys-libs/ncurses-5.4-r5, continuing...
508<comment>(...)</comment>
509!!! Some fetch errors were encountered. Please see above for details.
510</pre>
511
512<p>
513Portage was unable to download the sources for the given application and will
514try to continue installing the other applications (if applicable). This failure
515can be due to a mirror that has not synchronised correctly or because the ebuild
516points to an incorrect location. The server where the sources reside can also be
517down for some reason.
518</p>
519
520<p>
521Retry after one hour to see if the issue still persists.
522</p>
523
840<body> 524</body>
525</subsection>
526<subsection id="profileprotect">
527<title>System Profile Protection</title>
528<body>
841 529
842<p> 530<pre caption="Portage warning about profile-protected package">
843You have a situation when you receive the following error on your screen: 531!!! Trying to unmerge package(s) in system profile. 'sys-apps/portage'
532!!! This could be damaging to your system.
533</pre>
534
844</p> 535<p>
845 536You have asked to remove a package that is part of your system's core packages.
846<pre caption="Blocking package"> 537It is listed in your profile as required and should therefore not be removed
847[blocks B ] gnome-base/bonobo-activation (from pkg gnome-base/libbonobo-2.4.0) 538from the system.
848</pre>
849
850<p> 539</p>
851In the above example, the package <c>bonobo-activation</c> is blocking the
852emerge of <c>libbonobo</c>. To resolve this issue, remove the
853<c>bonobo-activation</c> package and continue:
854</p>
855
856<pre caption="Resolving a blocking situation">
857# <i>emerge unmerge bonobo-activation</i>
858</pre>
859 540
860</body> 541</body>
861</subsection> 542</subsection>
862</section> 543</section>
863</sections> 544</sections>

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