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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.25 2004/05/09 10:48:51 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.40 2004/10/21 16:34:46 swift Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10<section> 10<section>
11<title>Obtaining Package Information</title> 11<title>Welcome to Portage</title>
12<subsection>
13<title>The Lord of All Tools: emerge</title>
14<body> 12<body>
15 13
16<p>
17The main Portage tool that most users will use is <c>emerge</c>. We have already
18used it during the Gentoo installation and in the previous chapter, but we just
19briefly explained how to use it. This chapter will elaborate on <c>emerge</c>
20and teach you how to use <c>emerge</c> to fix all your software-related needs.
21</p> 14<p>
22 15Portage is probably Gentoo's most notable innovation in software management.
16With its high flexibility and enormous amount of features it is frequently seen
17as the best software management tool available for Linux.
23<p> 18</p>
24<c>emerge</c> is the command used to install, remove, query and maintain 19
25software packages. It is a front-end for <c>ebuild</c>; people interested in
26becoming Gentoo professionals will learn how to use <c>ebuild</c> later on. For
27now, we will focus on <c>emerge</c> as it has functionality that <c>ebuild</c>
28lacks (such as resolving dependencies, searching the Portage tree, etc.).
29</p> 20<p>
30 21Portage is completely written in <uri link="http://www.python.org">Python</uri>
22and <uri link="http://www.gnu.org/software/bash">Bash</uri> and therefore fully
23visible to the users as both are scripting languages.
31<p> 24</p>
32Since <c>emerge</c> is the most important tool for Gentoo users, it has an 25
33extensive manpage you can read by issuing <c>man emerge</c>. You can also view
34the in-command help by running <c>emerge --help</c>.
35</p> 26<p>
27Most users will work with Portage through the <c>emerge</c> tool. This chapter
28is not meant to duplicate the information available from the emerge man page.
29For a complete rundown of emerge's options, please consult the man page:
30</p>
36 31
37<pre caption="Retrieving help for emerge"> 32<pre caption="Reading the emerge man page">
38# <i>man emerge</i> 33$ <i>man emerge</i>
39# <i>emerge --help</i>
40</pre> 34</pre>
41 35
42</body>
43</subsection>
44<subsection>
45<title>The Portage Tree</title>
46<body> 36</body>
47
48<p>
49Before we continue describing <c>emerge</c>, let us first take a look at the
50Portage Tree. Go to <path>/usr/portage</path> and do a listing of the available
51directories. We use <c>ls --classify</c> to list the contents of a
52directory as it will show directories with a trailing "/".
53</p>
54
55<pre caption="Viewing the Portage Tree">
56# <i>cd /usr/portage; ls --classify</i>
57app-admin/ dev-ml/ gnome-libs/ net-print/
58app-arch/ dev-perl/ gnome-office/ net-wireless/
59app-benchmarks/ dev-php/ header.txt net-www/
60app-cdr/ dev-python/ incoming/ net-zope/
61app-crypt/ dev-ruby/ jython/ packages/
62app-dicts/ dev-tcltk/ kde-apps/ profiles/
63app-doc/ dev-tex/ kde-base/ releases/
64app-editors/ dev-util/ kde-i18n/ scripts/
65app-emacs/ distfiles/ kde-libs/ sec-policy/
66app-emulation/ eclass/ licenses/ skel.ChangeLog
67app-games/ experimental/ media-fonts/ skel.ebuild
68app-gnustep/ files/ media-gfx/ skel.metadata.xml
69app-i18n/ fresco-base/ media-libs/ snapshots/
70app-misc/ games-action/ media-plugins/ sys-apps/
71app-office/ games-arcade/ media-radio/ sys-build/
72app-pda/ games-board/ media-sound/ sys-cluster/
73app-portage/ games-emulation/ media-tv/ sys-devel/
74app-sci/ games-engines/ media-video/ sys-fs/
75app-shells/ games-fps/ metadata/ sys-kernel/
76app-text/ games-kids/ net-analyzer/ sys-kmods/
77app-vim/ games-misc/ net-apache/ sys-libs/
78app-xemacs/ games-mud/ net-dialup/ unix2tcp/
79berlin-base/ games-puzzle/ net-dns/ x11-base/
80dev-ada/ games-roguelike/ net-firewall/ x11-libs/
81dev-cpp/ games-rpg/ net-fs/ x11-misc/
82dev-db/ games-server/ net-ftp/ x11-plugins/
83dev-dotnet/ games-simulation/ net-im/ x11-terms/
84dev-embedded/ games-sports/ net-irc/ x11-themes/
85dev-games/ games-strategy/ net-libs/ x11-wm/
86dev-haskell/ games-util/ net-mail/ xfce-base/
87dev-java/ glep/ net-misc/ xfce-extra/
88dev-lang/ gnome-apps/ net-nds/
89dev-libs/ gnome-base/ net-news/
90dev-lisp/ gnome-extra/ net-p2p/
91</pre>
92
93<p>
94As you can see, the Portage tree has several subdirectories. Most of them are
95the <e>categories</e> in which the Gentoo packages, called <e>ebuilds</e>,
96reside. Take a look at, for instance, <path>app-office</path>:
97</p>
98
99<pre caption="Viewing a category">
100# <i>cd app-office; ls --classify</i>
101abiword/ gnotime/ kmymoney2/ ooodi/ plan/ timestamp.x
102dia/ gnucash/ koffice/ oooqs/ qhacc/
103dia2code/ gnumeric/ lxbank/ openoffice/ sc/
104facturalux/ ical/ lyx/ openoffice-bin/ scribus/
105gaby/ kbudget/ mdbtools/ openoffice-ximian/ siag/
106gnofin/ khacc/ mrproject/ phprojekt/ texmacs/
107</pre>
108
109<p>
110Inside a category you will find the packages belonging to that category, with a
111separate directory for each package. Let us take a look at the <c>openoffice</c>
112package:
113</p>
114
115<pre caption="Viewing a package">
116# <i>cd openoffice; ls --classify</i>
117ChangeLog files/ openoffice-1.0.3-r1.ebuild openoffice-1.1.0-r2.ebuild
118Manifest metadata.xml openoffice-1.1.0-r1.ebuild openoffice-1.1.0.ebuild
119</pre>
120
121<p>
122Remember that we told you that a Gentoo package is called an ebuild? Well, in
123the example directory four of such ebuilds are stored. Their naming is
124almost identical: they only differ in the version name.
125You are free to view the contents of such a package: they are plain scripts. We
126will not discuss it right now as it isn't important to know if you plan on just
127using Gentoo.
128</p>
129
130<p>
131The other files are the <path>ChangeLog</path> (which contains a listing of all
132the changes done to the ebuilds), <path>Manifest</path> (which contains the
133checksums and filesizes of all the files in the directory) and
134<path>metadata.xml</path> (which contains more information about the package,
135such as the responsible development group -- called <e>herd</e> -- and a more
136extensive description).
137</p>
138
139<p>
140Inside the <path>files</path> directory you will find extra files, needed by
141Portage: digests (checksums and permissions of the files needed by a single
142version of the package), patches, example configuration files, etc.
143</p>
144
145<pre caption="Viewing the extra files">
146# <i>cd files; ls --classify</i>
1471.0.3/ digest-openoffice-1.0.3-r1 digest-openoffice-1.1.0-r1
1481.1.0/ digest-openoffice-1.1.0 digest-openoffice-1.1.0-r2
149# <i>cd 1.1.0; ls --classify</i>
150fixed-gcc.patch ooffice-wrapper-1.3
151newstlportfix.patch openoffice-1.1.0-linux-2.6-fix.patch
152no-mozab.patch openoffice-1.1.0-sparc64-fix.patch
153nptl.patch
154</pre>
155
156<p>
157If you go back to the root of the Portage tree (<path>/usr/portage</path>) you
158will notice that there are other, non-category directories too. We will discuss
159those later in this chapter.
160</p>
161
162</body>
163</subsection>
164<subsection>
165<title>Search for a Package</title>
166<body>
167
168<p>
169If you are new to Linux or Gentoo, you might not know what tool you need for
170what job. To facilitate searching, <c>emerge</c> provides you with a way to
171search through the available packages on your system. There are two ways you can
172search through packages: by <e>name</e>, or by <e>name</e> and
173<e>description</e>.
174</p>
175
176<p>
177To search through the Portage tree by name, use <c>emerge search</c>. For
178instance, to find out more about <c>mozilla</c>:
179</p>
180
181<pre caption="Showing information about mozilla">
182# <i>emerge search mozilla</i>
183Searching...
184[ Results for search key : mozilla ]
185[ Applications found : 5 ]
186<comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
187* net-www/mozilla
188 Latest version available: 1.5-r1
189 Latest version installed: 1.4-r3
190 Size of downloaded files: 29,153 kB
191 Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org
192 Description: The Mozilla Web Browser
193
194* net-www/mozilla-firebird
195 Latest version available: 0.7
196 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
197 Size of downloaded files: 37,850 kB
198 Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org/projects/firebird/
199 Description: The Mozilla Firebird Web Browser
200<comment>(...)</comment>
201</pre>
202
203<p>
204If you want to include a search through the descriptions too, use the
205<c>--searchdesc</c> argument:
206</p>
207
208<pre caption="Search through the descriptions too">
209# <i>emerge --searchdesc mozilla</i>
210Searching...
211[ Results for search key : mozilla ]
212[ Applications found : 10 ]
213<comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
214* dev-libs/nss-3.8
215 Latest version available: 3.8
216 Latest version installed: 3.8
217 Size of downloaded files: 2,782 kB
218 Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org/projects/security/pki/nss/
219 Description: Mozilla's Netscape Security Services Library that implements PKI support
220</pre>
221
222<p>
223As you can see, the output of <c>emerge</c> informs you about the category and
224name of the package, the available version, the currently installed version,
225the size of the downloaded files, the homepage and the small description.
226</p>
227
228<p>
229You see something new? Yes, <e>downloaded files</e>. When you tell Portage to
230install a package, it of course needs to have the necessary sources (or
231precompiled packages) available. It therefore checks the contents of
232<path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> (for source code) or
233<path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> (for precompiled packages) to see if the
234necessary files are already available. If not, it downloads the necessary files
235and places them in those directories.
236</p>
237
238<!--
239<note>
240Searching the Portage Tree, especially when using <c>- -searchdesc</c>, is very
241time consuming. There are other, more performant tools available. We will
242describe those in the chapter on <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=7">Gentoolkit and
243Other Tools</uri>.
244</note>
245-->
246
247</body>
248</subsection>
249<subsection>
250<title>Viewing the ChangeLog</title>
251<body>
252
253<p>
254While browsing through the Portage Tree, you saw that there was a ChangeLog for
255each package. You can view the ChangeLog entries between the available version
256and the installed version with <c>emerge</c> too. Use the
257<c>--pretend --changelog</c> (<c>-pl</c> in short) options. As an example we
258will view the ChangeLog entries for <c>gnumeric</c>:
259</p>
260
261<pre caption="Viewing the ChangeLog entries for gnumeric">
262# <i>emerge --pretend --changelog gnumeric</i>
263<comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
264*gnumeric-1.2.2
265
266 27 Nov 2003; foser &lt;foser@gentoo.org&gt; gnumeric-1.2.2.ebuild :
267 New release, requested in #34492
268 updated deps
269
270 12 Nov 2003; Jason Wever &lt;weeve@gentoo.org&gt; gnumeric-1.2.0.ebuild:
271 Marked stable on sparc, fixes bug #32405.
272
273 14 Oct 2003; Jason Wever &lt;weeve@gentoo.org&gt; gnumeric-1.0.8.ebuild:
274 Added ~sparc keyword. Fixes bug #31150.
275</pre>
276
277</body>
278</subsection>
279</section> 37</section>
280<section> 38<section>
281<title>Updating Portage</title> 39<title>The Portage Tree</title>
282<subsection>
283<title>Introduction</title>
284<body>
285
286<p>
287Searching through Portage is nice, but if you don't update your Portage Tree
288regularly, you will be stuck with the packages and versions available on your
289system. This means that your system will get outdated pretty soon and that
290you will be missing bugfixes and remedies for possible security problems.
291</p>
292
293<p>
294There are several ways to update your Portage Tree. The most popular method is
295by using one of our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">rsync mirrors</uri>.
296Another one is by using a Portage snapshot (in case a firewall or unavailability
297of a network prohibits the use of the rsync server).
298</p>
299
300</body>
301</subsection> 40<subsection>
41<title>Ebuilds</title>
42<body>
43
44<p>
45When we talk about packages, we often mean software titles that are available to
46the Gentoo users through the Portage tree. The Portage tree is a collection of
47<e>ebuilds</e>, files that contain all information Portage needs to maintain
48software (install, search, query, ...). These ebuilds reside in
49<path>/usr/portage</path> by default.
50</p>
51
52<p>
53Whenever you ask Portage to perform some action regarding software titles, it
54will use the ebuilds on your system as a base. It is therefore important that
55you regularly update the ebuilds on your system so Portage knows about new
56software, security updates, etc.
57</p>
58
59</body>
302<subsection> 60</subsection>
303<title>Selecting a Mirror for rsync</title>
304<body>
305
306<p>
307It is adviseable to first select a fast <uri
308link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror</uri> close to you. You can do this manually
309(by setting the <c>SYNC</c> variable in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>) or use
310<c>mirrorselect</c> to do this for you automatically. As the <c>SYNC</c>
311variable will be discussed later on, we will focus on using <c>mirrorselect</c>.
312First install <c>mirrorselect</c> by emerging it:
313</p>
314
315<pre caption="Installing mirrorselect">
316# <i>emerge --usepkg mirrorselect</i>
317</pre>
318
319<p>
320Now run <c>mirrorselect</c> to automatically select mirrors for you (it will
321also setup Portage to use a mirror for the source code):
322</p>
323
324<pre caption="Running mirrorselect">
325# <i>mirrorselect -a -s3</i>
326</pre>
327
328</body>
329</subsection> 61<subsection>
330<subsection>
331<title>Updating Portage</title> 62<title>Updating the Portage Tree</title>
332<body> 63<body>
333 64
334<p>
335To update Portage using rsync, simply run <c>emerge sync</c>:
336</p> 65<p>
66The Portage tree is usually updated with <uri
67link="http://rsync.gentoo.org">rsync</uri>, a fast incremental file transfer
68utility. Updating is fairly simple as the <c>emerge</c> command provides a
69front-end for rsync:
70</p>
337 71
338<pre caption="Updating Portage using emerge sync"> 72<pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
339# <i>emerge sync</i> 73# <i>emerge --sync</i>
340</pre> 74</pre>
341 75
342<p>
343If this fails (due to network problems, or a firewall), you can try using
344<c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will download a Portage Tree snapshot using
345<c>wget</c>. This also means that you can use proxies if you want. We discussed
346how to setup your system to use proxies during the Gentoo installation.
347</p> 76<p>
77If you are unable to rsync due to firewall restrictions you can still update
78your Portage tree by using our daily generated Portage tree snapshots. The
79<c>emerge-webrsync</c> tool automatically fetches and installs the latest
80snapshot on your system:
81</p>
348 82
349<pre caption="Updating Portage using emerge-webrsync"> 83<pre caption="Running emerge-webrsync">
350# <i>emerge-webrsync</i> 84# <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
351</pre> 85</pre>
352 86
353</body> 87</body>
354</subsection> 88</subsection>
355</section> 89</section>
356<section> 90<section>
357<title>Maintaining Software</title> 91<title>Maintaining Software</title>
358<subsection> 92<subsection>
359<title>Building or Prebuilt?</title> 93<title>Searching for Software</title>
360<body>
361
362<p>
363Gentoo provides ebuilds, the Gentoo packages if you like. But when you want to
364install such an ebuild, you can choose between <e>building</e> the package and
365using a <e>prebuilt</e> package. But what are the advantages/disadvantages of
366both approaches, and can they be used next to each other?
367</p>
368
369<p>
370As you probably have guessed, building packages takes a lot of time (especially
371if you have little resources or want to build big packages, such as <uri
372link="http://www.kde.org">KDE</uri>, <uri
373link="http://www.openoffice.org">OpenOffice.org</uri>, etc.). By building the
374package, you can use the <c>USE</c> setting to tweak the package to your system.
375Of course, you can also define high optimization options (in the <c>CFLAGS</c>
376and <c>CXXFLAGS</c> variables) to compile the package with.
377</p>
378
379<p>
380Using prebuilt packages improves the installation time (as no more compilation
381is needed), but you will lose the advantages of the <c>USE</c> setting and the
382<c>CFLAGS</c> &amp; <c>CXXFLAGS</c> variables.
383</p>
384
385<p>
386As previously stated, prebuilt packages are stored in the
387<path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> directory, while the source code of the
388packages is placed in <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. If you have finished
389installing a package you can remove the package or source code from the
390respective directory. However, you might want to keep the package/source code of
391the latest version, just in case you want to reinstall the package (so you don't
392have to redownload it).
393</p>
394
395</body> 94<body>
396</subsection> 95
96<p>
97To search through the Portage tree after software titles, you can use
98<c>emerge</c> built-in search capabilities. By default, <c>emerge search</c>
99returns package names whos title corresponds with (either fully or partially)
100the given search term.
101</p>
102
103<p>
104For instance, to search for all packages who have "pdf" in their name:
105</p>
106
107<pre caption="Searching for pdf-named packages">
108$ <i>emerge search pdf</i>
109</pre>
110
111<p>
112If you want to search through the descriptions as well you can use the
113<c>--searchdesc</c> (or <c>-S</c>) switch:
114</p>
115
116<pre caption="Searching for pdf-related packages">
117$ <i>emerge --searchdesc pdf</i>
118</pre>
119
120<p>
121When you take a look at the output, you'll notice that it gives you a lot of
122information. The fields are clearly labelled so we won't go further into their
123meanings:
124</p>
125
126<pre caption="Example emerge search output">
127* net-print/cups-pdf
128 Latest version available: 1.5.2
129 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
130 Size of downloaded files: 15 kB
131 Homepage: http://cip.physik.uni-wuerzburg.de/~vrbehr/cups-pdf/
132 Description: Provides a virtual printer for CUPS to produce PDF files.
133 License: GPL-2
134</pre>
135
136</body>
397<subsection> 137</subsection>
138<subsection>
398<title>Installing Software from Sources</title> 139<title>Installing Software</title>
399<body> 140<body>
400 141
401<p> 142<p>
402Okay, enough talking, let's cut to the chase. To install a package, you will use 143Once you've found a software title to your liking, you can easily install it
403the <c>emerge</c> command. If you don't want to use any prebuilt packages, you 144with <c>emerge</c>: just add the package name. For instance, to install
404can just use <c>emerge &lt;package-name&gt;</c> or <c>emerge
405&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package-name&gt;</c>. As an example we'll install
406<c>gnumeric</c>: 145<c>gnumeric</c>:
407</p> 146</p>
408 147
409<pre caption="Building gnumeric"> 148<pre caption="Installing gnumeric">
410# <i>emerge gnumeric</i> 149# <i>emerge gnumeric</i>
411</pre> 150</pre>
412 151
413<p> 152<p>
414This will download the source code for you and unpacks, compiles and installs 153Since many applications depend on each other, any attempt to install a certain
415the package on your system. It will also do the same for all the dependencies. 154software package might result in the installation of several dependencies as
416If you want to see what dependencies will be installed with it, use the 155well. Don't worry, Portage handles dependencies well. If you want to find out
417<c>--pretend</c> option (<c>-p</c> in short): 156what Portage <e>would</e> install when you ask it to install a certain package,
157add the <c>--pretend</c> switch. For instance:
418</p> 158</p>
419 159
420<pre caption="Pretending to build gnumeric"> 160<pre caption="Pretend to install gnumeric">
421# <i>emerge --pretend gnumeric</i> 161# <i>emerge --pretend gnumeric</i>
422</pre> 162</pre>
423 163
424<p> 164<p>
425If you want to download the source code of the package and its dependencies, 165When you ask Portage to install a package, it will download the necessary source
426but don't want to build the package, use the <c>--fetchonly</c> option 166code from the internet (if necessary) and store it by default in
427(<c>-f</c> in short): 167<path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. After this it will unpack, compile and
168install the package. If you want Portage to only download the sources without
169installing them, add the <c>--fetchonly</c> option to the <c>emerge</c> command:
428</p> 170</p>
429 171
430<pre caption="Fetching sources for gnumeric"> 172<pre caption="Download the sourcecode for gnumeric">
431# <i>emerge --fetchonly gnumeric</i> 173# <i>emerge --fetchonly gnumeric</i>
432</pre> 174</pre>
433 175
434<p>
435If you want to see where <c>emerge</c> downloads the sources from, combine the
436<c>--fetchonly</c> and <c>--pretend</c> options:
437</p>
438
439<pre caption="Showing URLs of the sources for gnumeric">
440# <i>emerge --fetchonly --pretend gnumeric</i>
441</pre>
442
443<p>
444You can also opt to install a specific version of a package.
445For instance, if you want to install a gnumeric version older than 1.2 -- for
446any reason whatsoever :) you would type:
447</p>
448
449<pre caption="Installing a specific gnumeric version">
450# <i>emerge "&lt;gnumeric-1.2"</i>
451</pre>
452
453<p>
454Other possibilities are of course "&gt;" (later version) and "=" (the exact
455version).
456</p>
457
458</body> 176</body>
459</subsection>
460<subsection> 177</subsection>
461<title>Installing Prebuilt Packages</title>
462<body>
463
464<p>
465When you want to install a prebuilt package, you should use the <c>--usepkg</c>
466option (<c>-k</c> in short). This will use the binary package available in
467<path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> <e>if</e> the package and the version of
468the application you want to install match.
469</p>
470
471<pre caption="Installing a prebuilt package for gnumeric">
472# <i>emerge --usepkg gnumeric</i>
473</pre>
474
475<p>
476If you want to use the binary package, even if the versions don't match, use
477<c>--usepkgonly</c> (<c>-K</c> in short).
478</p>
479
480<pre caption="Installing the prebuilt package for gnumeric">
481# <i>emerge --usepkgonly gnumeric</i>
482</pre>
483
484<p>
485If you don't have the prebuilt package on your system yet, you can have
486<c>emerge</c> download it from a mirror, defined in the <c>PORTAGE_BINHOST</c>
487variable declared in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>.
488</p>
489
490<p>
491To download the binary package in case this package doesn't exist on
492your system already, use <c>--getbinpkg</c> (<c>-g</c> in short):
493</p>
494
495<pre caption="Downloading and installing a prebuilt package for gnumeric">
496# <i>emerge --getbinpkg gnumeric</i>
497</pre>
498
499<p>
500This will download the package and the package-related information for you and
501install it on your system, together with the dependencies. If you want to see
502what dependencies will be installed with it, use the <c>--pretend</c> option
503(<c>-p</c> in short):
504</p>
505
506<pre caption="Pretending to download the prebuilt packages for gnumeric">
507# <i>emerge --getbinpkg --pretend gnumeric</i>
508</pre>
509
510<p>
511You can also opt to download the prebuilt package (and the package-related
512information) <e>without</e> checking the information on your local system and
513<e>without</e> using the prebuilt package already on your system (if
514applicable), use the <c>--getbinpkgonly</c> option (<c>-G</c> in short):
515</p>
516
517<pre caption="Installing a prebuilt package without using local information">
518# <i>emerge --getbinpkgonly gnumeric</i>
519</pre>
520
521<p>
522You can also opt to install a specific version of a package.
523For instance, if you want to install a gnumeric version older than 1.2 -- for
524any reason whatsoever :) you would type:
525</p>
526
527<pre caption="Installing a specific gnumeric version">
528# <i>emerge --usepkg "&lt;gnumeric-1.2"</i>
529</pre>
530
531<p>
532Other possibilities are of course "&gt;" (later version) and "=" (the exact
533version).
534</p>
535
536
537</body>
538</subsection> 178<subsection>
539<subsection> 179<title>Removing Software</title>
540<title>Working with Dependencies</title>
541<body> 180<body>
542 181
543<p>
544Portage has an extensive support for dependency handling. Although you usually
545don't need to even think about this (as dependencies are automatically handled
546by Portage) some users might want to know how you can work with <c>emerge</c>
547and dependencies.
548</p> 182<p>
549 183When you want to remove a software package from your system, use <c>emerge
184unmerge</c>. This will tell Portage to remove all files installed by that
185package from your system <e>except</e> the configuration files of that
186application if you have altered those after the installation. Leaving the
187configuration files allows you to continue working with the package if you ever
188decide to install it again.
550<p> 189</p>
551For instance, if you want Portage to pretend that none of the dependencies of a 190
552package are installed, you can use <c>--emptytree</c> (<c>-e</c> in short). This
553is useful with <c>--pretend</c> to display a complete tree of dependencies for
554any particular package. Without <c>--pretend</c>, <c>emerge</c> will (re)compile
555all listed packages.
556</p> 191<p>
557 192However, a <brite>big warning</brite> applies: Portage will <e>not</e> check if
558<pre caption="Show all dependencies of gnumeric"> 193the package you want to remove is required by another package. It will however
559# <i>emerge --emptytree --pretend gnumeric</i> 194warn you when you want to remove an important package that breaks your system
560</pre> 195if you unmerge it.
561
562<p> 196</p>
563Another argument is <c>--nodeps</c>, which will ask Portage to try install the 197
564given package without taking care of the dependencies. It is trivial that this 198<pre caption="Removing gnumeric from the system">
565can lead to failures. 199# <i>emerge unmerge gnumeric</i>
200</pre>
201
566</p> 202<p>
567 203When you remove a package from your system, the dependencies of that package
568<pre caption="Installing gnumeric without taking care of the dependencies"> 204that were installed automatically when you installed the software are left. To
569# <i>emerge --nodeps gnumeric</i> 205have Portage locate all dependencies that can now be removed, use
570</pre> 206<c>emerge</c>'s <c>depclean</c> functionality. We will talk about this later on.
571
572<p> 207</p>
573The opposite of <c>--nodeps</c> is <c>--onlydeps</c>, which will have Portage
574install all dependencies of a given package, but not the package itself:
575</p>
576
577<pre caption="Installing the dependencies of gnumeric">
578# <i>emerge --onlydeps gnumeric</i>
579</pre>
580 208
581</body> 209</body>
582</subsection> 210</subsection>
583<subsection> 211<subsection>
584<title>Updating your System</title> 212<title>Updating your System</title>
585<body> 213<body>
586 214
587<p> 215<p>
588Portage knows two special tags to denote a set of software packages: 216To keep your system in perfect shape (and not to mention install the latest
589<e>system</e> and <e>world</e>. You have already seen the former while 217security updates) you need to update your system regularly. Since Portage only
590installing Gentoo if you didn't use a <e>stage3</e> installation. To refresh 218checks the ebuilds in your Portage tree you first have to update your Portage
591things: <e>system</e> is the collection of <e>core</e> packages, necessary to 219tree. When your Portage tree is updated, you can update your system with
592have a working Gentoo system. 220<c>emerge --update world</c>:
593</p>
594
595<p> 221</p>
596The <e>world</e> tag consists of all software you have installed yourself on 222
597your system plus the <e>system</e> information. In other words, every time you 223<pre caption="Updating your system">
598emerge a package using <c>emerge &lt;package-name&gt;</c>, the 224# <i>emerge --update world</i>
599<c>&lt;package-name&gt;</c> is registered in the <e>world</e> file 225</pre>
600(<path>/var/cache/edb/world</path>). Dependencies are <e>not</e> part of the 226
601<e>world</e> file, but we will get to that later.
602</p> 227<p>
603 228Portage will then search for newer version of the applications you have
604<p> 229installed. However, it will only verify the versions for the applications you
605If you want to update the system packages, use the <c>--update</c> option 230have explicitly installed - not the dependencies. If you want to update every
606(<c>-u</c> in short): 231single package on your system, add the <c>--deep</c> argument:
607</p>
608
609<pre caption="Updating the system packages">
610# <i>emerge --update system</i>
611</pre>
612
613<p>
614An identical approach can be used for the world packages:
615</p> 232</p>
616 233
617<pre caption="Updating your entire system"> 234<pre caption="Updating your entire system">
618# <i>emerge --update world</i> 235# <i>emerge --update --deep world</i>
619</pre> 236</pre>
620 237
621<p>
622Again, if you want to see what <c>emerge</c> wants to update, use the
623<c>--pretend</c> option together with the <c>--update</c> option:
624</p> 238<p>
625 239If you have altered any of your <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>
626<pre caption="Pretending to update your entire system"> 240lately you might want to add <c>--newuse</c> as well. Portage will then verify
627# <i>emerge --pretend --update world</i> 241if the change requires the installation of new packages or recompilation of
628<comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment> 242existing ones:
629[ebuild U ] net-misc/wget-1.9-r1 [1.9]
630[ebuild UD] media-video/dvdauthor-0.5.0 [0.5.3]
631[ebuild U ] net-analyzer/ethereal-0.9.16 [0.9.14]
632</pre>
633
634<p> 243</p>
635Right next to the word "ebuild" you will notice a letter (or combination of 244
636letters) which gives you more information about the package: 245<pre caption="Performing a full update">
246# <i>emerge --update --deep --newuse world</i>
247</pre>
248
249</body>
250</subsection>
251<subsection>
252<title>Stub Packages</title>
253<body>
254
255<p>
256Some packages in the Portage tree don't have any real content but are used to
257install a collection of packages. For instance, the <c>kde</c> package will
258install a complete KDE environment on your system by pulling in various
259KDE-related packages as dependencies.
260</p>
261
262<p>
263If you ever want to remove such a package from your system, running <c>emerge
264unmerge</c> on the package won't have much effect as the dependencies remain on
265the system.
266</p>
267
268<p>
269Portage has the functionality to remove orphaned dependencies as well, but since
270the availability of software is dynamically dependent you first need to update
271your entire system fully, including the new changes you applied when changing
272USE flags. After this you can run <c>emerge depclean</c> to remove the orphaned
273dependencies. When this is done, you need to rebuild the applications that were
274dynamically linked to the now-removed software titles but don't require them
275anymore.
276</p>
277
278<p>
279All this is handled with the following three commands:
280</p>
281
282<pre caption="Removing orphaned dependencies">
283# <i>emerge --update --deep --newuse world</i>
284# <i>emerge depclean</i>
285# <i>revdep-rebuild</i>
286</pre>
287
288<p>
289<c>revdep-rebuild</c> is provided by the <c>gentoolkit</c> package; don't forget
290to emerge it first:
291</p>
292
293<pre caption="Installing the gentoolkit package">
294# <i>emerge gentoolkit</i>
295</pre>
296
297</body>
298</subsection>
299</section>
300<section>
301<title>When Portage is Complaining...</title>
302<subsection>
303<title>About SLOTs, Virtuals, Branches, Architectures and Profiles</title>
304<body>
305
306<p>
307As we stated before, Portage is extremely powerful and supports many features
308that other software management tools lack. To understand this, we explain a few
309aspects of Portage without going in too much detail.
310</p>
311
312<p>
313With Portage different versions of a single package can coexist on a system.
314While other distributions tend to name their package to those versions (like
315<c>freetype</c> and <c>freetype2</c>) Portage uses a technology called
316<e>SLOT</e>s. An ebuild declares a certain SLOT for its version. Ebuilds with
317different SLOTs can coexist on the same system. For instance, the
318<c>freetype</c> package has ebuilds with <c>SLOT="1"</c> and <c>SLOT="2"</c>.
319</p>
320
321<p>
322There are also packages that provide the same functionality but are implemented
323differently. For instance, <c>metalogd</c>, <c>sysklogd</c> and <c>syslog-ng</c>
324are all system loggers. Applications that rely on the availability of "a system
325logger" cannot depend on, for instance, <c>metalogd</c>, as the other system
326loggers are as good a choice as any. Portage allows for <e>virtuals</e>: each
327system logger provides <c>virtual/syslog</c> so that applications can depend on
328<c>virtual/syslog</c>.
329</p>
330
331<p>
332Software in the Portage tree can reside in different branches. By default your
333system only accepts packages that Gentoo deems stable. Most new software titles,
334when committed, are added to the testing branch, meaning more testing needs to
335be done before it is marked as stable. Although you will see the ebuilds for
336those software in the Portage tree, Portage will not update them before they are
337placed in the stable branch.
338</p>
339
340<p>
341Some software is only available for a few architectures. Or the software doesn't
342work on the other architectures, or it needs more testing, or the developer that
343committed the software to the Portage tree is unable to verify if the package
344works on different architectures.
345</p>
346
347<p>
348Each Gentoo installation adheres to a certain <c>profile</c> which contains,
349amongst other information, the list of packages that are required for a system
350to function normally.
351</p>
352
353</body>
354</subsection>
355<subsection id="blocked">
356<title>Blocked Packages</title>
357<body>
358
359<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (with --pretend)">
360[blocks B ] gnome-base/bonobo-activation (from pkg gnome-base/libbonobo-2.4.0)
361</pre>
362
363<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (without --pretend)">
364!!! Error: the gnome-base/bonobo-activation package conflicts with another package.
365!!! both can't be installed on the same system together.
366!!! Please use 'emerge --pretend' to determine blockers.
367</pre>
368
369<p>
370Ebuilds contain specific fields that inform Portage about it's dependencies.
371There are two possible dependencies: build dependencies, declared in
372<c>DEPEND</c> and run-time dependencies, declared in <c>RDEPEND</c>. When one of
373these dependencies explicitly marks a package or virtual as being <e>not</e>
374compatible, it triggers a blockage.
375</p>
376
377<p>
378To fix a blockage, you can choose to not install the package or unmerge the
379conflicting package first. In the given example, you can opt not to install
380<c>libbonobo</c> or to remove <c>bonobo-activation</c> first.
381</p>
382
383</body>
384</subsection>
385<subsection id="masked">
386<title>Masked Packages</title>
387<body>
388
389<pre caption="Portage warning about masked packages">
390!!! all ebuilds that could satisfy "bootsplash" have been masked.
391</pre>
392
393<pre caption="Portage warning about masked packages - reason">
394!!! possible candidates are:
395
396- gnome-base/gnome-2.8.0_pre1 (masked by: <i>~x86 keyword</i>)
397- lm-sensors/lm-sensors-2.8.7 (masked by: <i>-sparc keyword</i>)
398- sys-libs/glibc-2.3.4.20040808 (masked by: <i>-* keyword</i>)
399- dev-util/cvsd-1.0.2 (masked by: <i>missing keyword</i>)
400- media-video/ati-gatos-4.3.0 (masked by: <i>package.mask</i>)
401- sys-libs/glibc-2.3.2-r11 (masked by: <i>profile</i>)
402</pre>
403
404<p>
405When you want to install a package that isn't available for your system, you
406will receive this masking error. You should try installing a different
407application that is available for your system or wait until the package is put
408available. There is always a reason why a package is masked:
637</p> 409</p>
638 410
639<ul> 411<ul>
640 <li> 412 <li>
641 <e>B</e> (blocks) The package listed to the left is blocking the emerge of 413 <b>~arch keyword</b> means that the application is not tested sufficiently
642 the package listed to the right 414 to be put in the stable branch. Wait a few days or weeks and try again.
643 </li> 415 </li>
644 <li> 416 <li>
645 <e>N</e> (new) The package is new to your system and will be emerged for the 417 <b>-arch keyword</b> or <b>-* keyword</b> means that the application does
646 first time 418 not work on your architecture. If you believe the package does work file
419 a bug at our <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> website.
647 </li> 420 </li>
648 <li> 421 <li>
649 <e>R</e> (reemerge) The package isn't new, but needs to be reemerged 422 <b>missing keyword</b> means that the application has not been tested on
423 your architecture yet. Ask the architecture porting team to test the package
424 or test it for them and report your findings on our <uri
425 link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> website.
650 </li> 426 </li>
651 <li> 427 <li>
652 <e>F</e> (fetch) The package requires that you download the source code 428 <b>package.mask</b> means that the package has been found corrupt, unstable
653 manually (for instance due to licencing issues) 429 or worse and has been deliberately marked as do-not-use.
654 </li> 430 </li>
655 <li> 431 <li>
656 <e>U</e> (update) The package already exists on your system but will be 432 <b>profile</b> means that the package has been found not suitable for your
657 upgraded 433 profile. The application might break your system if you installed it or is
658 </li> 434 just not compatible with the profile you use.
659 <li>
660 <e>UD</e> (downgrade) The package already exists on your system but will be
661 downgraded
662 </li>
663 <li>
664 <e>U-</e> (slot warning) The package you have installed on your system
665 is listed as a package that can not coexist with a different version, but
666 your update does. The update will be installed and the older version will be
667 removed.
668 </li> 435 </li>
669</ul> 436</ul>
670 437
671<p>
672In certain cases, an update may mean a downgrade (i.e. install an older version
673instead of a newer version). If you don't want this to happen, use the
674<c>--upgradeonly</c> option (<c>-U</c> in short):
675</p>
676
677<pre caption="Upgrading your entire system">
678# <i>emerge --update --upgradeonly world</i>
679</pre>
680
681<p>
682We have mentioned that the <e>world</e> file doesn't contain dependencies. When
683you run <c>emerge --update world</c> only the packages mentioned in the
684<e>world</e> file and it's immediate dependencies are checked and, if necessary,
685upgraded. If you want <c>emerge</c> to check <e>all</e> the dependencies
686(including the dependencies of the dependencies), add the <c>--deep</c> flag:
687</p>
688
689<pre caption="Upgrading your entire system, including all dependencies">
690# <i>emerge --update --deep world</i>
691</pre>
692
693<p>
694Of course, we are talking here about <e>system</e> and <e>world</e>, but you can
695perform the same actions for individual software packages.
696</p>
697
698</body> 438</body>
699</subsection>
700<subsection> 439</subsection>
701<title>Removing Software</title> 440<subsection id="missingdependencies">
702<body> 441<title>Missing Dependencies</title>
703
704<p>
705If you want to remove software from your system, you can use the <c>unmerge</c>
706option (<c>-C</c> - capital C - in short):
707</p>
708
709<pre caption="Uninstalling software">
710# <i>emerge unmerge gnumeric</i>
711</pre>
712
713<p>
714If you want to test a removal (but not perform it), you can use <c>--pretend</c>
715again:
716</p>
717
718<pre caption="Pretending to uninstall software">
719# <i>emerge --pretend unmerge gnumeric</i>
720</pre>
721
722<warn>
723Portage doesn't verify if a package is a dependency for another
724installed package. It also doesn't warn you if the package is part of
725<e>system</e>, i.e. a core application necessary for the correct functioning of
726your system!
727</warn>
728
729<p>
730Once the unmerge begins you will see a long list of filenames belonging to the
731package. Some of these filenames will have a flag displayed to the
732left of the filename. The flags <c>!mtime</c>, <c>!empty</c>, and <c>cfgpro</c>
733specify reasons why certain files are not being removed while the package is.
734Files listed without any of these three flags are removed from the
735filesystem successfully. The three flags specify the following reasons:
736</p>
737
738<ul>
739 <li>
740 <c>!mtime</c> : The listed file has been changed since it was installed,
741 probably by you or some tool
742 </li>
743 <li>
744 <c>!empty</c> : The listed directory is not empty
745 </li>
746 <li>
747 <c>cfgpro</c> : This file is located inside a protected directory and will
748 not be touched for safety
749 </li>
750</ul>
751
752</body> 442<body>
753</subsection> 443
754</section> 444<pre caption="Portage warning about missing dependency">
755<section> 445emerge: there are no ebuilds to satisfy "&gt;=sys-devel/gcc-4.2-r4".
756<title>Software Availability</title> 446
447!!! Problem with ebuild sys-devel/gcc-3.4.2-r2
448!!! Possibly a DEPEND/*DEPEND problem.
449</pre>
450
451<p>
452The application you are trying to install depends on another package that is not
453available for your system. Please check <uri
454link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> if the issue is known and if not,
455please report it. Unless you are mixing branches this should not occur and is
456therefore a bug.
457</p>
458
459</body>
757<subsection> 460</subsection>
758<title>ARCH or not?</title> 461<subsection id="ambiguousebuild">
759<body> 462<title>Ambiguous Ebuild Name</title>
760
761<p>
762Gentoo places its packages in two possible stadia called <e>ARCH</e> and
763<e>~ARCH</e>. Don't take this literally: the stadia depend on the architecture
764you are using. In other words, for x86-based systems you have <e>x86</e> and
765<e>~x86</e>, for ppc-based systems you have <e>ppc</e> and <e>~ppc</e> etc.
766</p>
767
768<p>
769The <e>~ARCH</e> stadium means that the package works for the developer in
770charge of the package, but that the package hasn't been tested thoroughly enough
771by the community to be placed in <e>ARCH</e>. <e>~ARCH</e> packages usually go
772to <e>ARCH</e> after being bugfree for a sufficient amount of time.
773</p>
774
775<p>
776Your system will use <e>ARCH</e> packages per default. If you want to live on
777the edge, don't mind having a broken package once in a while, know how to deal
778with a broken system and you like submitting bugreports to <uri
779link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugs.gentoo.org</uri>, then you can opt to use
780<e>~ARCH</e> packages. To "move" your system to a <e>~ARCH</e>-using system,
781edit the <c>ACCEPT_KEYWORDS</c> variable in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so that
782it reads <e>~ARCH</e> (again: for x86-based systems: <e>~x86</e>, etc.).
783</p>
784
785<p>
786Note though that it is far from trivial (if even impossible) to go back to
787<e>ARCH</e> from <e>~ARCH</e>.
788</p>
789
790<p>
791If you want to update your system now, you will notice that <e>a lot</e> of
792packages will be updated!
793</p>
794
795</body> 463<body>
796</subsection> 464
465<pre caption="Portage warning about ambiguous ebuild names">
466!!! The short ebuild name "aterm" is ambiguous. Please specify
467!!! one of the following fully-qualified ebuild names instead:
468
469 dev-libs/aterm
470 x11-terms/aterm
471</pre>
472
473<p>
474The application you want to install has a name that corresponds with more than
475one package. You need to supply the category name as well. Portage will inform
476you of possible matches to choose from.
477</p>
478
479</body>
797<subsection> 480</subsection>
798<title>Masked Packages</title> 481<subsection id="circulardependencies">
799<body> 482<title>Circular Dependencies</title>
800
801<p>
802When you want to install a package, you might come across the following message:
803</p>
804
805<pre caption="Message about masked packages">
806Calculating dependencies
807!!! <comment>all ebuilds that could satisfy </comment>&lt;your package&gt;<comment> have been masked.</comment>
808</pre>
809
810<p>
811A package can be masked due to two reasons:
812</p>
813
814<ol>
815 <li>The package is in <e>~ARCH</e> while you use <e>ARCH</e></li>
816 <li>The package is hard-masked explicitly</li>
817</ol>
818
819<p>
820If the package is masked because of the first reason, and you <e>really</e> want
821to install it (knowing that there <e>is</e> a reason why it isn't available in
822<e>ARCH</e>), you can temporarily accept <e>~ARCH</e> packages:
823</p>
824
825<pre caption="Temporarily accepting ~ARCH packages">
826# <i>ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~x86" emerge gnumeric</i>
827</pre>
828
829<p>
830A package is hardmasked if it is listed in
831<path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path>. If you read this file, you
832will also read the reason why the package is hardmasked (it is usually added as
833a comment). If you want to install the package nevertheless (despite all the
834possible warnings we could ever throw at your head about "breaking your system",
835"breaks other packages", or "badly needs testing"), create the
836<path>/etc/portage/package.unmask</path> file and list the package in it (use
837the same format as is used in <path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path>).
838</p>
839
840<p>
841Do <e>not</e> alter the <path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path> file as
842all changes are undone the next time you update your Portage tree. If you want
843to hardmask a package create <path>/etc/portage/package.mask</path> and list the
844package in it (use the same format as mentioned above).
845</p>
846
847<!--
848<p>
849Another trick to circumvent the "masked package" problem is to install the
850package using the full path. This will ignore both the <c>ACCEPT_KEYWORD</c>
851settings and the <path>package.mask</path> listing.
852</p>
853
854<pre caption="Installing a package without checking for stadium / masking">
855# <i>emerge /usr/portage/app-office/gnumeric/gnumeric-1.2.0.ebuild</i>
856</pre>
857-->
858
859</body> 483<body>
860</subsection> 484
485<pre caption="Portage warning about circular dependencies">
486!!! Error: circular dependencies:
487
488ebuild / net-print/cups-1.1.15-r2 depends on ebuild / app-text/ghostscript-7.05.3-r1
489ebuild / app-text/ghostscript-7.05.3-r1 depends on ebuild / net-print/cups-1.1.15-r2
490</pre>
491
492<p>
493Two (or more) packages you want to install depend on each other and can
494therefore not be installed. This is most likely a bug in the Portage tree.
495Please resync after a while and try again. You can also check <uri
496link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> if the issue is known and if not,
497report it.
498</p>
499
500</body>
861<subsection> 501</subsection>
862<title>Blocked Packages</title> 502<subsection id="fetchfailed">
503<title>Fetch failed</title>
504<body>
505
506<pre caption="Portage warning about fetch failed">
507!!! Fetch failed for sys-libs/ncurses-5.4-r5, continuing...
508<comment>(...)</comment>
509!!! Some fetch errors were encountered. Please see above for details.
510</pre>
511
512<p>
513Portage was unable to download the sources for the given application and will
514try to continue installing the other applications (if applicable). This failure
515can be due to a mirror that has not synchronised correctly or because the ebuild
516points to an incorrect location. The server where the sources reside can also be
517down for some reason.
518</p>
519
520<p>
521Retry after one hour to see if the issue still persists.
522</p>
523
863<body> 524</body>
525</subsection>
526<subsection id="profileprotect">
527<title>System Profile Protection</title>
528<body>
864 529
865<p> 530<pre caption="Portage warning about profile-protected package">
866You have a situation when you receive the following error on your screen: 531!!! Trying to unmerge package(s) in system profile. 'sys-apps/portage'
532!!! This could be damaging to your system.
533</pre>
534
867</p> 535<p>
868 536You have asked to remove a package that is part of your system's core packages.
869<pre caption="Blocking package"> 537It is listed in your profile as required and should therefore not be removed
870[blocks B ] gnome-base/bonobo-activation (from pkg gnome-base/libbonobo-2.4.0) 538from the system.
871</pre>
872
873<p> 539</p>
874In the above example, the package <c>bonobo-activation</c> is blocking the
875emerge of <c>libbonobo</c>. To resolve this issue, remove the
876<c>bonobo-activation</c> package and continue:
877</p>
878
879<pre caption="Resolving a blocking situation">
880# <i>emerge unmerge bonobo-activation</i>
881</pre>
882 540
883</body> 541</body>
884</subsection> 542</subsection>
885</section> 543</section>
886</sections> 544</sections>

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