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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.33 2004/08/23 15:33:29 neysx Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.40 2004/10/21 16:34:46 swift Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10<section> 10<section>
11<title>Obtaining Package Information</title> 11<title>Welcome to Portage</title>
12<subsection>
13<title>The Lord of All Tools: emerge</title>
14<body> 12<body>
15 13
16<p>
17The main Portage tool that most users will use is <c>emerge</c>. We have already
18used it during the Gentoo installation and in the previous chapter, but we just
19briefly explained how to use it. This chapter will elaborate on <c>emerge</c>
20and teach you how to use <c>emerge</c> to fix all your software-related needs.
21</p> 14<p>
22 15Portage is probably Gentoo's most notable innovation in software management.
16With its high flexibility and enormous amount of features it is frequently seen
17as the best software management tool available for Linux.
23<p> 18</p>
24<c>emerge</c> is the command used to install, remove, query and maintain 19
25software packages. It is a front-end for <c>ebuild</c>; people interested in
26becoming Gentoo professionals will learn how to use <c>ebuild</c> later on. For
27now, we will focus on <c>emerge</c> as it has functionality that <c>ebuild</c>
28lacks (such as resolving dependencies, searching the Portage tree, etc.).
29</p> 20<p>
30 21Portage is completely written in <uri link="http://www.python.org">Python</uri>
22and <uri link="http://www.gnu.org/software/bash">Bash</uri> and therefore fully
23visible to the users as both are scripting languages.
31<p> 24</p>
32Since <c>emerge</c> is the most important tool for Gentoo users, it has an 25
33extensive manpage you can read by issuing <c>man emerge</c>. You can also view
34the in-command help by running <c>emerge --help</c>.
35</p> 26<p>
27Most users will work with Portage through the <c>emerge</c> tool. This chapter
28is not meant to duplicate the information available from the emerge man page.
29For a complete rundown of emerge's options, please consult the man page:
30</p>
36 31
37<pre caption="Retrieving help for emerge"> 32<pre caption="Reading the emerge man page">
38# <i>man emerge</i> 33$ <i>man emerge</i>
39# <i>emerge --help</i>
40</pre> 34</pre>
41 35
42</body>
43</subsection>
44<subsection>
45<title>The Portage Tree</title>
46<body> 36</body>
47
48<p>
49Before we continue describing <c>emerge</c>, let us first take a look at the
50Portage Tree. Go to <path>/usr/portage</path> and do a listing of the available
51directories. We use <c>ls --classify</c> to list the contents of a
52directory as it will show directories with a trailing "/".
53</p>
54
55<pre caption="Viewing the Portage Tree">
56# <i>cd /usr/portage; ls --classify</i>
57app-admin/ dev-ml/ gnome-libs/ net-print/
58app-arch/ dev-perl/ gnome-office/ net-wireless/
59app-benchmarks/ dev-php/ header.txt net-www/
60app-cdr/ dev-python/ incoming/ net-zope/
61app-crypt/ dev-ruby/ jython/ packages/
62app-dicts/ dev-tcltk/ kde-apps/ profiles/
63app-doc/ dev-tex/ kde-base/ releases/
64app-editors/ dev-util/ kde-i18n/ scripts/
65app-emacs/ distfiles/ kde-libs/ sec-policy/
66app-emulation/ eclass/ licenses/ skel.ChangeLog
67app-games/ experimental/ media-fonts/ skel.ebuild
68app-gnustep/ files/ media-gfx/ skel.metadata.xml
69app-i18n/ fresco-base/ media-libs/ snapshots/
70app-misc/ games-action/ media-plugins/ sys-apps/
71app-office/ games-arcade/ media-radio/ sys-build/
72app-pda/ games-board/ media-sound/ sys-cluster/
73app-portage/ games-emulation/ media-tv/ sys-devel/
74app-sci/ games-engines/ media-video/ sys-fs/
75app-shells/ games-fps/ metadata/ sys-kernel/
76app-text/ games-kids/ net-analyzer/ sys-kmods/
77app-vim/ games-misc/ net-apache/ sys-libs/
78app-xemacs/ games-mud/ net-dialup/ unix2tcp/
79berlin-base/ games-puzzle/ net-dns/ x11-base/
80dev-ada/ games-roguelike/ net-firewall/ x11-libs/
81dev-cpp/ games-rpg/ net-fs/ x11-misc/
82dev-db/ games-server/ net-ftp/ x11-plugins/
83dev-dotnet/ games-simulation/ net-im/ x11-terms/
84dev-embedded/ games-sports/ net-irc/ x11-themes/
85dev-games/ games-strategy/ net-libs/ x11-wm/
86dev-haskell/ games-util/ net-mail/ xfce-base/
87dev-java/ glep/ net-misc/ xfce-extra/
88dev-lang/ gnome-apps/ net-nds/
89dev-libs/ gnome-base/ net-news/
90dev-lisp/ gnome-extra/ net-p2p/
91</pre>
92
93<p>
94As you can see, the Portage tree has several subdirectories. Most of them are
95the <e>categories</e> in which the Gentoo packages reside. Take a look at, for
96instance, <path>app-office</path>:
97</p>
98
99<pre caption="Viewing a category">
100# <i>cd app-office; ls --classify</i>
101abiword/ gnotime/ kmymoney2/ ooodi/ plan/ timestamp.x
102dia/ gnucash/ koffice/ oooqs/ qhacc/
103dia2code/ gnumeric/ lxbank/ openoffice/ sc/
104facturalux/ ical/ lyx/ openoffice-bin/ scribus/
105gaby/ kbudget/ mdbtools/ openoffice-ximian/ siag/
106gnofin/ khacc/ mrproject/ phprojekt/ texmacs/
107</pre>
108
109<p>
110Inside a category you will find the packages belonging to that category, with a
111separate directory for each package. Let us take a look at the <c>openoffice</c>
112package:
113</p>
114
115<pre caption="Viewing a package">
116# <i>cd openoffice; ls --classify</i>
117ChangeLog files/ openoffice-1.0.3-r1.ebuild openoffice-1.1.0-r2.ebuild
118Manifest metadata.xml openoffice-1.1.0-r1.ebuild openoffice-1.1.0.ebuild
119</pre>
120
121<p>
122In the example directory, four ebuilds are stored. An <e>ebuild</e> is a script
123which contains all the necessary information about a specific version of a
124package. The naming for the ebuilds is almost identical; they only differ in
125the version name.
126You are free to view the contents of such an ebuild: they are plain scripts. We
127will not discuss it right now as it isn't important to know if you plan on just
128using Gentoo.
129</p>
130
131<p>
132The other files are the <path>ChangeLog</path> (which contains a listing of all
133the changes done to the ebuilds), <path>Manifest</path> (which contains the
134checksums and filesizes of all the files in the directory) and
135<path>metadata.xml</path> (which contains more information about the package,
136such as the responsible development group -- called <e>herd</e> -- and a more
137extensive description).
138</p>
139
140<p>
141Inside the <path>files</path> directory, you will find extra files, needed by
142Portage: digests (names, sizes and checksums of the files needed by a single
143version of the package), patches, example configuration files, etc.
144</p>
145
146<pre caption="Viewing the extra files">
147# <i>cd files; ls --classify</i>
1481.0.3/ digest-openoffice-1.0.3-r1 digest-openoffice-1.1.0-r1
1491.1.0/ digest-openoffice-1.1.0 digest-openoffice-1.1.0-r2
150# <i>cd 1.1.0; ls --classify</i>
151fixed-gcc.patch ooffice-wrapper-1.3
152newstlportfix.patch openoffice-1.1.0-linux-2.6-fix.patch
153no-mozab.patch openoffice-1.1.0-sparc64-fix.patch
154nptl.patch
155</pre>
156
157<p>
158If you go back to the root of the Portage tree (<path>/usr/portage</path>) you
159will notice that there are other, non-category directories, too. We will discuss
160those later in this chapter.
161</p>
162
163</body>
164</subsection>
165<subsection>
166<title>Search for a Package</title>
167<body>
168
169<p>
170If you are new to Linux or Gentoo, you might not know what tool you need for
171what job. To facilitate searching, <c>emerge</c> provides you with a way to
172search through the available packages on your system. There are two ways you can
173search through packages: by <e>name</e>, or by <e>name</e> and
174<e>description</e>.
175</p>
176
177<p>
178To search through the Portage tree by name, use <c>emerge search</c>. For
179instance, to find out more about <c>mozilla</c>:
180</p>
181
182<pre caption="Showing information about mozilla">
183# <i>emerge search mozilla</i>
184Searching...
185[ Results for search key : mozilla ]
186[ Applications found : 5 ]
187<comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
188* net-www/mozilla
189 Latest version available: 1.5-r1
190 Latest version installed: 1.4-r3
191 Size of downloaded files: 29,153 kB
192 Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org
193 Description: The Mozilla Web Browser
194
195* net-www/mozilla-firebird
196 Latest version available: 0.7
197 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
198 Size of downloaded files: 37,850 kB
199 Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org/projects/firebird/
200 Description: The Mozilla Firebird Web Browser
201<comment>(...)</comment>
202</pre>
203
204<p>
205If you want to include a search through the descriptions too, use the
206<c>--searchdesc</c> argument:
207</p>
208
209<pre caption="Search through the descriptions too">
210# <i>emerge --searchdesc mozilla</i>
211Searching...
212[ Results for search key : mozilla ]
213[ Applications found : 10 ]
214<comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
215* dev-libs/nss-3.8
216 Latest version available: 3.8
217 Latest version installed: 3.8
218 Size of downloaded files: 2,782 kB
219 Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org/projects/security/pki/nss/
220 Description: Mozilla's Netscape Security Services Library that implements PKI support
221</pre>
222
223<p>
224As you can see, the output of <c>emerge</c> informs you about the category and
225name of the package, the available version, the currently installed version,
226the size of the downloaded files, the homepage and the small description.
227</p>
228
229<p>
230You see something new? Yes, <e>downloaded files</e>. When you tell Portage to
231install a package, it of course needs to have the necessary sources (or
232precompiled packages) available. It therefore checks the contents of
233<path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> to see if the necessary files are already
234available. If not, it downloads the necessary files and places them in that
235directory.
236</p>
237
238</body>
239</subsection>
240<subsection>
241<title>Viewing the ChangeLog</title>
242<body>
243
244<p>
245While browsing through the Portage Tree, you saw that there was a ChangeLog for
246each package. You can view the ChangeLog entries between the available version
247and the installed version with <c>emerge</c> too. Use the
248<c>--pretend --changelog</c> (<c>-pl</c> in short) options. As an example we
249will view the ChangeLog entries for <c>gnumeric</c>:
250</p>
251
252<pre caption="Viewing the ChangeLog entries for gnumeric">
253# <i>emerge --pretend --changelog gnumeric</i>
254<comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
255*gnumeric-1.2.2
256
257 27 Nov 2003; foser &lt;foser@gentoo.org&gt; gnumeric-1.2.2.ebuild :
258 New release, requested in #34492
259 updated deps
260
261 12 Nov 2003; Jason Wever &lt;weeve@gentoo.org&gt; gnumeric-1.2.0.ebuild:
262 Marked stable on sparc, fixes bug #32405.
263
264 14 Oct 2003; Jason Wever &lt;weeve@gentoo.org&gt; gnumeric-1.0.8.ebuild:
265 Added ~sparc keyword. Fixes bug #31150.
266</pre>
267
268</body>
269</subsection>
270</section> 37</section>
271<section> 38<section>
272<title>Updating Portage</title> 39<title>The Portage Tree</title>
273<subsection>
274<title>Introduction</title>
275<body>
276
277<p>
278Searching through Portage is nice, but if you don't update your Portage Tree
279regularly, you will be stuck with the packages and versions available on your
280system. This means that your system will get outdated pretty soon and that
281you will be missing bugfixes and remedies for possible security problems.
282</p>
283
284<p>
285There are several ways to update your Portage Tree. The most popular method is
286by using one of our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">rsync mirrors</uri>.
287Another one is by using a Portage snapshot (in case a firewall or unavailability
288of a network prohibits the use of the rsync server).
289</p>
290
291</body>
292</subsection> 40<subsection>
41<title>Ebuilds</title>
42<body>
43
44<p>
45When we talk about packages, we often mean software titles that are available to
46the Gentoo users through the Portage tree. The Portage tree is a collection of
47<e>ebuilds</e>, files that contain all information Portage needs to maintain
48software (install, search, query, ...). These ebuilds reside in
49<path>/usr/portage</path> by default.
50</p>
51
52<p>
53Whenever you ask Portage to perform some action regarding software titles, it
54will use the ebuilds on your system as a base. It is therefore important that
55you regularly update the ebuilds on your system so Portage knows about new
56software, security updates, etc.
57</p>
58
59</body>
293<subsection> 60</subsection>
294<title>Selecting a Mirror for rsync</title>
295<body>
296
297<p>
298It is adviseable to first select a fast <uri
299link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror</uri> close to you. You can do this manually
300(by setting the <c>SYNC</c> variable in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>) or use
301<c>mirrorselect</c> to do this for you automatically. As the <c>SYNC</c>
302variable will be discussed later on, we will focus on using <c>mirrorselect</c>.
303First install <c>mirrorselect</c> by emerging it:
304</p>
305
306<pre caption="Installing mirrorselect">
307# <i>emerge --usepkg mirrorselect</i>
308</pre>
309
310<p>
311Now run <c>mirrorselect</c> to automatically select mirrors for you (it will
312also setup Portage to use a mirror for the source code):
313</p>
314
315<pre caption="Running mirrorselect">
316# <i>mirrorselect -a -s3</i>
317</pre>
318
319</body>
320</subsection> 61<subsection>
321<subsection>
322<title>Updating Portage</title> 62<title>Updating the Portage Tree</title>
323<body> 63<body>
324 64
325<p>
326To update Portage using rsync, simply run <c>emerge sync</c>:
327</p> 65<p>
66The Portage tree is usually updated with <uri
67link="http://rsync.gentoo.org">rsync</uri>, a fast incremental file transfer
68utility. Updating is fairly simple as the <c>emerge</c> command provides a
69front-end for rsync:
70</p>
328 71
329<pre caption="Updating Portage using emerge sync"> 72<pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
330# <i>emerge sync</i> 73# <i>emerge --sync</i>
331</pre> 74</pre>
332 75
333<p>
334If this fails (due to network problems, or a firewall), you can try using
335<c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will download a Portage Tree snapshot using
336<c>wget</c>. This also means that you can use proxies if you want. We discussed
337how to setup your system to use proxies during the Gentoo installation.
338</p> 76<p>
77If you are unable to rsync due to firewall restrictions you can still update
78your Portage tree by using our daily generated Portage tree snapshots. The
79<c>emerge-webrsync</c> tool automatically fetches and installs the latest
80snapshot on your system:
81</p>
339 82
340<pre caption="Updating Portage using emerge-webrsync"> 83<pre caption="Running emerge-webrsync">
341# <i>emerge-webrsync</i> 84# <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
342</pre> 85</pre>
343 86
344</body> 87</body>
345</subsection> 88</subsection>
346</section> 89</section>
347<section> 90<section>
348<title>Maintaining Software</title> 91<title>Maintaining Software</title>
349<subsection> 92<subsection>
350<title>Building or Prebuilt?</title> 93<title>Searching for Software</title>
351<body>
352
353<p>
354Gentoo provides ebuilds, the Gentoo packages if you like. But when you want to
355install such an ebuild, you can choose between <e>building</e> the package and
356using a <e>prebuilt</e> package. But what are the advantages/disadvantages of
357both approaches, and can they be used next to each other?
358</p>
359
360<p>
361As you probably have guessed, building packages takes a lot of time (especially
362if you have little resources or want to build big packages, such as <uri
363link="http://www.kde.org">KDE</uri>, <uri
364link="http://www.openoffice.org">OpenOffice.org</uri>, etc.). By building the
365package, you can use the <c>USE</c> setting to tweak the package to your system.
366Of course, you can also define high optimization options (in the <c>CFLAGS</c>
367and <c>CXXFLAGS</c> variables) to compile the package with.
368</p>
369
370<p>
371Using prebuilt packages improves the installation time (as no more compilation
372is needed), but you will lose the advantages of the <c>USE</c> setting and the
373<c>CFLAGS</c> &amp; <c>CXXFLAGS</c> variables.
374</p>
375
376<p>
377As previously stated, prebuilt packages are stored in the
378<path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> directory, while the source code of the
379packages is placed in <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. If you have finished
380installing a package you can remove the package or source code from the
381respective directory. However, you might want to keep the package/source code of
382the latest version, just in case you want to reinstall the package (so you don't
383have to redownload it).
384</p>
385
386</body> 94<body>
387</subsection> 95
96<p>
97To search through the Portage tree after software titles, you can use
98<c>emerge</c> built-in search capabilities. By default, <c>emerge search</c>
99returns package names whos title corresponds with (either fully or partially)
100the given search term.
101</p>
102
103<p>
104For instance, to search for all packages who have "pdf" in their name:
105</p>
106
107<pre caption="Searching for pdf-named packages">
108$ <i>emerge search pdf</i>
109</pre>
110
111<p>
112If you want to search through the descriptions as well you can use the
113<c>--searchdesc</c> (or <c>-S</c>) switch:
114</p>
115
116<pre caption="Searching for pdf-related packages">
117$ <i>emerge --searchdesc pdf</i>
118</pre>
119
120<p>
121When you take a look at the output, you'll notice that it gives you a lot of
122information. The fields are clearly labelled so we won't go further into their
123meanings:
124</p>
125
126<pre caption="Example emerge search output">
127* net-print/cups-pdf
128 Latest version available: 1.5.2
129 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
130 Size of downloaded files: 15 kB
131 Homepage: http://cip.physik.uni-wuerzburg.de/~vrbehr/cups-pdf/
132 Description: Provides a virtual printer for CUPS to produce PDF files.
133 License: GPL-2
134</pre>
135
136</body>
388<subsection> 137</subsection>
138<subsection>
389<title>Installing Software from Sources</title> 139<title>Installing Software</title>
390<body> 140<body>
391 141
392<p> 142<p>
393Okay, enough talking, let's cut to the chase. To install a package, you will use 143Once you've found a software title to your liking, you can easily install it
394the <c>emerge</c> command. If you don't want to use any prebuilt packages, you 144with <c>emerge</c>: just add the package name. For instance, to install
395can just use <c>emerge &lt;package-name&gt;</c> or <c>emerge
396&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package-name&gt;</c>. As an example we'll install
397<c>gnumeric</c>: 145<c>gnumeric</c>:
398</p> 146</p>
399 147
400<pre caption="Building gnumeric"> 148<pre caption="Installing gnumeric">
401# <i>emerge gnumeric</i> 149# <i>emerge gnumeric</i>
402</pre> 150</pre>
403 151
404<p> 152<p>
405This will download the source code for you and unpacks, compiles and installs 153Since many applications depend on each other, any attempt to install a certain
406the package on your system. It will also do the same for all the dependencies. 154software package might result in the installation of several dependencies as
407If you want to see what dependencies will be installed with it, use the 155well. Don't worry, Portage handles dependencies well. If you want to find out
408<c>--pretend</c> option (<c>-p</c> in short): 156what Portage <e>would</e> install when you ask it to install a certain package,
157add the <c>--pretend</c> switch. For instance:
409</p> 158</p>
410 159
411<pre caption="Pretending to build gnumeric"> 160<pre caption="Pretend to install gnumeric">
412# <i>emerge --pretend gnumeric</i> 161# <i>emerge --pretend gnumeric</i>
413</pre> 162</pre>
414 163
415<p> 164<p>
416If you want to download the source code of the package and its dependencies, 165When you ask Portage to install a package, it will download the necessary source
417but don't want to build the package, use the <c>--fetchonly</c> option 166code from the internet (if necessary) and store it by default in
418(<c>-f</c> in short): 167<path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. After this it will unpack, compile and
168install the package. If you want Portage to only download the sources without
169installing them, add the <c>--fetchonly</c> option to the <c>emerge</c> command:
419</p> 170</p>
420 171
421<pre caption="Fetching sources for gnumeric"> 172<pre caption="Download the sourcecode for gnumeric">
422# <i>emerge --fetchonly gnumeric</i> 173# <i>emerge --fetchonly gnumeric</i>
423</pre> 174</pre>
424 175
425<p>
426If you want to see where <c>emerge</c> downloads the sources from, combine the
427<c>--fetchonly</c> and <c>--pretend</c> options:
428</p>
429
430<pre caption="Showing URLs of the sources for gnumeric">
431# <i>emerge --fetchonly --pretend gnumeric</i>
432</pre>
433
434<p>
435You can also opt to install a specific version of a package.
436For instance, if you want to install a gnumeric version older than 1.2 -- for
437any reason whatsoever :) you would type:
438</p>
439
440<pre caption="Installing a specific gnumeric version">
441# <i>emerge "&lt;gnumeric-1.2"</i>
442</pre>
443
444<p>
445Other possibilities are of course "&gt;" (later version) and "=" (the exact
446version).
447</p>
448
449</body> 176</body>
450</subsection>
451<subsection> 177</subsection>
452<title>Installing Prebuilt Packages</title>
453<body>
454
455<p>
456When you want to install a prebuilt package, you should use the <c>--usepkg</c>
457option (<c>-k</c> in short). This will use the binary package available in
458<path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> <e>if</e> the package and the version of
459the application you want to install match.
460</p>
461
462<pre caption="Installing a prebuilt package for gnumeric">
463# <i>emerge --usepkg gnumeric</i>
464</pre>
465
466<p>
467If you want to use the binary package, even if the versions don't match, use
468<c>--usepkgonly</c> (<c>-K</c> in short).
469</p>
470
471<pre caption="Installing the prebuilt package for gnumeric">
472# <i>emerge --usepkgonly gnumeric</i>
473</pre>
474
475<p>
476If you don't have the prebuilt package on your system yet, you can have
477<c>emerge</c> download it from a mirror, defined in the <c>PORTAGE_BINHOST</c>
478variable declared in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>.
479</p>
480
481<note>
482Gentoo does not have any server or mirror containing such prebuilt packages.
483Portage has been extended with this feature to fullfil the community request.
484</note>
485
486<p>
487To download the binary package in case this package doesn't exist on
488your system already, use <c>--getbinpkg</c> (<c>-g</c> in short):
489</p>
490
491<pre caption="Downloading and installing a prebuilt package for gnumeric">
492# <i>emerge --getbinpkg gnumeric</i>
493</pre>
494
495<p>
496This will download the package and the package-related information for you and
497install it on your system, together with the dependencies. If you want to see
498what dependencies will be installed with it, use the <c>--pretend</c> option
499(<c>-p</c> in short):
500</p>
501
502<pre caption="Pretending to download the prebuilt packages for gnumeric">
503# <i>emerge --getbinpkg --pretend gnumeric</i>
504</pre>
505
506<p>
507You can also opt to download the prebuilt package (and the package-related
508information) <e>without</e> checking the information on your local system and
509<e>without</e> using the prebuilt package already on your system (if
510applicable), use the <c>--getbinpkgonly</c> option (<c>-G</c> in short):
511</p>
512
513<pre caption="Installing a prebuilt package without using local information">
514# <i>emerge --getbinpkgonly gnumeric</i>
515</pre>
516
517<p>
518You can also opt to install a specific version of a package.
519For instance, if you want to install a gnumeric version older than 1.2 -- for
520any reason whatsoever :) you would type:
521</p>
522
523<pre caption="Installing a specific gnumeric version">
524# <i>emerge --usepkg "&lt;gnumeric-1.2"</i>
525</pre>
526
527<p>
528Other possibilities are of course "&gt;" (later version) and "=" (the exact
529version).
530</p>
531
532
533</body>
534</subsection> 178<subsection>
535<subsection> 179<title>Removing Software</title>
536<title>Working with Dependencies</title>
537<body> 180<body>
538 181
539<p>
540Portage has an extensive support for dependency handling. Although you usually
541don't need to even think about this (as dependencies are automatically handled
542by Portage) some users might want to know how you can work with <c>emerge</c>
543and dependencies.
544</p> 182<p>
545 183When you want to remove a software package from your system, use <c>emerge
184unmerge</c>. This will tell Portage to remove all files installed by that
185package from your system <e>except</e> the configuration files of that
186application if you have altered those after the installation. Leaving the
187configuration files allows you to continue working with the package if you ever
188decide to install it again.
546<p> 189</p>
547For instance, if you want Portage to pretend that none of the dependencies of a 190
548package are installed, you can use <c>--emptytree</c> (<c>-e</c> in short). This
549is useful with <c>--pretend</c> to display a complete tree of dependencies for
550any particular package. Without <c>--pretend</c>, <c>emerge</c> will (re)compile
551all listed packages.
552</p> 191<p>
553 192However, a <brite>big warning</brite> applies: Portage will <e>not</e> check if
554<pre caption="Show all dependencies of gnumeric"> 193the package you want to remove is required by another package. It will however
555# <i>emerge --emptytree --pretend gnumeric</i> 194warn you when you want to remove an important package that breaks your system
556</pre> 195if you unmerge it.
557
558<p> 196</p>
559Another argument is <c>--nodeps</c>, which will ask Portage to try install the 197
560given package without taking care of the dependencies. It is trivial that this 198<pre caption="Removing gnumeric from the system">
561can lead to failures. 199# <i>emerge unmerge gnumeric</i>
200</pre>
201
562</p> 202<p>
563 203When you remove a package from your system, the dependencies of that package
564<pre caption="Installing gnumeric without taking care of the dependencies"> 204that were installed automatically when you installed the software are left. To
565# <i>emerge --nodeps gnumeric</i> 205have Portage locate all dependencies that can now be removed, use
566</pre> 206<c>emerge</c>'s <c>depclean</c> functionality. We will talk about this later on.
567
568<p> 207</p>
569The opposite of <c>--nodeps</c> is <c>--onlydeps</c>, which will have Portage
570install all dependencies of a given package, but not the package itself:
571</p>
572
573<pre caption="Installing the dependencies of gnumeric">
574# <i>emerge --onlydeps gnumeric</i>
575</pre>
576 208
577</body> 209</body>
578</subsection> 210</subsection>
579<subsection> 211<subsection>
580<title>Updating your System</title> 212<title>Updating your System</title>
581<body> 213<body>
582 214
583<p> 215<p>
584Portage knows two special tags to denote a set of software packages: 216To keep your system in perfect shape (and not to mention install the latest
585<e>system</e> and <e>world</e>. You have already seen the former while 217security updates) you need to update your system regularly. Since Portage only
586installing Gentoo if you didn't use a <e>stage3</e> installation. To refresh 218checks the ebuilds in your Portage tree you first have to update your Portage
587things: <e>system</e> is the collection of <e>core</e> packages, necessary to 219tree. When your Portage tree is updated, you can update your system with
588have a working Gentoo system. 220<c>emerge --update world</c>:
589</p>
590
591<p> 221</p>
592The <e>world</e> tag consists of all software you have installed yourself on 222
593your system plus the <e>system</e> information. In other words, every time you 223<pre caption="Updating your system">
594emerge a package using <c>emerge &lt;package-name&gt;</c>, the 224# <i>emerge --update world</i>
595<c>&lt;package-name&gt;</c> is registered in the <e>world</e> file 225</pre>
596(<path>/var/cache/edb/world</path>). Dependencies are <e>not</e> part of the 226
597<e>world</e> file, but we will get to that later.
598</p> 227<p>
599 228Portage will then search for newer version of the applications you have
600<p> 229installed. However, it will only verify the versions for the applications you
601If you want to update the system packages, use the <c>--update</c> option 230have explicitly installed - not the dependencies. If you want to update every
602(<c>-u</c> in short): 231single package on your system, add the <c>--deep</c> argument:
603</p>
604
605<pre caption="Updating the system packages">
606# <i>emerge --update system</i>
607</pre>
608
609<p>
610An identical approach can be used for the world packages:
611</p> 232</p>
612 233
613<pre caption="Updating your entire system"> 234<pre caption="Updating your entire system">
614# <i>emerge --update world</i> 235# <i>emerge --update --deep world</i>
615</pre> 236</pre>
616 237
617<p>
618Again, if you want to see what <c>emerge</c> wants to update, use the
619<c>--pretend</c> option together with the <c>--update</c> option:
620</p> 238<p>
621 239If you have altered any of your <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>
622<pre caption="Pretending to update your entire system"> 240lately you might want to add <c>--newuse</c> as well. Portage will then verify
623# <i>emerge --pretend --update world</i> 241if the change requires the installation of new packages or recompilation of
624<comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment> 242existing ones:
625[ebuild U ] net-misc/wget-1.9-r1 [1.9]
626[ebuild UD] media-video/dvdauthor-0.5.0 [0.5.3]
627[ebuild U ] net-analyzer/ethereal-0.9.16 [0.9.14]
628</pre>
629
630<p> 243</p>
631Right next to the word "ebuild" you will notice a letter (or combination of 244
632letters) which gives you more information about the package: 245<pre caption="Performing a full update">
246# <i>emerge --update --deep --newuse world</i>
247</pre>
248
249</body>
250</subsection>
251<subsection>
252<title>Stub Packages</title>
253<body>
254
255<p>
256Some packages in the Portage tree don't have any real content but are used to
257install a collection of packages. For instance, the <c>kde</c> package will
258install a complete KDE environment on your system by pulling in various
259KDE-related packages as dependencies.
260</p>
261
262<p>
263If you ever want to remove such a package from your system, running <c>emerge
264unmerge</c> on the package won't have much effect as the dependencies remain on
265the system.
266</p>
267
268<p>
269Portage has the functionality to remove orphaned dependencies as well, but since
270the availability of software is dynamically dependent you first need to update
271your entire system fully, including the new changes you applied when changing
272USE flags. After this you can run <c>emerge depclean</c> to remove the orphaned
273dependencies. When this is done, you need to rebuild the applications that were
274dynamically linked to the now-removed software titles but don't require them
275anymore.
276</p>
277
278<p>
279All this is handled with the following three commands:
280</p>
281
282<pre caption="Removing orphaned dependencies">
283# <i>emerge --update --deep --newuse world</i>
284# <i>emerge depclean</i>
285# <i>revdep-rebuild</i>
286</pre>
287
288<p>
289<c>revdep-rebuild</c> is provided by the <c>gentoolkit</c> package; don't forget
290to emerge it first:
291</p>
292
293<pre caption="Installing the gentoolkit package">
294# <i>emerge gentoolkit</i>
295</pre>
296
297</body>
298</subsection>
299</section>
300<section>
301<title>When Portage is Complaining...</title>
302<subsection>
303<title>About SLOTs, Virtuals, Branches, Architectures and Profiles</title>
304<body>
305
306<p>
307As we stated before, Portage is extremely powerful and supports many features
308that other software management tools lack. To understand this, we explain a few
309aspects of Portage without going in too much detail.
310</p>
311
312<p>
313With Portage different versions of a single package can coexist on a system.
314While other distributions tend to name their package to those versions (like
315<c>freetype</c> and <c>freetype2</c>) Portage uses a technology called
316<e>SLOT</e>s. An ebuild declares a certain SLOT for its version. Ebuilds with
317different SLOTs can coexist on the same system. For instance, the
318<c>freetype</c> package has ebuilds with <c>SLOT="1"</c> and <c>SLOT="2"</c>.
319</p>
320
321<p>
322There are also packages that provide the same functionality but are implemented
323differently. For instance, <c>metalogd</c>, <c>sysklogd</c> and <c>syslog-ng</c>
324are all system loggers. Applications that rely on the availability of "a system
325logger" cannot depend on, for instance, <c>metalogd</c>, as the other system
326loggers are as good a choice as any. Portage allows for <e>virtuals</e>: each
327system logger provides <c>virtual/syslog</c> so that applications can depend on
328<c>virtual/syslog</c>.
329</p>
330
331<p>
332Software in the Portage tree can reside in different branches. By default your
333system only accepts packages that Gentoo deems stable. Most new software titles,
334when committed, are added to the testing branch, meaning more testing needs to
335be done before it is marked as stable. Although you will see the ebuilds for
336those software in the Portage tree, Portage will not update them before they are
337placed in the stable branch.
338</p>
339
340<p>
341Some software is only available for a few architectures. Or the software doesn't
342work on the other architectures, or it needs more testing, or the developer that
343committed the software to the Portage tree is unable to verify if the package
344works on different architectures.
345</p>
346
347<p>
348Each Gentoo installation adheres to a certain <c>profile</c> which contains,
349amongst other information, the list of packages that are required for a system
350to function normally.
351</p>
352
353</body>
354</subsection>
355<subsection id="blocked">
356<title>Blocked Packages</title>
357<body>
358
359<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (with --pretend)">
360[blocks B ] gnome-base/bonobo-activation (from pkg gnome-base/libbonobo-2.4.0)
361</pre>
362
363<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (without --pretend)">
364!!! Error: the gnome-base/bonobo-activation package conflicts with another package.
365!!! both can't be installed on the same system together.
366!!! Please use 'emerge --pretend' to determine blockers.
367</pre>
368
369<p>
370Ebuilds contain specific fields that inform Portage about it's dependencies.
371There are two possible dependencies: build dependencies, declared in
372<c>DEPEND</c> and run-time dependencies, declared in <c>RDEPEND</c>. When one of
373these dependencies explicitly marks a package or virtual as being <e>not</e>
374compatible, it triggers a blockage.
375</p>
376
377<p>
378To fix a blockage, you can choose to not install the package or unmerge the
379conflicting package first. In the given example, you can opt not to install
380<c>libbonobo</c> or to remove <c>bonobo-activation</c> first.
381</p>
382
383</body>
384</subsection>
385<subsection id="masked">
386<title>Masked Packages</title>
387<body>
388
389<pre caption="Portage warning about masked packages">
390!!! all ebuilds that could satisfy "bootsplash" have been masked.
391</pre>
392
393<pre caption="Portage warning about masked packages - reason">
394!!! possible candidates are:
395
396- gnome-base/gnome-2.8.0_pre1 (masked by: <i>~x86 keyword</i>)
397- lm-sensors/lm-sensors-2.8.7 (masked by: <i>-sparc keyword</i>)
398- sys-libs/glibc-2.3.4.20040808 (masked by: <i>-* keyword</i>)
399- dev-util/cvsd-1.0.2 (masked by: <i>missing keyword</i>)
400- media-video/ati-gatos-4.3.0 (masked by: <i>package.mask</i>)
401- sys-libs/glibc-2.3.2-r11 (masked by: <i>profile</i>)
402</pre>
403
404<p>
405When you want to install a package that isn't available for your system, you
406will receive this masking error. You should try installing a different
407application that is available for your system or wait until the package is put
408available. There is always a reason why a package is masked:
633</p> 409</p>
634 410
635<ul> 411<ul>
636 <li> 412 <li>
637 <e>B</e> (blocks) The package listed to the left is blocking the emerge of 413 <b>~arch keyword</b> means that the application is not tested sufficiently
638 the package listed to the right 414 to be put in the stable branch. Wait a few days or weeks and try again.
639 </li> 415 </li>
640 <li> 416 <li>
641 <e>N</e> (new) The package is new to your system and will be emerged for the 417 <b>-arch keyword</b> or <b>-* keyword</b> means that the application does
642 first time 418 not work on your architecture. If you believe the package does work file
419 a bug at our <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> website.
643 </li> 420 </li>
644 <li> 421 <li>
645 <e>R</e> (replace) The package isn't new, but will be reemerged 422 <b>missing keyword</b> means that the application has not been tested on
423 your architecture yet. Ask the architecture porting team to test the package
424 or test it for them and report your findings on our <uri
425 link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> website.
646 </li> 426 </li>
647 <li> 427 <li>
648 <e>F</e> (fetch) The package requires that you download the source code 428 <b>package.mask</b> means that the package has been found corrupt, unstable
649 manually (for instance due to licencing issues) 429 or worse and has been deliberately marked as do-not-use.
650 </li> 430 </li>
651 <li> 431 <li>
652 <e>U</e> (update) The package already exists on your system but will be 432 <b>profile</b> means that the package has been found not suitable for your
653 upgraded 433 profile. The application might break your system if you installed it or is
654 </li> 434 just not compatible with the profile you use.
655 <li>
656 <e>UD</e> (downgrade) The package already exists on your system but will be
657 downgraded
658 </li> 435 </li>
659</ul> 436</ul>
660 437
661<p>
662We have mentioned that the <e>world</e> file doesn't contain dependencies. When
663you run <c>emerge --update world</c> only the packages mentioned in the
664<e>world</e> file and it's immediate dependencies are checked and, if necessary,
665upgraded. If you want <c>emerge</c> to check <e>all</e> the dependencies
666(including the dependencies of the dependencies), add the <c>--deep</c> flag:
667</p>
668
669<pre caption="Upgrading your entire system, including all dependencies">
670# <i>emerge --update --deep world</i>
671</pre>
672
673<p>
674Of course, we are talking here about <e>system</e> and <e>world</e>, but you can
675perform the same actions for individual software packages.
676</p>
677
678</body> 438</body>
679</subsection>
680<subsection> 439</subsection>
681<title>Removing Software</title> 440<subsection id="missingdependencies">
682<body> 441<title>Missing Dependencies</title>
683
684<p>
685If you want to remove software from your system, you can use the <c>unmerge</c>
686option (<c>-C</c> - capital C - in short):
687</p>
688
689<pre caption="Uninstalling software">
690# <i>emerge unmerge gnumeric</i>
691</pre>
692
693<p>
694If you want to test a removal (but not perform it), you can use <c>--pretend</c>
695again:
696</p>
697
698<pre caption="Pretending to uninstall software">
699# <i>emerge --pretend unmerge gnumeric</i>
700</pre>
701
702<warn>
703Portage doesn't verify if a package is a dependency for another
704installed package. It also doesn't warn you if the package is part of
705<e>system</e>, i.e. a core application necessary for the correct functioning of
706your system!
707</warn>
708
709<p>
710Once the unmerge begins you will see a long list of filenames belonging to the
711package. Some of these filenames will have a flag displayed to the
712left of the filename. The flags <c>!mtime</c>, <c>!empty</c>, and <c>cfgpro</c>
713specify reasons why certain files are not being removed while the package is.
714Files listed without any of these three flags are removed from the
715filesystem successfully. The three flags specify the following reasons:
716</p>
717
718<ul>
719 <li>
720 <c>!mtime</c> : The listed file has been changed since it was installed,
721 probably by you or some tool
722 </li>
723 <li>
724 <c>!empty</c> : The listed directory is not empty
725 </li>
726 <li>
727 <c>cfgpro</c> : This file is located inside a protected directory and will
728 not be touched for safety
729 </li>
730</ul>
731
732</body> 442<body>
733</subsection> 443
734</section> 444<pre caption="Portage warning about missing dependency">
735<section> 445emerge: there are no ebuilds to satisfy "&gt;=sys-devel/gcc-4.2-r4".
736<title>Working with Masked Packages</title> 446
447!!! Problem with ebuild sys-devel/gcc-3.4.2-r2
448!!! Possibly a DEPEND/*DEPEND problem.
449</pre>
450
451<p>
452The application you are trying to install depends on another package that is not
453available for your system. Please check <uri
454link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> if the issue is known and if not,
455please report it. Unless you are mixing branches this should not occur and is
456therefore a bug.
457</p>
458
459</body>
737<subsection> 460</subsection>
738<title>ARCH or not?</title> 461<subsection id="ambiguousebuild">
739<body> 462<title>Ambiguous Ebuild Name</title>
740
741<p>
742Gentoo places its packages in two possible stadia called <e>ARCH</e> and
743<e>~ARCH</e>. Don't take this literally: the stadia depend on the architecture
744you are using. In other words, for x86-based systems you have <e>x86</e> and
745<e>~x86</e>, for ppc-based systems you have <e>ppc</e> and <e>~ppc</e> etc.
746</p>
747
748<p>
749The <e>~ARCH</e> stadium means that the package works for the developer in
750charge of the package, but that the package hasn't been tested thoroughly enough
751by the community to be placed in <e>ARCH</e>. <e>~ARCH</e> packages usually go
752to <e>ARCH</e> after being bugfree for a sufficient amount of time.
753</p>
754
755<p>
756Your system will use <e>ARCH</e> packages per default. If you want to live on
757the edge, don't mind having a broken package once in a while, know how to deal
758with a broken system and you like submitting bugreports to <uri
759link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugs.gentoo.org</uri>, then you can opt to use
760<e>~ARCH</e> packages. To "move" your system to a <e>~ARCH</e>-using system,
761edit the <c>ACCEPT_KEYWORDS</c> variable in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so that
762it reads <e>~ARCH</e> (again: for x86-based systems: <e>~x86</e>, etc.).
763</p>
764
765<p>
766Note though that it is far from trivial (if even impossible) to go back to
767<e>ARCH</e> from <e>~ARCH</e>.
768</p>
769
770<p>
771If you want to update your system now, you will notice that <e>a lot</e> of
772packages will be updated!
773</p>
774
775</body> 463<body>
776</subsection> 464
465<pre caption="Portage warning about ambiguous ebuild names">
466!!! The short ebuild name "aterm" is ambiguous. Please specify
467!!! one of the following fully-qualified ebuild names instead:
468
469 dev-libs/aterm
470 x11-terms/aterm
471</pre>
472
473<p>
474The application you want to install has a name that corresponds with more than
475one package. You need to supply the category name as well. Portage will inform
476you of possible matches to choose from.
477</p>
478
479</body>
777<subsection> 480</subsection>
778<title>Masked Packages</title> 481<subsection id="circulardependencies">
779<body> 482<title>Circular Dependencies</title>
780
781<p>
782When you want to install a package, you might come across the following message:
783</p>
784
785<pre caption="Message about masked packages">
786Calculating dependencies
787!!! <comment>all ebuilds that could satisfy </comment>&lt;your package&gt;<comment> have been masked.</comment>
788</pre>
789
790<p>
791A package can be masked due to several reasons:
792</p>
793
794<ol>
795 <li>The package is in <e>~ARCH</e> while you use <e>ARCH</e></li>
796 <li>The package is hard-masked explicitly</li>
797 <li>The package isn't available for your ARCH entirely</li>
798 <li>The package is masked by your profile</li>
799</ol>
800
801<p>
802If the package is masked because of the first reason, and you <e>really</e>
803want to install it (knowing that there <e>is</e> a reason why it isn't
804available in <e>ARCH</e>), you can accept the <e>~ARCH</e> version of any
805package by adding it to your <path>/etc/portage/package.keywords</path> file:
806</p>
807
808<pre caption="Accepting the ~ARCH version of a package">
809<comment>(Create the /etc/portage directory if it doesn't exist yet)</comment>
810# <i>mkdir /etc/portage</i>
811
812# <i>echo "app-office/gnumeric ~x86" &gt;&gt; /etc/portage/package.keywords</i>
813# <i>emerge gnumeric</i>
814</pre>
815
816<p>
817A package is hardmasked if it is listed in
818<path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path>. If you read this file, you
819will also read the reason why the package is hardmasked (it is usually added as
820a comment). If you want to install the package nevertheless (despite all the
821possible warnings we could ever throw at your head about "breaking your system",
822"breaks other packages", or "badly needs testing"), create the
823<path>/etc/portage/package.unmask</path> file and list the package in it (use
824the same format as is used in <path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path>).
825</p>
826
827<pre caption="Unmasking a hard-masked application">
828<comment>(Create the /etc/portage directory if it doesn't exist yet)</comment>
829# <i>mkdir /etc/portage</i>
830
831# <i>echo "=app-office/gnumeric-1.2.12" &gt;&gt; /etc/portage/package.unmask</i>
832</pre>
833
834<p>
835Do <e>not</e> alter the <path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path> file as
836all changes are undone the next time you update your Portage tree.
837</p>
838
839<p>
840Sometimes you might want to hardmask a (collection of) package(s). This is the
841case when newer versions of an application don't support something you require
842or when these versions break something else in your environment.
843</p>
844
845<p>
846To hard-mask a package, create <path>/etc/portage/package.mask</path> and list the
847package in it (use the same format as mentioned above).
848</p>
849
850<pre caption="Hard-masking a package">
851<comment>(Create the /etc/portage directory if it doesn't exist yet)</comment>
852# <i>mkdir /etc/portage</i>
853
854# <i>echo "&gt;app-office/gnumeric-1.2.10" &gt;&gt; /etc/portage/package.mask</i>
855</pre>
856
857</body> 483<body>
858</subsection> 484
485<pre caption="Portage warning about circular dependencies">
486!!! Error: circular dependencies:
487
488ebuild / net-print/cups-1.1.15-r2 depends on ebuild / app-text/ghostscript-7.05.3-r1
489ebuild / app-text/ghostscript-7.05.3-r1 depends on ebuild / net-print/cups-1.1.15-r2
490</pre>
491
492<p>
493Two (or more) packages you want to install depend on each other and can
494therefore not be installed. This is most likely a bug in the Portage tree.
495Please resync after a while and try again. You can also check <uri
496link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> if the issue is known and if not,
497report it.
498</p>
499
500</body>
859<subsection> 501</subsection>
860<title>Blocked Packages</title> 502<subsection id="fetchfailed">
503<title>Fetch failed</title>
504<body>
505
506<pre caption="Portage warning about fetch failed">
507!!! Fetch failed for sys-libs/ncurses-5.4-r5, continuing...
508<comment>(...)</comment>
509!!! Some fetch errors were encountered. Please see above for details.
510</pre>
511
512<p>
513Portage was unable to download the sources for the given application and will
514try to continue installing the other applications (if applicable). This failure
515can be due to a mirror that has not synchronised correctly or because the ebuild
516points to an incorrect location. The server where the sources reside can also be
517down for some reason.
518</p>
519
520<p>
521Retry after one hour to see if the issue still persists.
522</p>
523
861<body> 524</body>
525</subsection>
526<subsection id="profileprotect">
527<title>System Profile Protection</title>
528<body>
862 529
863<p> 530<pre caption="Portage warning about profile-protected package">
864You have a situation when you receive the following error on your screen: 531!!! Trying to unmerge package(s) in system profile. 'sys-apps/portage'
532!!! This could be damaging to your system.
533</pre>
534
865</p> 535<p>
866 536You have asked to remove a package that is part of your system's core packages.
867<pre caption="Blocking package"> 537It is listed in your profile as required and should therefore not be removed
868[blocks B ] gnome-base/bonobo-activation (from pkg gnome-base/libbonobo-2.4.0) 538from the system.
869</pre>
870
871<p> 539</p>
872In the above example, the package <c>bonobo-activation</c> is blocking the
873emerge of <c>libbonobo</c>. To resolve this issue, remove the
874<c>bonobo-activation</c> package and continue:
875</p>
876
877<pre caption="Resolving a blocking situation">
878# <i>emerge unmerge bonobo-activation</i>
879</pre>
880 540
881</body> 541</body>
882</subsection> 542</subsection>
883</section> 543</section>
884</sections> 544</sections>

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