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4<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.4 2003/11/27 11:08:00 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.40 2004/10/21 16:34:46 swift Exp $ -->
5 8
6<sections> 9<sections>
7<section> 10<section>
8<title>Obtaining Package Information</title> 11<title>Welcome to Portage</title>
9<subsection>
10<title>The Lord of All Tools: emerge</title>
11<body> 12<body>
12 13
13<p>
14We have briefly encountered <c>emerge</c> in the previous chapter, but not to
15the extent that you are now able to work with it to its fullest potential. We
16will fix that right now ;-)
17</p> 14<p>
18 15Portage is probably Gentoo's most notable innovation in software management.
16With its high flexibility and enormous amount of features it is frequently seen
17as the best software management tool available for Linux.
19<p> 18</p>
20<c>emerge</c> is the command used to install, remove, query and maintain 19
21software packages. It is a front-end for <c>ebuild</c>; people interested in
22becoming Gentoo professionals will learn how to use <c>ebuild</c> later on. For
23now, we will focus on <c>emerge</c> as it has functionality that <c>ebuild</c>
24lacks (such as resolving dependencies, searching the Portage tree, etc.).
25</p> 20<p>
26 21Portage is completely written in <uri link="http://www.python.org">Python</uri>
22and <uri link="http://www.gnu.org/software/bash">Bash</uri> and therefore fully
23visible to the users as both are scripting languages.
27<p> 24</p>
28Since <c>emerge</c> is the most important tool for Gentoo users, it has an 25
29extensive manpage you can read by issuing <c>man emerge</c>. You can also view
30the in-command help by running <c>emerge --help</c>.
31</p> 26<p>
27Most users will work with Portage through the <c>emerge</c> tool. This chapter
28is not meant to duplicate the information available from the emerge man page.
29For a complete rundown of emerge's options, please consult the man page:
30</p>
32 31
33<pre caption="Retrieving help for emerge"> 32<pre caption="Reading the emerge man page">
34# <i>man emerge</i> 33$ <i>man emerge</i>
35# <i>emerge --help</i>
36</pre> 34</pre>
37 35
38</body>
39</subsection>
40<subsection>
41<title>The Portage Tree</title>
42<body> 36</body>
43
44<p>
45Before we continue describing <c>emerge</c>, let us first take a look at the
46Portage Tree. Go to <path>/usr/portage</path> and do a listing of the available
47directories.
48</p>
49
50<pre caption="Viewing the Portage Tree">
51# <i>cd /usr/portage; ls --classify</i>
52<comment>(The --classify will append a special character to note the filetype)</comment>
53app-admin/ dev-ml/ gnome-libs/ net-print/
54app-arch/ dev-perl/ gnome-office/ net-wireless/
55app-benchmarks/ dev-php/ header.txt net-www/
56app-cdr/ dev-python/ incoming/ net-zope/
57app-crypt/ dev-ruby/ jython/ packages/
58app-dicts/ dev-tcltk/ kde-apps/ profiles/
59app-doc/ dev-tex/ kde-base/ releases/
60app-editors/ dev-util/ kde-i18n/ scripts/
61app-emacs/ distfiles/ kde-libs/ sec-policy/
62app-emulation/ eclass/ licenses/ skel.ChangeLog
63app-games/ experimental/ media-fonts/ skel.ebuild
64app-gnustep/ files/ media-gfx/ skel.metadata.xml
65app-i18n/ fresco-base/ media-libs/ snapshots/
66app-misc/ games-action/ media-plugins/ sys-apps/
67app-office/ games-arcade/ media-radio/ sys-build/
68app-pda/ games-board/ media-sound/ sys-cluster/
69app-portage/ games-emulation/ media-tv/ sys-devel/
70app-sci/ games-engines/ media-video/ sys-fs/
71app-shells/ games-fps/ metadata/ sys-kernel/
72app-text/ games-kids/ net-analyzer/ sys-kmods/
73app-vim/ games-misc/ net-apache/ sys-libs/
74app-xemacs/ games-mud/ net-dialup/ unix2tcp/
75berlin-base/ games-puzzle/ net-dns/ x11-base/
76dev-ada/ games-roguelike/ net-firewall/ x11-libs/
77dev-cpp/ games-rpg/ net-fs/ x11-misc/
78dev-db/ games-server/ net-ftp/ x11-plugins/
79dev-dotnet/ games-simulation/ net-im/ x11-terms/
80dev-embedded/ games-sports/ net-irc/ x11-themes/
81dev-games/ games-strategy/ net-libs/ x11-wm/
82dev-haskell/ games-util/ net-mail/ xfce-base/
83dev-java/ glep/ net-misc/ xfce-extra/
84dev-lang/ gnome-apps/ net-nds/
85dev-libs/ gnome-base/ net-news/
86dev-lisp/ gnome-extra/ net-p2p/
87</pre>
88
89<p>
90As you can see, the Portage tree has several subdirectories. Most of them are
91the <e>categories</e> in which the Gentoo packages, called <e>ebuilds</e>,
92reside. Take a look at, for instance, <path>app-office</path>:
93</p>
94
95<pre caption="Viewing a category">
96# <i>cd app-office; ls --classify</i>
97abiword/ gnotime/ kmymoney2/ ooodi/ plan/ timestamp.x
98dia/ gnucash/ koffice/ oooqs/ qhacc/
99dia2code/ gnumeric/ lxbank/ openoffice/ sc/
100facturalux/ ical/ lyx/ openoffice-bin/ scribus/
101gaby/ kbudget/ mdbtools/ openoffice-ximian/ siag/
102gnofin/ khacc/ mrproject/ phprojekt/ texmacs/
103</pre>
104
105<p>
106Inside a category you will find the packages belonging to that category, with a
107seperate directory for each package. Let us take a look at the <c>openoffice</c>
108package:
109</p>
110
111<pre caption="Viewing a package">
112# <i>cd openoffice; ls --classify</i>
113ChangeLog files/ openoffice-1.0.3-r1.ebuild openoffice-1.1.0-r2.ebuild
114Manifest metadata.xml openoffice-1.1.0-r1.ebuild openoffice-1.1.0.ebuild
115</pre>
116
117<p>
118Remember that we told you that a Gentoo package is called an ebuild? Well, in
119the example directory four of such ebuilds are stored. Their naming is
120almost identical: they only differ in the version name.
121You are free to view the contents of such a package: they are plain scripts. We
122will not discuss it right now as it isn't important to know if you plan on just
123using Gentoo.
124</p>
125
126<p>
127The other files are the <path>ChangeLog</path> (which contains a listing of all
128the changes done to the ebuilds), <path>Manifest</path> (which contains the
129checksums and permissions of all the files in the directory) and
130<path>metadata.xml</path> (which contains more information about the package,
131such as the responsible development group -- called <e>herd</e> and a more
132extensive description).
133</p>
134
135<p>
136Inside the <path>files</path> directory you will find extra files, needed by
137Portage: digests (checksums and permissions of the files needed by a single
138version of the package), patches, example configuration files, etc.
139</p>
140
141<pre caption="Viewing the extra files">
142# <i>cd files; ls --classify</i>
1431.0.3/ digest-openoffice-1.0.3-r1 digest-openoffice-1.1.0-r1
1441.1.0/ digest-openoffice-1.1.0 digest-openoffice-1.1.0-r2
145# <i>cd 1.1.0; ls --classify</i>
146fixed-gcc.patch ooffice-wrapper-1.3
147newstlportfix.patch openoffice-1.1.0-linux-2.6-fix.patch
148no-mozab.patch openoffice-1.1.0-sparc64-fix.patch
149nptl.patch
150</pre>
151
152<p>
153If you go back to the root of the Portage tree (<path>/usr/portage</path>) you
154will notice that there are other, non-category directories too. We will discuss
155those later in this chapter.
156</p>
157
158</body>
159</subsection>
160<subsection>
161<title>Search for a Package</title>
162<body>
163
164<p>
165If you are new to Linux or Gentoo, you might not know what tool you need for
166what job. To facilitate searching, <c>emerge</c> provides you with a way to
167search through the available packages on your system. There are two ways you can
168search through packages: by <e>name</e>, or by <e>name</e> and
169<e>description</e>.
170</p>
171
172<p>
173To search through the Portage tree by name, use <c>emerge search</c>. For
174instance, to find out more about <c>mozilla</c>:
175</p>
176
177<pre caption="Showing information about mozilla">
178# <i>emerge search mozilla</i>
179Searching...
180[ Results for search key : mozilla ]
181[ Applications found : 5 ]
182<comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
183* net-www/mozilla
184 Latest version available: 1.5-r1
185 Latest version installed: 1.4-r3
186 Size of downloaded files: 29,153 kB
187 Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org
188 Description: The Mozilla Web Browser
189
190* net-www/mozilla-firebird
191 Latest version available: 0.7
192 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
193 Size of downloaded files: 37,850 kB
194 Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org/projects/firebird/
195 Description: The Mozilla Firebird Web Browser
196<comment>(...)</comment>
197</pre>
198
199<p>
200If you want to include a search through the descriptions too, use the
201<c>--searchdesc</c> argument:
202</p>
203
204<pre caption="Search through the descriptions too">
205# <i>emerge --searchdesc mozilla</i>
206Searching...
207[ Results for search key : mozilla ]
208[ Applications found : 10 ]
209<comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
210* dev-libs/nss-3.8
211 Latest version available: 3.8
212 Latest version installed: 3.8
213 Size of downloaded files: 2,782 kB
214 Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org/projects/security/pki/nss/
215 Description: Mozilla's Netscape Security Services Library that implements PKI support
216</pre>
217
218<p>
219As you can see, the output of <c>emerge</c> informs you about the category and
220name of the package, the available version, the currently installed version,
221the size of the downloaded files, the homepage and the small description.
222</p>
223
224<p>
225You see something new? Yes, <e>downloaded files</e>. When you tell Portage to
226install a package, it of course needs to have the necessary sources (or
227precompiled packages) available. It therefor checks the contents of
228<path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> (for sourcecode) or
229<path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> (for precompiled packages) to see if the
230necessary files are already available. If not, it downloads the necessary files
231and places them in those directories.
232</p>
233
234<note>
235Searching the Portage Tree, especially when using <c>--searchdesc</c>, is very
236time consuming. There are other, more performant tools available. We will
237describe those in the chapter on <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=7">Gentoolkit and
238Other Tools</uri>.
239</note>
240
241</body>
242</subsection>
243<subsection>
244<title>Viewing the ChangeLog</title>
245<body>
246
247<p>
248While browsing through the Portage Tree, you saw that there was a ChangeLog for
249each package. You can view this ChangeLog with <c>emerge</c> too. Use the
250<c>--pretend --changelog</c> (<c>-pl</c> in short) options. As an example we
251will view the ChangeLog entries for <c>gnumeric</c>:
252</p>
253
254<pre caption="Viewing the ChangeLog entries for gnumeric">
255# <i>emerge --pretend --changelog gnumeric</i>
256</pre>
257
258</body>
259</subsection>
260</section> 37</section>
261<section> 38<section>
262<title>Updating Portage</title> 39<title>The Portage Tree</title>
263<subsection>
264<title>Introduction</title>
265<body>
266
267<p>
268Searching through Portage is nice, but if you don't update your Portage Tree
269regularly, you will be stuck with the packages and versions available on your
270system. This means that your system will get outdated pretty soon, and that
271packages with possible security problems will remain on your system.
272</p>
273
274<p>
275There are several ways to update your Portage Tree. The most popular method is
276by using one of our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">rsync mirrors</uri>.
277Another one is by using a Portage snapshot (in case a firewall or unavailability
278of a network prohibits the use of the rsync server).
279</p>
280
281</body>
282</subsection> 40<subsection>
41<title>Ebuilds</title>
42<body>
43
44<p>
45When we talk about packages, we often mean software titles that are available to
46the Gentoo users through the Portage tree. The Portage tree is a collection of
47<e>ebuilds</e>, files that contain all information Portage needs to maintain
48software (install, search, query, ...). These ebuilds reside in
49<path>/usr/portage</path> by default.
50</p>
51
52<p>
53Whenever you ask Portage to perform some action regarding software titles, it
54will use the ebuilds on your system as a base. It is therefore important that
55you regularly update the ebuilds on your system so Portage knows about new
56software, security updates, etc.
57</p>
58
59</body>
283<subsection> 60</subsection>
284<title>Selecting a Mirror for rsync</title>
285<body>
286
287<p>
288It is adviseable to first select a fast <uri
289link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror</uri> close to you. You can do this manually
290(by setting the <c>SYNC</c> variable in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>) or use
291<c>mirrorselect</c> to do this for you automatically. As the <c>SYNC</c>
292variable will be discussed later on, we will focus on using <c>mirrorselect</c>.
293First install <c>mirrorselect</c> by emerging it:
294</p>
295
296<pre caption="Installing mirrorselect">
297# <i>emerge --usepkg mirrorselect</i>
298</pre>
299
300<p>
301Now run <c>mirrorselect</c> to automatically select mirrors for you (it will
302also setup Portage to use a mirror for the sourcecode):
303</p>
304
305<pre caption="Running mirrorselect">
306# <i>mirrorselect -a -s3</i>
307</pre>
308
309</body>
310</subsection> 61<subsection>
311<subsection>
312<title>Updating Portage</title> 62<title>Updating the Portage Tree</title>
313<body> 63<body>
314 64
315<p>
316To update Portage using rsync, simply run <c>emerge sync</c>:
317</p> 65<p>
66The Portage tree is usually updated with <uri
67link="http://rsync.gentoo.org">rsync</uri>, a fast incremental file transfer
68utility. Updating is fairly simple as the <c>emerge</c> command provides a
69front-end for rsync:
70</p>
318 71
319<pre caption="Updating Portage using emerge sync"> 72<pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
320# <i>emerge sync</i> 73# <i>emerge --sync</i>
321</pre> 74</pre>
322 75
323<p>
324If this fails (due to network problems, or a firewall), you can try using
325<c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will download a Portage Tree snapshot using
326<c>wget</c>. This also means that you can use proxies if you want. We discussed
327how to setup your system to use proxies during the Gentoo installation.
328</p> 76<p>
77If you are unable to rsync due to firewall restrictions you can still update
78your Portage tree by using our daily generated Portage tree snapshots. The
79<c>emerge-webrsync</c> tool automatically fetches and installs the latest
80snapshot on your system:
81</p>
329 82
330<pre caption="Updating Portage using emerge-webrsync"> 83<pre caption="Running emerge-webrsync">
331# <i>emerge-webrsync</i> 84# <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
332</pre> 85</pre>
333 86
334</body> 87</body>
335</subsection> 88</subsection>
336</section> 89</section>
337<section> 90<section>
338<title>Maintaining Software</title> 91<title>Maintaining Software</title>
339<subsection> 92<subsection>
340<title>Building or Prebuild?</title> 93<title>Searching for Software</title>
341<body>
342
343<p>
344Gentoo provides ebuilds, the Gentoo packages if you like. But when you want to
345install such an ebuild, you can choose between <e>building</e> the package, or
346using a <e>prebuild</e> package. But what are the advantages/disadvantages of
347both approaches, and can they be used next to each other?
348</p>
349
350<p>
351As you probably have guessed, building packages takes a lot of time (especially
352if you have little resources or want to build big packages, such as <uri
353link="http://www.kde.org">KDE</uri>, <uri
354link="http://www.openoffice.org">OpenOffice.org</uri>, etc.). By building the
355package, you can use the <c>USE</c> setting to tweak the package to your system.
356Of course, you can also define high optimization options (in the <c>CFLAGS</c>
357and <c>CXXFLAGS</c> variables) to compile the package with.
358</p>
359
360<p>
361Using prebuild packages improves the installation time (as no more compilation
362is needed), but you will lose the advantages of the <c>USE</c> setting and the
363<c>CFLAGS</c> &amp; <c>CXXFLAGS</c> variables.
364</p>
365
366<p>
367As previously stated, prebuild packages are stored in the
368<path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> directory, while the sourcecode of the
369packages are placed in <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. If you have finished
370installing a package you can remove the package or sourcecode from the
371respective directory. However, you might want to keep the package/sourcecode of
372the latest version, just in case you want to reinstall the package (so you don't
373have to redownload it).
374</p>
375
376</body> 94<body>
377</subsection> 95
96<p>
97To search through the Portage tree after software titles, you can use
98<c>emerge</c> built-in search capabilities. By default, <c>emerge search</c>
99returns package names whos title corresponds with (either fully or partially)
100the given search term.
101</p>
102
103<p>
104For instance, to search for all packages who have "pdf" in their name:
105</p>
106
107<pre caption="Searching for pdf-named packages">
108$ <i>emerge search pdf</i>
109</pre>
110
111<p>
112If you want to search through the descriptions as well you can use the
113<c>--searchdesc</c> (or <c>-S</c>) switch:
114</p>
115
116<pre caption="Searching for pdf-related packages">
117$ <i>emerge --searchdesc pdf</i>
118</pre>
119
120<p>
121When you take a look at the output, you'll notice that it gives you a lot of
122information. The fields are clearly labelled so we won't go further into their
123meanings:
124</p>
125
126<pre caption="Example emerge search output">
127* net-print/cups-pdf
128 Latest version available: 1.5.2
129 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
130 Size of downloaded files: 15 kB
131 Homepage: http://cip.physik.uni-wuerzburg.de/~vrbehr/cups-pdf/
132 Description: Provides a virtual printer for CUPS to produce PDF files.
133 License: GPL-2
134</pre>
135
136</body>
378<subsection> 137</subsection>
138<subsection>
379<title>Installing Software from Sources</title> 139<title>Installing Software</title>
380<body> 140<body>
381 141
382<p> 142<p>
383Okay, enough talking, let's cut to the chase. To install a package, you will use 143Once you've found a software title to your liking, you can easily install it
384the <c>emerge</c> command. If you don't want to use any prebuild packages, you 144with <c>emerge</c>: just add the package name. For instance, to install
385can just use <c>emerge &lt;package-name&gt;</c> or <c>emerge
386&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package-name&gt;</c>. As an example we'll install
387<c>gnumeric</c>: 145<c>gnumeric</c>:
388</p> 146</p>
389 147
390<pre caption="Building gnumeric"> 148<pre caption="Installing gnumeric">
391# <i>emerge gnumeric</i> 149# <i>emerge gnumeric</i>
392</pre> 150</pre>
393 151
394<p> 152<p>
395This will download the sourcecode for you and unpacks, compiles and installs the 153Since many applications depend on each other, any attempt to install a certain
396package on your system. It will also do the same for all the dependencies. If 154software package might result in the installation of several dependencies as
397you want to see what dependencies will be installed with it, use the 155well. Don't worry, Portage handles dependencies well. If you want to find out
398<c>--pretend</c> option (<c>-p</c> in short): 156what Portage <e>would</e> install when you ask it to install a certain package,
157add the <c>--pretend</c> switch. For instance:
399</p> 158</p>
400 159
401<pre caption="Pretending to build gnumeric"> 160<pre caption="Pretend to install gnumeric">
402# <i>emerge --pretend gnumeric</i> 161# <i>emerge --pretend gnumeric</i>
403</pre> 162</pre>
404 163
405<p> 164<p>
406If you want to download the sourcecode of the package and its dependencies, 165When you ask Portage to install a package, it will download the necessary source
407but don't want to build the package, use the <c>--fetchonly</c> option 166code from the internet (if necessary) and store it by default in
408(<c>-f</c> in short): 167<path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. After this it will unpack, compile and
168install the package. If you want Portage to only download the sources without
169installing them, add the <c>--fetchonly</c> option to the <c>emerge</c> command:
409</p> 170</p>
410 171
411<pre caption="Fetching sources for gnumeric"> 172<pre caption="Download the sourcecode for gnumeric">
412# <i>emerge --fetchonly gnumeric</i> 173# <i>emerge --fetchonly gnumeric</i>
413</pre> 174</pre>
414 175
415<p>
416If you want to see where <c>emerge</c> downloads the sources from, combine the
417<c>--fetchonly</c> and <c>--pretend</c> options:
418</p>
419
420<pre caption="Showing URLs of the sources for gnumeric">
421# <i>emerge --fetchonly --pretend gnumeric</i>
422</pre>
423
424<p>
425You can also opt to install a specific version of a package.
426For instance, if you want to install a gnumeric version older than 1.2 -- for
427any reason whatsoever :) you would type:
428</p>
429
430<pre caption="Installing a specific gnumeric version">
431# <i>emerge "&lt;gnumeric-1.2"</i>
432</pre>
433
434<p>
435Other possibilities are of course "&gt;" (later version) and "=" (the exact
436version).
437</p>
438
439</body> 176</body>
440</subsection>
441<subsection> 177</subsection>
442<title>Installing Prebuild Packages</title> 178<subsection>
179<title>Removing Software</title>
443<body> 180<body>
444 181
445<p>
446When you want to install a prebuild package, you should use the <c>--usepkg</c>
447option (<c>-k</c> in short). This will use the binary package available in
448<path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> <e>if</e> the package and the version of
449the application you want to install match.
450</p> 182<p>
183When you want to remove a software package from your system, use <c>emerge
184unmerge</c>. This will tell Portage to remove all files installed by that
185package from your system <e>except</e> the configuration files of that
186application if you have altered those after the installation. Leaving the
187configuration files allows you to continue working with the package if you ever
188decide to install it again.
189</p>
451 190
452<pre caption="Installing a prebuild package for gnumeric"> 191<p>
192However, a <brite>big warning</brite> applies: Portage will <e>not</e> check if
193the package you want to remove is required by another package. It will however
194warn you when you want to remove an important package that breaks your system
195if you unmerge it.
196</p>
197
198<pre caption="Removing gnumeric from the system">
453# <i>emerge --usepkg gnumeric</i> 199# <i>emerge unmerge gnumeric</i>
454</pre> 200</pre>
455 201
456<p>
457If you want to use the binary package, even if the versions don't match, use
458<c>--usepkgonly</c> (<c>-K</c> in short).
459</p> 202<p>
460 203When you remove a package from your system, the dependencies of that package
461<pre caption="Installing the prebuild package for gnumeric"> 204that were installed automatically when you installed the software are left. To
462# <i>emerge --usepkgonly gnumeric</i> 205have Portage locate all dependencies that can now be removed, use
463</pre> 206<c>emerge</c>'s <c>depclean</c> functionality. We will talk about this later on.
464
465<!-- TODO When handbook goes life, comment out this parts until the mirrors have
466 been updated with online GRP packages. -->
467<p> 207</p>
468If you don't have the prebuild package on your system yet, you can have
469<c>emerge</c> download it from a mirror, defined in the <c>PORTAGE_BINHOST</c>
470variable declared in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>.
471</p>
472
473<p>
474To download the binary package in case this package doesn't exist on
475your system already, use <c>--getbinpkg</c> (<c>-g</c> in short):
476</p>
477
478<pre caption="Downloading and installing a prebuild package for gnumeric">
479# <i>emerge --getbinpkg gnumeric</i>
480</pre>
481
482<p>
483This will download the package and the package-related information for you and
484install it on your system, together with the dependencies. If you want to see
485what dependencies will be installed with it, use the <c>--pretend</c> option
486(<c>-p</c> in short):
487</p>
488
489<pre caption="Pretending to download the prebuild packages for gnumeric">
490# <i>emerge --ginbinpkg --pretend gnumeric</i>
491</pre>
492
493<p>
494You can also opt to download the prebuild package (and the package-related
495information) <e>without</e> checking the information on your local system and
496<e>without</e> using the prebuild package already on your system (if
497applicable), use the <c>--getbinpkgonly</c> option (<c>-G</c> in short):
498</p>
499
500<pre caption="Installing a prebuild package without using local information">
501# <i>emerge --getbinpkgonly gnumeric</i>
502</pre>
503
504<!-- TODO Up until here -->
505
506<p>
507You can also opt to install a specific version of a package.
508For instance, if you want to install a gnumeric version older than 1.2 -- for
509any reason whatsoever :) you would type:
510</p>
511
512<pre caption="Installing a specific gnumeric version">
513# <i>emerge --usepkg "&lt;gnumeric-1.2"</i>
514</pre>
515
516<p>
517Other possibilities are of course "&gt;" (later version) and "=" (the exact
518version).
519</p>
520
521 208
522</body> 209</body>
523</subsection> 210</subsection>
524<subsection> 211<subsection>
525<title>Updating your System</title> 212<title>Updating your System</title>
526<body> 213<body>
527 214
528<p> 215<p>
529Portage knows two special tags to denote a set of software packages: 216To keep your system in perfect shape (and not to mention install the latest
530<e>system</e> and <e>world</e>. You have already seen the former while 217security updates) you need to update your system regularly. Since Portage only
531installing Gentoo if you didn't use a <e>stage3</e> installation. To refresh 218checks the ebuilds in your Portage tree you first have to update your Portage
532things: <e>system</e> is the collection of <e>core</e> packages, necessary to 219tree. When your Portage tree is updated, you can update your system with
533have a working Gentoo system. 220<c>emerge --update world</c>:
534</p>
535
536<p> 221</p>
537The <e>world</e> tag consists of all software you have installed yourself on 222
538your system plus the <e>system</e> information. In other words, every time you 223<pre caption="Updating your system">
539emerge a package using <c>emerge &lt;package-name&gt;</c>, the 224# <i>emerge --update world</i>
540<c>&lt;package-name&gt;</c> is registered in the <e>world</e> file 225</pre>
541(<path>/var/cache/edb/world</path>). Dependencies are <e>not</e> part of the 226
542<e>world</e> file, but we will get to that later.
543</p> 227<p>
544 228Portage will then search for newer version of the applications you have
545<p> 229installed. However, it will only verify the versions for the applications you
546If you want to update the system packages, use the <c>--update</c> option 230have explicitly installed - not the dependencies. If you want to update every
547(<c>-u</c> in short): 231single package on your system, add the <c>--deep</c> argument:
548</p>
549
550<pre caption="Updating the system packages">
551# <i>emerge --update system</i>
552</pre>
553
554<p>
555An identical approach can be used for the world packages:
556</p> 232</p>
557 233
558<pre caption="Updating your entire system"> 234<pre caption="Updating your entire system">
559# <i>emerge --update world</i> 235# <i>emerge --update --deep world</i>
560</pre> 236</pre>
561 237
562<p>
563Again, if you want to see what <c>emerge</c> wants to update, use the
564<c>--pretend</c> option together with the <c>--update</c> option:
565</p> 238<p>
566 239If you have altered any of your <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>
567<pre caption="Pretending to update your entire system"> 240lately you might want to add <c>--newuse</c> as well. Portage will then verify
568# <i>emerge --pretend --update world</i> 241if the change requires the installation of new packages or recompilation of
569<comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment> 242existing ones:
570[ebuild U ] net-misc/wget-1.9-r1 [1.9]
571[ebuild UD] media-video/dvdauthor-0.5.0 [0.5.3]
572[ebuild U ] net-analyzer/ethereal-0.9.16 [0.9.14]
573</pre>
574
575<p> 243</p>
576Right next to the word "ebuild" you will notice a letter (or combination of 244
577letters) which gives you more information about the package: 245<pre caption="Performing a full update">
246# <i>emerge --update --deep --newuse world</i>
247</pre>
248
249</body>
250</subsection>
251<subsection>
252<title>Stub Packages</title>
253<body>
254
255<p>
256Some packages in the Portage tree don't have any real content but are used to
257install a collection of packages. For instance, the <c>kde</c> package will
258install a complete KDE environment on your system by pulling in various
259KDE-related packages as dependencies.
260</p>
261
262<p>
263If you ever want to remove such a package from your system, running <c>emerge
264unmerge</c> on the package won't have much effect as the dependencies remain on
265the system.
266</p>
267
268<p>
269Portage has the functionality to remove orphaned dependencies as well, but since
270the availability of software is dynamically dependent you first need to update
271your entire system fully, including the new changes you applied when changing
272USE flags. After this you can run <c>emerge depclean</c> to remove the orphaned
273dependencies. When this is done, you need to rebuild the applications that were
274dynamically linked to the now-removed software titles but don't require them
275anymore.
276</p>
277
278<p>
279All this is handled with the following three commands:
280</p>
281
282<pre caption="Removing orphaned dependencies">
283# <i>emerge --update --deep --newuse world</i>
284# <i>emerge depclean</i>
285# <i>revdep-rebuild</i>
286</pre>
287
288<p>
289<c>revdep-rebuild</c> is provided by the <c>gentoolkit</c> package; don't forget
290to emerge it first:
291</p>
292
293<pre caption="Installing the gentoolkit package">
294# <i>emerge gentoolkit</i>
295</pre>
296
297</body>
298</subsection>
299</section>
300<section>
301<title>When Portage is Complaining...</title>
302<subsection>
303<title>About SLOTs, Virtuals, Branches, Architectures and Profiles</title>
304<body>
305
306<p>
307As we stated before, Portage is extremely powerful and supports many features
308that other software management tools lack. To understand this, we explain a few
309aspects of Portage without going in too much detail.
310</p>
311
312<p>
313With Portage different versions of a single package can coexist on a system.
314While other distributions tend to name their package to those versions (like
315<c>freetype</c> and <c>freetype2</c>) Portage uses a technology called
316<e>SLOT</e>s. An ebuild declares a certain SLOT for its version. Ebuilds with
317different SLOTs can coexist on the same system. For instance, the
318<c>freetype</c> package has ebuilds with <c>SLOT="1"</c> and <c>SLOT="2"</c>.
319</p>
320
321<p>
322There are also packages that provide the same functionality but are implemented
323differently. For instance, <c>metalogd</c>, <c>sysklogd</c> and <c>syslog-ng</c>
324are all system loggers. Applications that rely on the availability of "a system
325logger" cannot depend on, for instance, <c>metalogd</c>, as the other system
326loggers are as good a choice as any. Portage allows for <e>virtuals</e>: each
327system logger provides <c>virtual/syslog</c> so that applications can depend on
328<c>virtual/syslog</c>.
329</p>
330
331<p>
332Software in the Portage tree can reside in different branches. By default your
333system only accepts packages that Gentoo deems stable. Most new software titles,
334when committed, are added to the testing branch, meaning more testing needs to
335be done before it is marked as stable. Although you will see the ebuilds for
336those software in the Portage tree, Portage will not update them before they are
337placed in the stable branch.
338</p>
339
340<p>
341Some software is only available for a few architectures. Or the software doesn't
342work on the other architectures, or it needs more testing, or the developer that
343committed the software to the Portage tree is unable to verify if the package
344works on different architectures.
345</p>
346
347<p>
348Each Gentoo installation adheres to a certain <c>profile</c> which contains,
349amongst other information, the list of packages that are required for a system
350to function normally.
351</p>
352
353</body>
354</subsection>
355<subsection id="blocked">
356<title>Blocked Packages</title>
357<body>
358
359<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (with --pretend)">
360[blocks B ] gnome-base/bonobo-activation (from pkg gnome-base/libbonobo-2.4.0)
361</pre>
362
363<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (without --pretend)">
364!!! Error: the gnome-base/bonobo-activation package conflicts with another package.
365!!! both can't be installed on the same system together.
366!!! Please use 'emerge --pretend' to determine blockers.
367</pre>
368
369<p>
370Ebuilds contain specific fields that inform Portage about it's dependencies.
371There are two possible dependencies: build dependencies, declared in
372<c>DEPEND</c> and run-time dependencies, declared in <c>RDEPEND</c>. When one of
373these dependencies explicitly marks a package or virtual as being <e>not</e>
374compatible, it triggers a blockage.
375</p>
376
377<p>
378To fix a blockage, you can choose to not install the package or unmerge the
379conflicting package first. In the given example, you can opt not to install
380<c>libbonobo</c> or to remove <c>bonobo-activation</c> first.
381</p>
382
383</body>
384</subsection>
385<subsection id="masked">
386<title>Masked Packages</title>
387<body>
388
389<pre caption="Portage warning about masked packages">
390!!! all ebuilds that could satisfy "bootsplash" have been masked.
391</pre>
392
393<pre caption="Portage warning about masked packages - reason">
394!!! possible candidates are:
395
396- gnome-base/gnome-2.8.0_pre1 (masked by: <i>~x86 keyword</i>)
397- lm-sensors/lm-sensors-2.8.7 (masked by: <i>-sparc keyword</i>)
398- sys-libs/glibc-2.3.4.20040808 (masked by: <i>-* keyword</i>)
399- dev-util/cvsd-1.0.2 (masked by: <i>missing keyword</i>)
400- media-video/ati-gatos-4.3.0 (masked by: <i>package.mask</i>)
401- sys-libs/glibc-2.3.2-r11 (masked by: <i>profile</i>)
402</pre>
403
404<p>
405When you want to install a package that isn't available for your system, you
406will receive this masking error. You should try installing a different
407application that is available for your system or wait until the package is put
408available. There is always a reason why a package is masked:
578</p> 409</p>
579 410
580<ul> 411<ul>
581 <li> 412 <li>
582 <e>B</e> (blocks) The package listed to the left is blocking the emerge of 413 <b>~arch keyword</b> means that the application is not tested sufficiently
583 the package listed to the right 414 to be put in the stable branch. Wait a few days or weeks and try again.
584 </li> 415 </li>
585 <li> 416 <li>
586 <e>N</e> (new) The package is new to your system and will be emerged for the 417 <b>-arch keyword</b> or <b>-* keyword</b> means that the application does
587 first time 418 not work on your architecture. If you believe the package does work file
419 a bug at our <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> website.
588 </li> 420 </li>
589 <li> 421 <li>
590 <e>R</e> (reemerge) The package isn't new, but needs to be reemerged 422 <b>missing keyword</b> means that the application has not been tested on
423 your architecture yet. Ask the architecture porting team to test the package
424 or test it for them and report your findings on our <uri
425 link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> website.
591 </li> 426 </li>
592 <li> 427 <li>
593 <e>F</e> (fetch) The package requires that you download the sourcecode 428 <b>package.mask</b> means that the package has been found corrupt, unstable
594 manually (for instance due to licencing issues) 429 or worse and has been deliberately marked as do-not-use.
595 </li> 430 </li>
596 <li> 431 <li>
597 <e>U</e> (update) The package already exists on your system but will be 432 <b>profile</b> means that the package has been found not suitable for your
598 upgraded 433 profile. The application might break your system if you installed it or is
599 </li> 434 just not compatible with the profile you use.
600 <li>
601 <e>UD</e> (downgrade) The package already exists on your system but will be
602 downgraded
603 </li>
604 <li>
605 <e>U-</e> (slot warning) The package you have installed on your system
606 is listed as a package that can not coexist with a different version, but
607 your update does. The update will be installed and the older version will be
608 removed.
609 </li> 435 </li>
610</ul> 436</ul>
611 437
612<p>
613In certain cases, an update may mean a downgrade (i.e. install an older version
614instead of a newer version). If you don't want this to happen, use the
615<c>--upgradeonly</c> option (<c>-U</c> in short):
616</p>
617
618<pre caption="Upgrading your entire system">
619# <i>emerge --update --upgradeonly world</i>
620</pre>
621
622<p>
623Of course, we are talking here about <e>system</e> and <e>world</e>, but you can
624perform the same actions for individual software packages.
625</p>
626
627</body> 438</body>
628</subsection>
629<subsection> 439</subsection>
630<title>Removing Software</title> 440<subsection id="missingdependencies">
631<body> 441<title>Missing Dependencies</title>
632
633<p>
634If you want to remove software from your system, you can use the <c>unmerge</c>
635option (<c>-C</c> - capital C - in short):
636</p>
637
638<pre caption="Uninstalling software">
639# <i>emerge unmerge gnumeric</i>
640</pre>
641
642<p>
643If you want to test a removal (but not perform it), you can use <c>--pretend</c>
644again:
645</p>
646
647<pre caption="Pretending to uninstall software">
648# <i>emerge --pretend unmerge gnumeric</i>
649</pre>
650
651<warn>
652Portage doesn't verify if a package is a dependency for another
653installed package. It also doesn't warn you if the package is part of
654<e>system</e>, i.e. a core application necessary for the correct functioning of
655your system!
656</warn>
657
658</body> 442<body>
659</subsection> 443
660</section> 444<pre caption="Portage warning about missing dependency">
661<section> 445emerge: there are no ebuilds to satisfy "&gt;=sys-devel/gcc-4.2-r4".
662<title>Software Availability</title> 446
447!!! Problem with ebuild sys-devel/gcc-3.4.2-r2
448!!! Possibly a DEPEND/*DEPEND problem.
449</pre>
450
451<p>
452The application you are trying to install depends on another package that is not
453available for your system. Please check <uri
454link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> if the issue is known and if not,
455please report it. Unless you are mixing branches this should not occur and is
456therefore a bug.
457</p>
458
459</body>
663<subsection> 460</subsection>
664<title>ARCH or not?</title> 461<subsection id="ambiguousebuild">
665<body> 462<title>Ambiguous Ebuild Name</title>
666
667<p>
668Gentoo places its packages in two possible stadia called <e>ARCH</e> and
669<e>~ARCH</e>. Don't take this literally: the stadia depend on the architecture
670you are using. In other words, for x86-based systems you have <e>x86</e> and
671<e>~x86</e>, for ppc-based systems you have <e>ppc</e> and <e>~ppc</e> etc.
672</p>
673
674<p>
675The <e>~ARCH</e> stadium means that the package works for the developer in
676charge of the package, but that the package hasn't been tested thoroughly enough
677by the community to be placed in <e>ARCH</e>. <e>~ARCH</e> packages usually go
678to <e>ARCH</e> after being bugfree for a sufficient amount of time.
679</p>
680
681<p>
682Your system will use <e>ARCH</e> packages per default. If you want to live on
683the edge, don't mind having a broken package once in a while, and you like
684submitting bugreports to <uri
685link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugs.gentoo.org</uri>, then you can opt to use
686<e>~ARCH</e> packages. To "move" your system to a <e>~ARCH</e>-using system,
687edit the <c>ACCEPT_KEYWORDS</c> variable in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so that
688it reads <e>~ARCH</e> (again: for x86-based systems: <e>~x86</e>, etc.).
689</p>
690
691<p>
692If you want to update your system now, you will notice that <e>a lot</e> of
693packages will be updated!
694</p>
695
696</body> 463<body>
697</subsection> 464
465<pre caption="Portage warning about ambiguous ebuild names">
466!!! The short ebuild name "aterm" is ambiguous. Please specify
467!!! one of the following fully-qualified ebuild names instead:
468
469 dev-libs/aterm
470 x11-terms/aterm
471</pre>
472
473<p>
474The application you want to install has a name that corresponds with more than
475one package. You need to supply the category name as well. Portage will inform
476you of possible matches to choose from.
477</p>
478
479</body>
698<subsection> 480</subsection>
699<title>Masked Packages</title> 481<subsection id="circulardependencies">
700<body> 482<title>Circular Dependencies</title>
701
702<p>
703When you want to install a package, you might come across the following message:
704</p>
705
706<pre caption="Message about masked packages">
707Calculating dependencies
708!!! <comment>all ebuilds that could satisfy </comment>&lt;your package&gt;<comment> have been masked.</comment>
709</pre>
710
711<p>
712A package can be masked due to two reasons:
713</p>
714
715<ol>
716 <li>The package is in <e>~ARCH</e> while you use <e>ARCH</e></li>
717 <li>The package is hard-masked explicitly</li>
718</ol>
719
720<p>
721If the package is masked because of the first reason, and you <e>really</e> want
722to install it (knowing that there <e>is</e> a reason why it isn't available in
723<e>ARCH</e>), you can temporarily accept <e>~ARCH</e> packages:
724</p>
725
726<pre caption="Temporarily accepting ~ARCH packages">
727# <i>ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~x86" emerge gnumeric</i>
728</pre>
729
730<p>
731A package is hardmasked if it is listed in
732<path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path>. If you read this file, you
733will also read the reason why the package is hardmasked (it is usually added as
734a comment). If you want to install the package nevertheless (despite all the
735possible warnings we could ever throw at your head about "breaking your system",
736"breaks other packages", or "badly needs testing"), create the
737<path>/etc/portage/package.unmask</path> file and list the package in it (use
738the same format as is used in <path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path>).
739</p>
740
741<p>
742Do <e>not</e> alter the <path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path> file as
743all changes are undone the next time you update your Portage tree.
744</p>
745
746<p>
747Another trick to circumvent the "masked package" problem is to install the
748package using the full path. This will ignore both the <c>ACCEPT_KEYWORD</c>
749settings and the <path>package.mask</path> listing.
750</p>
751
752<pre caption="Installing a package without checking for stadium / masking">
753# <i>emerge /usr/portage/app-office/gnumeric/gnumeric-1.2.0.ebuild</i>
754</pre>
755
756</body> 483<body>
757</subsection> 484
485<pre caption="Portage warning about circular dependencies">
486!!! Error: circular dependencies:
487
488ebuild / net-print/cups-1.1.15-r2 depends on ebuild / app-text/ghostscript-7.05.3-r1
489ebuild / app-text/ghostscript-7.05.3-r1 depends on ebuild / net-print/cups-1.1.15-r2
490</pre>
491
492<p>
493Two (or more) packages you want to install depend on each other and can
494therefore not be installed. This is most likely a bug in the Portage tree.
495Please resync after a while and try again. You can also check <uri
496link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> if the issue is known and if not,
497report it.
498</p>
499
500</body>
758<subsection> 501</subsection>
759<title>Blocked Packages</title> 502<subsection id="fetchfailed">
503<title>Fetch failed</title>
504<body>
505
506<pre caption="Portage warning about fetch failed">
507!!! Fetch failed for sys-libs/ncurses-5.4-r5, continuing...
508<comment>(...)</comment>
509!!! Some fetch errors were encountered. Please see above for details.
510</pre>
511
512<p>
513Portage was unable to download the sources for the given application and will
514try to continue installing the other applications (if applicable). This failure
515can be due to a mirror that has not synchronised correctly or because the ebuild
516points to an incorrect location. The server where the sources reside can also be
517down for some reason.
518</p>
519
520<p>
521Retry after one hour to see if the issue still persists.
522</p>
523
760<body> 524</body>
525</subsection>
526<subsection id="profileprotect">
527<title>System Profile Protection</title>
528<body>
761 529
762<p> 530<pre caption="Portage warning about profile-protected package">
763You have a situation when you receive the following error on your screen: 531!!! Trying to unmerge package(s) in system profile. 'sys-apps/portage'
532!!! This could be damaging to your system.
533</pre>
534
764</p> 535<p>
765 536You have asked to remove a package that is part of your system's core packages.
766<pre caption="Blocking package"> 537It is listed in your profile as required and should therefore not be removed
767[blocks B ] gnome-base/bonobo-activation (from pkg gnome-base/libbonobo-2.4.0) 538from the system.
768</pre>
769
770<p> 539</p>
771In the above example, the package <c>bonobo-activation</c> is blocking the
772emerge of <c>libbonobo</c>. To resolve this issue, remove the
773<c>bonobo-activation</c> package and continue:
774</p>
775
776<pre caption="Resolving a blocking situation">
777# <i>emerge unmerge bonobo-activation</i>
778</pre>
779 540
780</body> 541</body>
781</subsection> 542</subsection>
782</section> 543</section>
783</sections> 544</sections>

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