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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.40 2004/10/21 16:34:46 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.57 2005/12/26 16:47:16 swift Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10
11<version>1.52</version>
12<date>2005-12-26</date>
13
10<section> 14<section>
11<title>Welcome to Portage</title> 15<title>Welcome to Portage</title>
12<body> 16<body>
13 17
14<p> 18<p>
62<title>Updating the Portage Tree</title> 66<title>Updating the Portage Tree</title>
63<body> 67<body>
64 68
65<p> 69<p>
66The Portage tree is usually updated with <uri 70The Portage tree is usually updated with <uri
67link="http://rsync.gentoo.org">rsync</uri>, a fast incremental file transfer 71link="http://rsync.samba.org/">rsync</uri>, a fast incremental file transfer
68utility. Updating is fairly simple as the <c>emerge</c> command provides a 72utility. Updating is fairly simple as the <c>emerge</c> command provides a
69front-end for rsync: 73front-end for rsync:
70</p> 74</p>
71 75
72<pre caption="Updating the Portage tree"> 76<pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
93<title>Searching for Software</title> 97<title>Searching for Software</title>
94<body> 98<body>
95 99
96<p> 100<p>
97To search through the Portage tree after software titles, you can use 101To search through the Portage tree after software titles, you can use
98<c>emerge</c> built-in search capabilities. By default, <c>emerge search</c> 102<c>emerge</c> built-in search capabilities. By default, <c>emerge --search</c>
99returns package names whos title corresponds with (either fully or partially) 103returns the names of packages whose title matches (either fully or partially)
100the given search term. 104the given search term.
101</p> 105</p>
102 106
103<p> 107<p>
104For instance, to search for all packages who have "pdf" in their name: 108For instance, to search for all packages who have "pdf" in their name:
105</p> 109</p>
106 110
107<pre caption="Searching for pdf-named packages"> 111<pre caption="Searching for pdf-named packages">
108$ <i>emerge search pdf</i> 112$ <i>emerge --search pdf</i>
109</pre> 113</pre>
110 114
111<p> 115<p>
112If you want to search through the descriptions as well you can use the 116If you want to search through the descriptions as well you can use the
113<c>--searchdesc</c> (or <c>-S</c>) switch: 117<c>--searchdesc</c> (or <c>-S</c>) switch:
121When you take a look at the output, you'll notice that it gives you a lot of 125When you take a look at the output, you'll notice that it gives you a lot of
122information. The fields are clearly labelled so we won't go further into their 126information. The fields are clearly labelled so we won't go further into their
123meanings: 127meanings:
124</p> 128</p>
125 129
126<pre caption="Example emerge search output"> 130<pre caption="Example 'emerge --search' output">
127* net-print/cups-pdf 131* net-print/cups-pdf
128 Latest version available: 1.5.2 132 Latest version available: 1.5.2
129 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ] 133 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
130 Size of downloaded files: 15 kB 134 Size of downloaded files: 15 kB
131 Homepage: http://cip.physik.uni-wuerzburg.de/~vrbehr/cups-pdf/ 135 Homepage: http://cip.physik.uni-wuerzburg.de/~vrbehr/cups-pdf/
174</pre> 178</pre>
175 179
176</body> 180</body>
177</subsection> 181</subsection>
178<subsection> 182<subsection>
183<title>Finding Installed Package Documentation</title>
184<body>
185
186<p>
187Many packages come with their own documentation. Sometimes, the <c>doc</c> USE
188flag determines whether the package documentation should be installed or not.
189You can check the existence of a <c>doc</c> USE flag with the <c>emerge -vp
190&lt;package name&gt;</c> command.
191</p>
192
193<pre caption="Checking the existence of a doc USE flag">
194<comment>(alsa-lib is just an example, of course.)</comment>
195# <i>emerge -vp alsa-lib</i>
196[ebuild N ] media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.9_rc3 +doc -jack 674 kB
197</pre>
198
199<p>
200You can enable or disable the <c>doc</c> USE flag either globally in the
201<path>/etc/make.conf</path> file or per package in the
202<path>/etc/portage/package.use</path> file. The <uri
203link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE Flags</uri> chapter covers this aspect in detail.
204</p>
205
206<p>
207Once the package installed, its documentation is generally found in a
208subdirectory named after the package under the <path>/usr/share/doc</path>
209directory. You can also list all installed files with the <c>equery</c> tool
210which is part of the <c>app-portage/gentoolkit</c> <uri
211link="/doc/en/gentoolkit.xml">package</uri>.
212</p>
213
214<pre caption="Locating package documentation">
215# <i>ls -l /usr/share/doc/alsa-lib-1.0.9_rc3</i>
216total 28
217-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 669 May 17 21:54 ChangeLog.gz
218-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 9373 May 17 21:54 COPYING.gz
219drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 8560 May 17 21:54 html
220-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 196 May 17 21:54 TODO.gz
221
222<comment>(Alternatively, use equery to locate interesting files:)</comment>
223# <i>equery files alsa-lib | less</i>
224media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.9_rc3
225* Contents of media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.9_rc3:
226/usr
227/usr/bin
228/usr/bin/alsalisp
229<comment>(Output truncated)</comment>
230</pre>
231
232</body>
233</subsection>
234<subsection>
179<title>Removing Software</title> 235<title>Removing Software</title>
180<body> 236<body>
181 237
182<p> 238<p>
183When you want to remove a software package from your system, use <c>emerge 239When you want to remove a software package from your system, use <c>emerge
184unmerge</c>. This will tell Portage to remove all files installed by that 240--unmerge</c>. This will tell Portage to remove all files installed by that
185package from your system <e>except</e> the configuration files of that 241package from your system <e>except</e> the configuration files of that
186application if you have altered those after the installation. Leaving the 242application if you have altered those after the installation. Leaving the
187configuration files allows you to continue working with the package if you ever 243configuration files allows you to continue working with the package if you ever
188decide to install it again. 244decide to install it again.
189</p> 245</p>
194warn you when you want to remove an important package that breaks your system 250warn you when you want to remove an important package that breaks your system
195if you unmerge it. 251if you unmerge it.
196</p> 252</p>
197 253
198<pre caption="Removing gnumeric from the system"> 254<pre caption="Removing gnumeric from the system">
199# <i>emerge unmerge gnumeric</i> 255# <i>emerge --unmerge gnumeric</i>
200</pre> 256</pre>
201 257
202<p> 258<p>
203When you remove a package from your system, the dependencies of that package 259When you remove a package from your system, the dependencies of that package
204that were installed automatically when you installed the software are left. To 260that were installed automatically when you installed the software are left. To
205have Portage locate all dependencies that can now be removed, use 261have Portage locate all dependencies that can now be removed, use
206<c>emerge</c>'s <c>depclean</c> functionality. We will talk about this later on. 262<c>emerge</c>'s <c>--depclean</c> functionality. We will talk about this later
263on.
207</p> 264</p>
208 265
209</body> 266</body>
210</subsection> 267</subsection>
211<subsection> 268<subsection>
215<p> 272<p>
216To keep your system in perfect shape (and not to mention install the latest 273To keep your system in perfect shape (and not to mention install the latest
217security updates) you need to update your system regularly. Since Portage only 274security updates) you need to update your system regularly. Since Portage only
218checks the ebuilds in your Portage tree you first have to update your Portage 275checks the ebuilds in your Portage tree you first have to update your Portage
219tree. When your Portage tree is updated, you can update your system with 276tree. When your Portage tree is updated, you can update your system with
220<c>emerge --update world</c>: 277<c>emerge --update world</c>. In the next example, we'll also use the
278<c>--ask</c> switch which will tell Portage to display the list of packages it
279wants to upgrade and ask you if you want to continue:
221</p> 280</p>
222 281
223<pre caption="Updating your system"> 282<pre caption="Updating your system">
224# <i>emerge --update world</i> 283# <i>emerge --update --ask world</i>
225</pre> 284</pre>
226 285
227<p> 286<p>
228Portage will then search for newer version of the applications you have 287Portage will then search for newer version of the applications you have
229installed. However, it will only verify the versions for the applications you 288installed. However, it will only verify the versions for the applications you
234<pre caption="Updating your entire system"> 293<pre caption="Updating your entire system">
235# <i>emerge --update --deep world</i> 294# <i>emerge --update --deep world</i>
236</pre> 295</pre>
237 296
238<p> 297<p>
298Since security updates also happen in packages you have not explicitly installed
299on your system (but that are pulled in as dependencies of other programs), it
300is recommended to run this command once in a while.
301</p>
302
303<p>
239If you have altered any of your <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri> 304If you have altered any of your <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>
240lately you might want to add <c>--newuse</c> as well. Portage will then verify 305lately you might want to add <c>--newuse</c> as well. Portage will then verify
241if the change requires the installation of new packages or recompilation of 306if the change requires the installation of new packages or recompilation of
242existing ones: 307existing ones:
243</p> 308</p>
247</pre> 312</pre>
248 313
249</body> 314</body>
250</subsection> 315</subsection>
251<subsection> 316<subsection>
252<title>Stub Packages</title> 317<title>Metapackages</title>
253<body> 318<body>
254 319
255<p> 320<p>
256Some packages in the Portage tree don't have any real content but are used to 321Some packages in the Portage tree don't have any real content but are used to
257install a collection of packages. For instance, the <c>kde</c> package will 322install a collection of packages. For instance, the <c>kde</c> package will
259KDE-related packages as dependencies. 324KDE-related packages as dependencies.
260</p> 325</p>
261 326
262<p> 327<p>
263If you ever want to remove such a package from your system, running <c>emerge 328If you ever want to remove such a package from your system, running <c>emerge
264unmerge</c> on the package won't have much effect as the dependencies remain on 329--unmerge</c> on the package won't have much effect as the dependencies remain
265the system. 330on the system.
266</p> 331</p>
267 332
268<p> 333<p>
269Portage has the functionality to remove orphaned dependencies as well, but since 334Portage has the functionality to remove orphaned dependencies as well, but since
270the availability of software is dynamically dependent you first need to update 335the availability of software is dynamically dependent you first need to update
271your entire system fully, including the new changes you applied when changing 336your entire system fully, including the new changes you applied when changing
272USE flags. After this you can run <c>emerge depclean</c> to remove the orphaned 337USE flags. After this you can run <c>emerge --depclean</c> to remove the
273dependencies. When this is done, you need to rebuild the applications that were 338orphaned dependencies. When this is done, you need to rebuild the applications
274dynamically linked to the now-removed software titles but don't require them 339that were dynamically linked to the now-removed software titles but don't
275anymore. 340require them anymore.
276</p> 341</p>
277 342
278<p> 343<p>
279All this is handled with the following three commands: 344All this is handled with the following three commands:
280</p> 345</p>
281 346
282<pre caption="Removing orphaned dependencies"> 347<pre caption="Removing orphaned dependencies">
283# <i>emerge --update --deep --newuse world</i> 348# <i>emerge --update --deep --newuse world</i>
284# <i>emerge depclean</i> 349# <i>emerge --depclean</i>
285# <i>revdep-rebuild</i> 350# <i>revdep-rebuild</i>
286</pre> 351</pre>
287 352
288<p> 353<p>
289<c>revdep-rebuild</c> is provided by the <c>gentoolkit</c> package; don't forget 354<c>revdep-rebuild</c> is provided by the <c>gentoolkit</c> package; don't forget
304<body> 369<body>
305 370
306<p> 371<p>
307As we stated before, Portage is extremely powerful and supports many features 372As we stated before, Portage is extremely powerful and supports many features
308that other software management tools lack. To understand this, we explain a few 373that other software management tools lack. To understand this, we explain a few
309aspects of Portage without going in too much detail. 374aspects of Portage without going into too much detail.
310</p> 375</p>
311 376
312<p> 377<p>
313With Portage different versions of a single package can coexist on a system. 378With Portage different versions of a single package can coexist on a system.
314While other distributions tend to name their package to those versions (like 379While other distributions tend to name their package to those versions (like
355<subsection id="blocked"> 420<subsection id="blocked">
356<title>Blocked Packages</title> 421<title>Blocked Packages</title>
357<body> 422<body>
358 423
359<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (with --pretend)"> 424<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (with --pretend)">
360[blocks B ] gnome-base/bonobo-activation (from pkg gnome-base/libbonobo-2.4.0) 425[blocks B ] mail-mta/ssmtp (is blocking mail-mta/postfix-2.2.2-r1)
361</pre> 426</pre>
362 427
363<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (without --pretend)"> 428<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (without --pretend)">
364!!! Error: the gnome-base/bonobo-activation package conflicts with another package. 429!!! Error: the mail-mta/postfix package conflicts with another package.
365!!! both can't be installed on the same system together. 430!!! both can't be installed on the same system together.
366!!! Please use 'emerge --pretend' to determine blockers. 431!!! Please use 'emerge --pretend' to determine blockers.
367</pre> 432</pre>
368 433
369<p> 434<p>
370Ebuilds contain specific fields that inform Portage about it's dependencies. 435Ebuilds contain specific fields that inform Portage about its dependencies.
371There are two possible dependencies: build dependencies, declared in 436There are two possible dependencies: build dependencies, declared in
372<c>DEPEND</c> and run-time dependencies, declared in <c>RDEPEND</c>. When one of 437<c>DEPEND</c> and run-time dependencies, declared in <c>RDEPEND</c>. When one of
373these dependencies explicitly marks a package or virtual as being <e>not</e> 438these dependencies explicitly marks a package or virtual as being <e>not</e>
374compatible, it triggers a blockage. 439compatible, it triggers a blockage.
375</p> 440</p>
376 441
377<p> 442<p>
378To fix a blockage, you can choose to not install the package or unmerge the 443To fix a blockage, you can choose to not install the package or unmerge the
379conflicting package first. In the given example, you can opt not to install 444conflicting package first. In the given example, you can opt not to install
380<c>libbonobo</c> or to remove <c>bonobo-activation</c> first. 445<c>postfix</c> or to remove <c>ssmtp</c> first.
446</p>
447
448<p>
449It is also possible that two packages that are yet to be installed are blocking
450each other. In this rare case, you should find out why you need to install both.
451In most cases you can do with one of the packages alone. If not, please file a
452bug on <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">Gentoo's bugtracking system</uri>.
381</p> 453</p>
382 454
383</body> 455</body>
384</subsection> 456</subsection>
385<subsection id="masked"> 457<subsection id="masked">
440<subsection id="missingdependencies"> 512<subsection id="missingdependencies">
441<title>Missing Dependencies</title> 513<title>Missing Dependencies</title>
442<body> 514<body>
443 515
444<pre caption="Portage warning about missing dependency"> 516<pre caption="Portage warning about missing dependency">
445emerge: there are no ebuilds to satisfy "&gt;=sys-devel/gcc-4.2-r4". 517emerge: there are no ebuilds to satisfy "&gt;=sys-devel/gcc-3.4.2-r4".
446 518
447!!! Problem with ebuild sys-devel/gcc-3.4.2-r2 519!!! Problem with ebuild sys-devel/gcc-3.4.2-r2
448!!! Possibly a DEPEND/*DEPEND problem. 520!!! Possibly a DEPEND/*DEPEND problem.
449</pre> 521</pre>
450 522

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