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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.40 2004/10/21 16:34:46 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.71 2008/03/01 07:16:57 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10
11<abstract>
12This chapter explains the "simple" steps a user definitely needs to know to
13maintain the software on his system.
14</abstract>
15
16<version>1.64</version>
17<date>2008-02-29</date>
18
10<section> 19<section>
11<title>Welcome to Portage</title> 20<title>Welcome to Portage</title>
12<body> 21<body>
13 22
14<p> 23<p>
62<title>Updating the Portage Tree</title> 71<title>Updating the Portage Tree</title>
63<body> 72<body>
64 73
65<p> 74<p>
66The Portage tree is usually updated with <uri 75The Portage tree is usually updated with <uri
67link="http://rsync.gentoo.org">rsync</uri>, a fast incremental file transfer 76link="http://rsync.samba.org/">rsync</uri>, a fast incremental file transfer
68utility. Updating is fairly simple as the <c>emerge</c> command provides a 77utility. Updating is fairly simple as the <c>emerge</c> command provides a
69front-end for rsync: 78front-end for rsync:
70</p> 79</p>
71 80
72<pre caption="Updating the Portage tree"> 81<pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
93<title>Searching for Software</title> 102<title>Searching for Software</title>
94<body> 103<body>
95 104
96<p> 105<p>
97To search through the Portage tree after software titles, you can use 106To search through the Portage tree after software titles, you can use
98<c>emerge</c> built-in search capabilities. By default, <c>emerge search</c> 107<c>emerge</c> built-in search capabilities. By default, <c>emerge --search</c>
99returns package names whos title corresponds with (either fully or partially) 108returns the names of packages whose title matches (either fully or partially)
100the given search term. 109the given search term.
101</p> 110</p>
102 111
103<p> 112<p>
104For instance, to search for all packages who have "pdf" in their name: 113For instance, to search for all packages who have "pdf" in their name:
105</p> 114</p>
106 115
107<pre caption="Searching for pdf-named packages"> 116<pre caption="Searching for pdf-named packages">
108$ <i>emerge search pdf</i> 117$ <i>emerge --search pdf</i>
109</pre> 118</pre>
110 119
111<p> 120<p>
112If you want to search through the descriptions as well you can use the 121If you want to search through the descriptions as well you can use the
113<c>--searchdesc</c> (or <c>-S</c>) switch: 122<c>--searchdesc</c> (or <c>-S</c>) switch:
121When you take a look at the output, you'll notice that it gives you a lot of 130When you take a look at the output, you'll notice that it gives you a lot of
122information. The fields are clearly labelled so we won't go further into their 131information. The fields are clearly labelled so we won't go further into their
123meanings: 132meanings:
124</p> 133</p>
125 134
126<pre caption="Example emerge search output"> 135<pre caption="Example 'emerge --search' output">
127* net-print/cups-pdf 136* net-print/cups-pdf
128 Latest version available: 1.5.2 137 Latest version available: 1.5.2
129 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ] 138 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
130 Size of downloaded files: 15 kB 139 Size of downloaded files: 15 kB
131 Homepage: http://cip.physik.uni-wuerzburg.de/~vrbehr/cups-pdf/ 140 Homepage: http://cip.physik.uni-wuerzburg.de/~vrbehr/cups-pdf/
174</pre> 183</pre>
175 184
176</body> 185</body>
177</subsection> 186</subsection>
178<subsection> 187<subsection>
188<title>Finding Installed Package Documentation</title>
189<body>
190
191<p>
192Many packages come with their own documentation. Sometimes, the <c>doc</c> USE
193flag determines whether the package documentation should be installed or not.
194You can check the existence of a <c>doc</c> USE flag with the <c>emerge -vp
195&lt;package name&gt;</c> command.
196</p>
197
198<pre caption="Checking the existence of a doc USE flag">
199<comment>(alsa-lib is just an example, of course.)</comment>
200# <i>emerge -vp alsa-lib</i>
201[ebuild N ] media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1 -debug +doc 698 kB
202</pre>
203
204<p>
205The best way of enabling the <c>doc</c> USE flag is doing it on a per-package
206basis via <path>/etc/portage/package.use</path>, so that you get documentation
207only for packages that you are interested in. Enabling this flag globally is
208known to cause problems with circular dependencies. For more information, please
209read the <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE Flags</uri> chapter.
210</p>
211
212<p>
213Once the package installed, its documentation is generally found in a
214subdirectory named after the package under the <path>/usr/share/doc</path>
215directory. You can also list all installed files with the <c>equery</c> tool
216which is part of the <c>app-portage/gentoolkit</c> <uri
217link="/doc/en/gentoolkit.xml">package</uri>.
218</p>
219
220<pre caption="Locating package documentation">
221# <i>ls -l /usr/share/doc/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1</i>
222total 28
223-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 669 May 17 21:54 ChangeLog.gz
224-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 9373 May 17 21:54 COPYING.gz
225drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 8560 May 17 21:54 html
226-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 196 May 17 21:54 TODO.gz
227
228<comment>(Alternatively, use equery to locate interesting files:)</comment>
229# <i>equery files alsa-lib | less</i>
230media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1
231* Contents of media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1:
232/usr
233/usr/bin
234/usr/bin/alsalisp
235<comment>(Output truncated)</comment>
236</pre>
237
238</body>
239</subsection>
240<subsection>
179<title>Removing Software</title> 241<title>Removing Software</title>
180<body> 242<body>
181 243
182<p> 244<p>
183When you want to remove a software package from your system, use <c>emerge 245When you want to remove a software package from your system, use <c>emerge
184unmerge</c>. This will tell Portage to remove all files installed by that 246--unmerge</c>. This will tell Portage to remove all files installed by that
185package from your system <e>except</e> the configuration files of that 247package from your system <e>except</e> the configuration files of that
186application if you have altered those after the installation. Leaving the 248application if you have altered those after the installation. Leaving the
187configuration files allows you to continue working with the package if you ever 249configuration files allows you to continue working with the package if you ever
188decide to install it again. 250decide to install it again.
189</p> 251</p>
194warn you when you want to remove an important package that breaks your system 256warn you when you want to remove an important package that breaks your system
195if you unmerge it. 257if you unmerge it.
196</p> 258</p>
197 259
198<pre caption="Removing gnumeric from the system"> 260<pre caption="Removing gnumeric from the system">
199# <i>emerge unmerge gnumeric</i> 261# <i>emerge --unmerge gnumeric</i>
200</pre> 262</pre>
201 263
202<p> 264<p>
203When you remove a package from your system, the dependencies of that package 265When you remove a package from your system, the dependencies of that package
204that were installed automatically when you installed the software are left. To 266that were installed automatically when you installed the software are left. To
205have Portage locate all dependencies that can now be removed, use 267have Portage locate all dependencies that can now be removed, use
206<c>emerge</c>'s <c>depclean</c> functionality. We will talk about this later on. 268<c>emerge</c>'s <c>--depclean</c> functionality. We will talk about this later
269on.
207</p> 270</p>
208 271
209</body> 272</body>
210</subsection> 273</subsection>
211<subsection> 274<subsection>
215<p> 278<p>
216To keep your system in perfect shape (and not to mention install the latest 279To keep your system in perfect shape (and not to mention install the latest
217security updates) you need to update your system regularly. Since Portage only 280security updates) you need to update your system regularly. Since Portage only
218checks the ebuilds in your Portage tree you first have to update your Portage 281checks the ebuilds in your Portage tree you first have to update your Portage
219tree. When your Portage tree is updated, you can update your system with 282tree. When your Portage tree is updated, you can update your system with
220<c>emerge --update world</c>: 283<c>emerge --update world</c>. In the next example, we'll also use the
284<c>--ask</c> switch which will tell Portage to display the list of packages it
285wants to upgrade and ask you if you want to continue:
221</p> 286</p>
222 287
223<pre caption="Updating your system"> 288<pre caption="Updating your system">
224# <i>emerge --update world</i> 289# <i>emerge --update --ask world</i>
225</pre> 290</pre>
226 291
227<p> 292<p>
228Portage will then search for newer version of the applications you have 293Portage will then search for newer version of the applications you have
229installed. However, it will only verify the versions for the applications you 294installed. However, it will only verify the versions for the applications you
230have explicitly installed - not the dependencies. If you want to update every 295have <e>explicitly</e> installed (the applications listed in
231single package on your system, add the <c>--deep</c> argument: 296<path>/var/lib/portage/world</path>) - it does not thoroughly check their
297dependencies. If you want to update <e>every single package</e> on your system,
298add the <c>--deep</c> argument:
232</p> 299</p>
233 300
234<pre caption="Updating your entire system"> 301<pre caption="Updating your entire system">
235# <i>emerge --update --deep world</i> 302# <i>emerge --update --deep world</i>
236</pre> 303</pre>
304
305<p>
306Since security updates also happen in packages you have not explicitly installed
307on your system (but that are pulled in as dependencies of other programs), it
308is recommended to run this command once in a while.
309</p>
237 310
238<p> 311<p>
239If you have altered any of your <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri> 312If you have altered any of your <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>
240lately you might want to add <c>--newuse</c> as well. Portage will then verify 313lately you might want to add <c>--newuse</c> as well. Portage will then verify
241if the change requires the installation of new packages or recompilation of 314if the change requires the installation of new packages or recompilation of
247</pre> 320</pre>
248 321
249</body> 322</body>
250</subsection> 323</subsection>
251<subsection> 324<subsection>
252<title>Stub Packages</title> 325<title>Metapackages</title>
253<body> 326<body>
254 327
255<p> 328<p>
256Some packages in the Portage tree don't have any real content but are used to 329Some packages in the Portage tree don't have any real content but are used to
257install a collection of packages. For instance, the <c>kde</c> package will 330install a collection of packages. For instance, the <c>kde</c> package will
259KDE-related packages as dependencies. 332KDE-related packages as dependencies.
260</p> 333</p>
261 334
262<p> 335<p>
263If you ever want to remove such a package from your system, running <c>emerge 336If you ever want to remove such a package from your system, running <c>emerge
264unmerge</c> on the package won't have much effect as the dependencies remain on 337--unmerge</c> on the package won't have much effect as the dependencies remain
265the system. 338on the system.
266</p> 339</p>
267 340
268<p> 341<p>
269Portage has the functionality to remove orphaned dependencies as well, but since 342Portage has the functionality to remove orphaned dependencies as well, but since
270the availability of software is dynamically dependent you first need to update 343the availability of software is dynamically dependent you first need to update
271your entire system fully, including the new changes you applied when changing 344your entire system fully, including the new changes you applied when changing
272USE flags. After this you can run <c>emerge depclean</c> to remove the orphaned 345USE flags. After this you can run <c>emerge --depclean</c> to remove the
273dependencies. When this is done, you need to rebuild the applications that were 346orphaned dependencies. When this is done, you need to rebuild the applications
274dynamically linked to the now-removed software titles but don't require them 347that were dynamically linked to the now-removed software titles but don't
275anymore. 348require them anymore.
276</p> 349</p>
277 350
278<p> 351<p>
279All this is handled with the following three commands: 352All this is handled with the following three commands:
280</p> 353</p>
281 354
282<pre caption="Removing orphaned dependencies"> 355<pre caption="Removing orphaned dependencies">
283# <i>emerge --update --deep --newuse world</i> 356# <i>emerge --update --deep --newuse world</i>
284# <i>emerge depclean</i> 357# <i>emerge --depclean</i>
285# <i>revdep-rebuild</i> 358# <i>revdep-rebuild</i>
286</pre> 359</pre>
287 360
288<p> 361<p>
289<c>revdep-rebuild</c> is provided by the <c>gentoolkit</c> package; don't forget 362<c>revdep-rebuild</c> is provided by the <c>gentoolkit</c> package; don't forget
304<body> 377<body>
305 378
306<p> 379<p>
307As we stated before, Portage is extremely powerful and supports many features 380As we stated before, Portage is extremely powerful and supports many features
308that other software management tools lack. To understand this, we explain a few 381that other software management tools lack. To understand this, we explain a few
309aspects of Portage without going in too much detail. 382aspects of Portage without going into too much detail.
310</p> 383</p>
311 384
312<p> 385<p>
313With Portage different versions of a single package can coexist on a system. 386With Portage different versions of a single package can coexist on a system.
314While other distributions tend to name their package to those versions (like 387While other distributions tend to name their package to those versions (like
355<subsection id="blocked"> 428<subsection id="blocked">
356<title>Blocked Packages</title> 429<title>Blocked Packages</title>
357<body> 430<body>
358 431
359<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (with --pretend)"> 432<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (with --pretend)">
360[blocks B ] gnome-base/bonobo-activation (from pkg gnome-base/libbonobo-2.4.0) 433[blocks B ] mail-mta/ssmtp (is blocking mail-mta/postfix-2.2.2-r1)
361</pre> 434</pre>
362 435
363<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (without --pretend)"> 436<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (without --pretend)">
364!!! Error: the gnome-base/bonobo-activation package conflicts with another package. 437!!! Error: the mail-mta/postfix package conflicts with another package.
365!!! both can't be installed on the same system together. 438!!! both can't be installed on the same system together.
366!!! Please use 'emerge --pretend' to determine blockers. 439!!! Please use 'emerge --pretend' to determine blockers.
367</pre> 440</pre>
368 441
369<p> 442<p>
370Ebuilds contain specific fields that inform Portage about it's dependencies. 443Ebuilds contain specific fields that inform Portage about its dependencies.
371There are two possible dependencies: build dependencies, declared in 444There are two possible dependencies: build dependencies, declared in
372<c>DEPEND</c> and run-time dependencies, declared in <c>RDEPEND</c>. When one of 445<c>DEPEND</c> and run-time dependencies, declared in <c>RDEPEND</c>. When one of
373these dependencies explicitly marks a package or virtual as being <e>not</e> 446these dependencies explicitly marks a package or virtual as being <e>not</e>
374compatible, it triggers a blockage. 447compatible, it triggers a blockage.
375</p> 448</p>
376 449
377<p> 450<p>
378To fix a blockage, you can choose to not install the package or unmerge the 451To fix a blockage, you can choose to not install the package or unmerge the
379conflicting package first. In the given example, you can opt not to install 452conflicting package first. In the given example, you can opt not to install
380<c>libbonobo</c> or to remove <c>bonobo-activation</c> first. 453<c>postfix</c> or to remove <c>ssmtp</c> first.
454</p>
455
456<p>
457You may also see blocking packages with specific atoms, such as
458<b>&lt;</b>media-video/mplayer-bin-1.0_rc1-r2. In this case, updating to a more
459recent version of the blocking package would remove the block.
460</p>
461
462<p>
463It is also possible that two packages that are yet to be installed are blocking
464each other. In this rare case, you should find out why you need to install both.
465In most cases you can do with one of the packages alone. If not, please file a
466bug on <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">Gentoo's bugtracking system</uri>.
381</p> 467</p>
382 468
383</body> 469</body>
384</subsection> 470</subsection>
385<subsection id="masked"> 471<subsection id="masked">
395 481
396- gnome-base/gnome-2.8.0_pre1 (masked by: <i>~x86 keyword</i>) 482- gnome-base/gnome-2.8.0_pre1 (masked by: <i>~x86 keyword</i>)
397- lm-sensors/lm-sensors-2.8.7 (masked by: <i>-sparc keyword</i>) 483- lm-sensors/lm-sensors-2.8.7 (masked by: <i>-sparc keyword</i>)
398- sys-libs/glibc-2.3.4.20040808 (masked by: <i>-* keyword</i>) 484- sys-libs/glibc-2.3.4.20040808 (masked by: <i>-* keyword</i>)
399- dev-util/cvsd-1.0.2 (masked by: <i>missing keyword</i>) 485- dev-util/cvsd-1.0.2 (masked by: <i>missing keyword</i>)
400- media-video/ati-gatos-4.3.0 (masked by: <i>package.mask</i>) 486- games-fps/unreal-tournament-451 (masked by: <i>package.mask</i>)
401- sys-libs/glibc-2.3.2-r11 (masked by: <i>profile</i>) 487- sys-libs/glibc-2.3.2-r11 (masked by: <i>profile</i>)
402</pre> 488</pre>
403 489
404<p> 490<p>
405When you want to install a package that isn't available for your system, you 491When you want to install a package that isn't available for your system, you
440<subsection id="missingdependencies"> 526<subsection id="missingdependencies">
441<title>Missing Dependencies</title> 527<title>Missing Dependencies</title>
442<body> 528<body>
443 529
444<pre caption="Portage warning about missing dependency"> 530<pre caption="Portage warning about missing dependency">
445emerge: there are no ebuilds to satisfy "&gt;=sys-devel/gcc-4.2-r4". 531emerge: there are no ebuilds to satisfy "&gt;=sys-devel/gcc-3.4.2-r4".
446 532
447!!! Problem with ebuild sys-devel/gcc-3.4.2-r2 533!!! Problem with ebuild sys-devel/gcc-3.4.2-r2
448!!! Possibly a DEPEND/*DEPEND problem. 534!!! Possibly a DEPEND/*DEPEND problem.
449</pre> 535</pre>
450 536
538from the system. 624from the system.
539</p> 625</p>
540 626
541</body> 627</body>
542</subsection> 628</subsection>
629<subsection id="digesterror">
630<title>Digest Verification Failures</title>
631<body>
632
633<p>
634Sometimes, when you attempt to emerge a package, it will fail with the message:
635</p>
636
637<pre caption="Digest verification failure">
638&gt;&gt;&gt; checking ebuild checksums
639!!! Digest verification failed:
640</pre>
641
642<p>
643This is a sign that something is wrong with the Portage tree -- often, it is
644because a developer may have made a mistake when committing a package to the
645tree.
646</p>
647
648<p>
649When the digest verification fails, do <e>not</e> try to re-digest the package
650yourself. Running <c>ebuild foo digest</c> will not fix the problem; it will
651almost certainly make it worse!
652</p>
653
654<p>
655Instead, wait an hour or two for the tree to settle down. It's likely that the
656error was noticed right away, but it can take a little time for the fix to
657trickle down the Portage tree. While you're waiting, check <uri
658link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri> and see if anyone has reported
659the problem yet. If not, go ahead and file a bug for the broken package.
660</p>
661
662<p>
663Once you see that the bug has been fixed, you may want to re-sync to pick up
664the fixed digest.
665</p>
666
667<impo>
668This does <e>not</e> mean that you can re-sync your tree multiple times! As
669stated in the rsync policy (when you run <c>emerge --sync</c>), users who sync
670too often will be banned! In fact, it's better to just wait until your next
671scheduled sync, so that you don't overload the rsync servers.
672</impo>
673
674</body>
675</subsection>
543</section> 676</section>
544</sections> 677</sections>

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