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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.40 2004/10/21 16:34:46 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.79 2012/05/22 18:40:06 swift Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10
11<abstract>
12This chapter explains the "simple" steps a user definitely needs to know to
13maintain the software on his system.
14</abstract>
15
16<version>5</version>
17<date>2012-05-22</date>
18
10<section> 19<section>
11<title>Welcome to Portage</title> 20<title>Welcome to Portage</title>
12<body> 21<body>
13 22
14<p> 23<p>
62<title>Updating the Portage Tree</title> 71<title>Updating the Portage Tree</title>
63<body> 72<body>
64 73
65<p> 74<p>
66The Portage tree is usually updated with <uri 75The Portage tree is usually updated with <uri
67link="http://rsync.gentoo.org">rsync</uri>, a fast incremental file transfer 76link="http://rsync.samba.org/">rsync</uri>, a fast incremental file transfer
68utility. Updating is fairly simple as the <c>emerge</c> command provides a 77utility. Updating is fairly simple as the <c>emerge</c> command provides a
69front-end for rsync: 78front-end for rsync:
70</p> 79</p>
71 80
72<pre caption="Updating the Portage tree"> 81<pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
82 91
83<pre caption="Running emerge-webrsync"> 92<pre caption="Running emerge-webrsync">
84# <i>emerge-webrsync</i> 93# <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
85</pre> 94</pre>
86 95
96<p>
97An additional advantage of using <c>emerge-webrsync</c> is that it allows the
98administrator to only pull in portage tree snapshots that are signed by the
99Gentoo release engineering GPG key. More information on this can be found
100in the <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=3">Portage Features</uri> section on
101<uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=3#webrsync-gpg">Fetching Validated Portage Tree
102Snapshots</uri>.
103</p>
104
87</body> 105</body>
88</subsection> 106</subsection>
89</section> 107</section>
90<section> 108<section>
91<title>Maintaining Software</title> 109<title>Maintaining Software</title>
93<title>Searching for Software</title> 111<title>Searching for Software</title>
94<body> 112<body>
95 113
96<p> 114<p>
97To search through the Portage tree after software titles, you can use 115To search through the Portage tree after software titles, you can use
98<c>emerge</c> built-in search capabilities. By default, <c>emerge search</c> 116<c>emerge</c> built-in search capabilities. By default, <c>emerge --search</c>
99returns package names whos title corresponds with (either fully or partially) 117returns the names of packages whose title matches (either fully or partially)
100the given search term. 118the given search term.
101</p> 119</p>
102 120
103<p> 121<p>
104For instance, to search for all packages who have "pdf" in their name: 122For instance, to search for all packages who have "pdf" in their name:
105</p> 123</p>
106 124
107<pre caption="Searching for pdf-named packages"> 125<pre caption="Searching for pdf-named packages">
108$ <i>emerge search pdf</i> 126$ <i>emerge --search pdf</i>
109</pre> 127</pre>
110 128
111<p> 129<p>
112If you want to search through the descriptions as well you can use the 130If you want to search through the descriptions as well you can use the
113<c>--searchdesc</c> (or <c>-S</c>) switch: 131<c>--searchdesc</c> (or <c>-S</c>) switch:
121When you take a look at the output, you'll notice that it gives you a lot of 139When you take a look at the output, you'll notice that it gives you a lot of
122information. The fields are clearly labelled so we won't go further into their 140information. The fields are clearly labelled so we won't go further into their
123meanings: 141meanings:
124</p> 142</p>
125 143
126<pre caption="Example emerge search output"> 144<pre caption="Example 'emerge --search' output">
127* net-print/cups-pdf 145* net-print/cups-pdf
128 Latest version available: 1.5.2 146 Latest version available: 1.5.2
129 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ] 147 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
130 Size of downloaded files: 15 kB 148 Size of downloaded files: 15 kB
131 Homepage: http://cip.physik.uni-wuerzburg.de/~vrbehr/cups-pdf/ 149 Homepage: http://cip.physik.uni-wuerzburg.de/~vrbehr/cups-pdf/
174</pre> 192</pre>
175 193
176</body> 194</body>
177</subsection> 195</subsection>
178<subsection> 196<subsection>
197<title>Finding Installed Package Documentation</title>
198<body>
199
200<p>
201Many packages come with their own documentation. Sometimes, the <c>doc</c> USE
202flag determines whether the package documentation should be installed or not.
203You can check the existence of a <c>doc</c> USE flag with the <c>emerge -vp
204&lt;package name&gt;</c> command.
205</p>
206
207<pre caption="Checking the existence of a doc USE flag">
208<comment>(alsa-lib is just an example, of course.)</comment>
209# <i>emerge -vp alsa-lib</i>
210[ebuild N ] media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1 -debug +doc 698 kB
211</pre>
212
213<p>
214The best way of enabling the <c>doc</c> USE flag is doing it on a per-package
215basis via <path>/etc/portage/package.use</path>, so that you get documentation
216only for packages that you are interested in. Enabling this flag globally is
217known to cause problems with circular dependencies. For more information, please
218read the <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE Flags</uri> chapter.
219</p>
220
221<p>
222Once the package installed, its documentation is generally found in a
223subdirectory named after the package under the <path>/usr/share/doc</path>
224directory. You can also list all installed files with the <c>equery</c> tool
225which is part of the <c>app-portage/gentoolkit</c> <uri
226link="/doc/en/gentoolkit.xml">package</uri>.
227</p>
228
229<pre caption="Locating package documentation">
230# <i>ls -l /usr/share/doc/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1</i>
231total 28
232-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 669 May 17 21:54 ChangeLog.gz
233-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 9373 May 17 21:54 COPYING.gz
234drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 8560 May 17 21:54 html
235-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 196 May 17 21:54 TODO.gz
236
237<comment>(Alternatively, use equery to locate interesting files:)</comment>
238# <i>equery files alsa-lib | less</i>
239media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1
240* Contents of media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1:
241/usr
242/usr/bin
243/usr/bin/alsalisp
244<comment>(Output truncated)</comment>
245</pre>
246
247</body>
248</subsection>
249<subsection>
179<title>Removing Software</title> 250<title>Removing Software</title>
180<body> 251<body>
181 252
182<p> 253<p>
183When you want to remove a software package from your system, use <c>emerge 254When you want to remove a software package from your system, use <c>emerge
184unmerge</c>. This will tell Portage to remove all files installed by that 255--unmerge</c>. This will tell Portage to remove all files installed by that
185package from your system <e>except</e> the configuration files of that 256package from your system <e>except</e> the configuration files of that
186application if you have altered those after the installation. Leaving the 257application if you have altered those after the installation. Leaving the
187configuration files allows you to continue working with the package if you ever 258configuration files allows you to continue working with the package if you ever
188decide to install it again. 259decide to install it again.
189</p> 260</p>
194warn you when you want to remove an important package that breaks your system 265warn you when you want to remove an important package that breaks your system
195if you unmerge it. 266if you unmerge it.
196</p> 267</p>
197 268
198<pre caption="Removing gnumeric from the system"> 269<pre caption="Removing gnumeric from the system">
199# <i>emerge unmerge gnumeric</i> 270# <i>emerge --unmerge gnumeric</i>
200</pre> 271</pre>
201 272
202<p> 273<p>
203When you remove a package from your system, the dependencies of that package 274When you remove a package from your system, the dependencies of that package
204that were installed automatically when you installed the software are left. To 275that were installed automatically when you installed the software are left. To
205have Portage locate all dependencies that can now be removed, use 276have Portage locate all dependencies that can now be removed, use
206<c>emerge</c>'s <c>depclean</c> functionality. We will talk about this later on. 277<c>emerge</c>'s <c>--depclean</c> functionality. We will talk about this later
278on.
207</p> 279</p>
208 280
209</body> 281</body>
210</subsection> 282</subsection>
211<subsection> 283<subsection>
215<p> 287<p>
216To keep your system in perfect shape (and not to mention install the latest 288To keep your system in perfect shape (and not to mention install the latest
217security updates) you need to update your system regularly. Since Portage only 289security updates) you need to update your system regularly. Since Portage only
218checks the ebuilds in your Portage tree you first have to update your Portage 290checks the ebuilds in your Portage tree you first have to update your Portage
219tree. When your Portage tree is updated, you can update your system with 291tree. When your Portage tree is updated, you can update your system with
220<c>emerge --update world</c>: 292<c>emerge --update world</c>. In the next example, we'll also use the
293<c>--ask</c> switch which will tell Portage to display the list of packages it
294wants to upgrade and ask you if you want to continue:
221</p> 295</p>
222 296
223<pre caption="Updating your system"> 297<pre caption="Updating your system">
224# <i>emerge --update world</i> 298# <i>emerge --update --ask world</i>
225</pre> 299</pre>
226 300
227<p> 301<p>
228Portage will then search for newer version of the applications you have 302Portage will then search for newer version of the applications you have
229installed. However, it will only verify the versions for the applications you 303installed. However, it will only verify the versions for the applications you
230have explicitly installed - not the dependencies. If you want to update every 304have <e>explicitly</e> installed (the applications listed in
231single package on your system, add the <c>--deep</c> argument: 305<path>/var/lib/portage/world</path>) - it does not thoroughly check their
306dependencies. If you want to update the dependencies of those packages as well,
307add the <c>--deep</c> argument:
308</p>
309
310<pre caption="Updating your system with dependencies">
311# <i>emerge --update --deep world</i>
312</pre>
313
314<p>
315Still, this doesn't mean <e>all packages</e>: some packages on your system are
316needed during the compile and build process of packages, but once that package
317is installed, these dependencies are no longer required. Portage calls those
318<e>build dependencies</e>. To include those in an update cycle, add
319<c>--with-bdeps=y</c>:
232</p> 320</p>
233 321
234<pre caption="Updating your entire system"> 322<pre caption="Updating your entire system">
235# <i>emerge --update --deep world</i> 323# <i>emerge --update --deep --with-bdeps=y world</i>
324</pre>
325
326<p>
327Since security updates also happen in packages you have not explicitly installed
328on your system (but that are pulled in as dependencies of other programs), it
329is recommended to run this command once in a while.
236</pre> 330</p>
237 331
238<p> 332<p>
239If you have altered any of your <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri> 333If you have altered any of your <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>
240lately you might want to add <c>--newuse</c> as well. Portage will then verify 334lately you might want to add <c>--newuse</c> as well. Portage will then verify
241if the change requires the installation of new packages or recompilation of 335if the change requires the installation of new packages or recompilation of
242existing ones: 336existing ones:
243</p> 337</p>
244 338
245<pre caption="Performing a full update"> 339<pre caption="Performing a full update">
246# <i>emerge --update --deep --newuse world</i> 340# <i>emerge --update --deep --with-bdeps=y --newuse world</i>
247</pre> 341</pre>
248 342
249</body> 343</body>
250</subsection>
251<subsection> 344</subsection>
345<subsection>
252<title>Stub Packages</title> 346<title>Metapackages</title>
253<body> 347<body>
254 348
255<p> 349<p>
256Some packages in the Portage tree don't have any real content but are used to 350Some packages in the Portage tree don't have any real content but are used to
257install a collection of packages. For instance, the <c>kde</c> package will 351install a collection of packages. For instance, the <c>kde-meta</c> package will
258install a complete KDE environment on your system by pulling in various 352install a complete KDE environment on your system by pulling in various
259KDE-related packages as dependencies. 353KDE-related packages as dependencies.
260</p> 354</p>
261 355
262<p> 356<p>
263If you ever want to remove such a package from your system, running <c>emerge 357If you ever want to remove such a package from your system, running <c>emerge
264unmerge</c> on the package won't have much effect as the dependencies remain on 358--unmerge</c> on the package won't have much effect as the dependencies remain
265the system. 359on the system.
266</p> 360</p>
267 361
268<p> 362<p>
269Portage has the functionality to remove orphaned dependencies as well, but since 363Portage has the functionality to remove orphaned dependencies as well, but since
270the availability of software is dynamically dependent you first need to update 364the availability of software is dynamically dependent you first need to update
271your entire system fully, including the new changes you applied when changing 365your entire system fully, including the new changes you applied when changing
272USE flags. After this you can run <c>emerge depclean</c> to remove the orphaned 366USE flags. After this you can run <c>emerge --depclean</c> to remove the
273dependencies. When this is done, you need to rebuild the applications that were 367orphaned dependencies. When this is done, you need to rebuild the applications
274dynamically linked to the now-removed software titles but don't require them 368that were dynamically linked to the now-removed software titles but don't
275anymore. 369require them anymore.
276</p> 370</p>
277 371
278<p> 372<p>
279All this is handled with the following three commands: 373All this is handled with the following three commands:
280</p> 374</p>
281 375
282<pre caption="Removing orphaned dependencies"> 376<pre caption="Removing orphaned dependencies">
283# <i>emerge --update --deep --newuse world</i> 377# <i>emerge --update --deep --newuse world</i>
284# <i>emerge depclean</i> 378# <i>emerge --depclean</i>
285# <i>revdep-rebuild</i> 379# <i>revdep-rebuild</i>
286</pre> 380</pre>
287 381
288<p> 382<p>
289<c>revdep-rebuild</c> is provided by the <c>gentoolkit</c> package; don't forget 383<c>revdep-rebuild</c> is provided by the <c>gentoolkit</c> package; don't forget
291</p> 385</p>
292 386
293<pre caption="Installing the gentoolkit package"> 387<pre caption="Installing the gentoolkit package">
294# <i>emerge gentoolkit</i> 388# <i>emerge gentoolkit</i>
295</pre> 389</pre>
390
391</body>
392</subsection>
393</section>
394<section id="license">
395<title>Licenses</title>
396<subsection>
397<body>
398
399<p>
400Beginning with Portage version 2.1.7, you can accept or reject software
401installation based on its license. All packages in the tree contain a
402<c>LICENSE</c> entry in their ebuilds. Running <c>emerge --search
403packagename</c> will tell you the package's license.
404</p>
405
406<p>
407By default, Portage permits all licenses, except End User License Agreements
408(EULAs) that require reading and signing an acceptance agreement.
409</p>
410
411<p>
412The variable that controls permitted licenses is <c>ACCEPT_LICENSE</c>, which
413can be set in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
414</p>
415
416<pre caption="Default ACCEPT_LICENSE in /etc/make.conf">
417ACCEPT_LICENSE="* -@EULA"
418</pre>
419
420<p>
421With this configuration, packages that require interaction during installation
422to approve their EULA <e>will not</e> be installed. Packages without an EULA
423<e>will</e> be installed.
424</p>
425
426<p>
427You can set <c>ACCEPT_LICENSE</c> globally in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, or
428you can specify it on a per-package basis in
429<path>/etc/portage/package.license</path>.
430</p>
431
432<p>
433For example, if you want to allow the <c>truecrypt-2.7</c> license for
434<c>app-crypt/truecrypt</c>, add the following to
435<path>/etc/portage/package.license</path>:
436</p>
437
438<pre caption="Specifying a truecrypt license in package.license">
439app-crypt/truecrypt truecrypt-2.7
440</pre>
441
442<p>
443This permits installation of truecrypt versions that have the
444<c>truecrypt-2.7</c> license, but not versions with the <c>truecrypt-2.8</c>
445license.
446</p>
447
448<impo>
449Licenses are stored in <path>/usr/portage/licenses</path>, and license groups
450are kept in <path>/usr/portage/profiles/license_groups</path>. The first entry
451of each line in CAPITAL letters is the name of the license group, and every
452entry after that is an individual license.
453</impo>
454
455<p>
456License groups defined in <c>ACCEPT_LICENSE</c> are prefixed with an <b>@</b>
457sign. Here's an example of a system that globally permits the GPL-compatible
458license group, as well as a few other groups and individual licenses:
459</p>
460
461<pre caption="ACCEPT_LICENSE in /etc/make.conf">
462ACCEPT_LICENSE="@GPL-COMPATIBLE @OSI-APPROVED @EULA atheros-hal BitstreamVera"
463</pre>
464
465<p>
466If you want only free software and documentation on your system, you might use
467the following setup:
468</p>
469
470<pre caption="Use only free licenses">
471ACCEPT_LICENSE="-* @FREE"
472</pre>
473
474<p>
475In this case, "free" is mostly defined by the <uri
476link="http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/free-sw.html">FSF</uri> and <uri
477link="http://www.opensource.org/docs/osd">OSI</uri>. Any package whose license
478does not meet these requirements will not be installed on your system.
479</p>
296 480
297</body> 481</body>
298</subsection> 482</subsection>
299</section> 483</section>
300<section> 484<section>
304<body> 488<body>
305 489
306<p> 490<p>
307As we stated before, Portage is extremely powerful and supports many features 491As we stated before, Portage is extremely powerful and supports many features
308that other software management tools lack. To understand this, we explain a few 492that other software management tools lack. To understand this, we explain a few
309aspects of Portage without going in too much detail. 493aspects of Portage without going into too much detail.
310</p> 494</p>
311 495
312<p> 496<p>
313With Portage different versions of a single package can coexist on a system. 497With Portage different versions of a single package can coexist on a system.
314While other distributions tend to name their package to those versions (like 498While other distributions tend to name their package to those versions (like
322There are also packages that provide the same functionality but are implemented 506There are also packages that provide the same functionality but are implemented
323differently. For instance, <c>metalogd</c>, <c>sysklogd</c> and <c>syslog-ng</c> 507differently. For instance, <c>metalogd</c>, <c>sysklogd</c> and <c>syslog-ng</c>
324are all system loggers. Applications that rely on the availability of "a system 508are all system loggers. Applications that rely on the availability of "a system
325logger" cannot depend on, for instance, <c>metalogd</c>, as the other system 509logger" cannot depend on, for instance, <c>metalogd</c>, as the other system
326loggers are as good a choice as any. Portage allows for <e>virtuals</e>: each 510loggers are as good a choice as any. Portage allows for <e>virtuals</e>: each
327system logger provides <c>virtual/syslog</c> so that applications can depend on 511system logger is listed as a provider of the logging service in the
328<c>virtual/syslog</c>. 512<c>logger</c> virtual package of the <c>virtual</c> category, so that
513applications can depend on the <c>virtual/logger</c> package.
329</p> 514</p>
330 515
331<p> 516<p>
332Software in the Portage tree can reside in different branches. By default your 517Software in the Portage tree can reside in different branches. By default your
333system only accepts packages that Gentoo deems stable. Most new software titles, 518system only accepts packages that Gentoo deems stable. Most new software titles,
355<subsection id="blocked"> 540<subsection id="blocked">
356<title>Blocked Packages</title> 541<title>Blocked Packages</title>
357<body> 542<body>
358 543
359<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (with --pretend)"> 544<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (with --pretend)">
360[blocks B ] gnome-base/bonobo-activation (from pkg gnome-base/libbonobo-2.4.0) 545[blocks B ] mail-mta/ssmtp (is blocking mail-mta/postfix-2.2.2-r1)
361</pre> 546</pre>
362 547
363<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (without --pretend)"> 548<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (without --pretend)">
364!!! Error: the gnome-base/bonobo-activation package conflicts with another package. 549!!! Error: the mail-mta/postfix package conflicts with another package.
365!!! both can't be installed on the same system together. 550!!! both can't be installed on the same system together.
366!!! Please use 'emerge --pretend' to determine blockers. 551!!! Please use 'emerge --pretend' to determine blockers.
367</pre> 552</pre>
368 553
369<p> 554<p>
370Ebuilds contain specific fields that inform Portage about it's dependencies. 555Ebuilds contain specific fields that inform Portage about its dependencies.
371There are two possible dependencies: build dependencies, declared in 556There are two possible dependencies: build dependencies, declared in
372<c>DEPEND</c> and run-time dependencies, declared in <c>RDEPEND</c>. When one of 557<c>DEPEND</c> and run-time dependencies, declared in <c>RDEPEND</c>. When one of
373these dependencies explicitly marks a package or virtual as being <e>not</e> 558these dependencies explicitly marks a package or virtual as being <e>not</e>
374compatible, it triggers a blockage. 559compatible, it triggers a blockage.
375</p> 560</p>
376 561
377<p> 562<p>
563While recent versions of Portage are smart enough to work around minor blockages
564without user intervention, occasionally you will need to fix it yourself, as
565explained below.
566</p>
567
568<p>
378To fix a blockage, you can choose to not install the package or unmerge the 569To fix a blockage, you can choose to not install the package or unmerge the
379conflicting package first. In the given example, you can opt not to install 570conflicting package first. In the given example, you can opt not to install
380<c>libbonobo</c> or to remove <c>bonobo-activation</c> first. 571<c>postfix</c> or to remove <c>ssmtp</c> first.
572</p>
573
574<p>
575You may also see blocking packages with specific atoms, such as
576<b>&lt;</b>media-video/mplayer-1.0_rc1-r2. In this case, updating to a more
577recent version of the blocking package would remove the block.
578</p>
579
580<p>
581It is also possible that two packages that are yet to be installed are blocking
582each other. In this rare case, you should find out why you need to install both.
583In most cases you can do with one of the packages alone. If not, please file a
584bug on <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">Gentoo's bugtracking system</uri>.
381</p> 585</p>
382 586
383</body> 587</body>
384</subsection> 588</subsection>
385<subsection id="masked"> 589<subsection id="masked">
395 599
396- gnome-base/gnome-2.8.0_pre1 (masked by: <i>~x86 keyword</i>) 600- gnome-base/gnome-2.8.0_pre1 (masked by: <i>~x86 keyword</i>)
397- lm-sensors/lm-sensors-2.8.7 (masked by: <i>-sparc keyword</i>) 601- lm-sensors/lm-sensors-2.8.7 (masked by: <i>-sparc keyword</i>)
398- sys-libs/glibc-2.3.4.20040808 (masked by: <i>-* keyword</i>) 602- sys-libs/glibc-2.3.4.20040808 (masked by: <i>-* keyword</i>)
399- dev-util/cvsd-1.0.2 (masked by: <i>missing keyword</i>) 603- dev-util/cvsd-1.0.2 (masked by: <i>missing keyword</i>)
400- media-video/ati-gatos-4.3.0 (masked by: <i>package.mask</i>) 604- games-fps/unreal-tournament-451 (masked by: <i>package.mask</i>)
401- sys-libs/glibc-2.3.2-r11 (masked by: <i>profile</i>) 605- sys-libs/glibc-2.3.2-r11 (masked by: <i>profile</i>)
606- net-im/skype-2.1.0.81 (masked by: skype-eula <i>license</i>(s))
402</pre> 607</pre>
403 608
404<p> 609<p>
405When you want to install a package that isn't available for your system, you 610When you want to install a package that isn't available for your system, you
406will receive this masking error. You should try installing a different 611will receive this masking error. You should try installing a different
431 <li> 636 <li>
432 <b>profile</b> means that the package has been found not suitable for your 637 <b>profile</b> means that the package has been found not suitable for your
433 profile. The application might break your system if you installed it or is 638 profile. The application might break your system if you installed it or is
434 just not compatible with the profile you use. 639 just not compatible with the profile you use.
435 </li> 640 </li>
641 <li>
642 <b>license</b> means that the package's license is not compatible with your
643 <c>ACCEPT_LICENSE</c> setting. You must explicitly permit its license or
644 license group by setting it in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> or in
645 <path>/etc/portage/package.license</path>. Refer to <uri
646 link="#license">Licenses</uri> to learn how licenses work.
647 </li>
436</ul> 648</ul>
649
650</body>
651</subsection>
652<subsection id="USEdependency">
653<title>Necessary USE Flag Changes</title>
654<body>
655
656<pre caption="Portage warning about USE flag change requirement">
657The following USE changes are necessary to proceed:
658#required by app-text/happypackage-2.0, required by happypackage (argument)
659>=app-text/feelings-1.0.0 test
660</pre>
661
662<p>
663The error message might also be displayed as follows, if <c>--autounmask</c>
664isn't set:
665</p>
666
667<pre caption="Portage error about USE flag change requirement">
668emerge: there are no ebuilds built with USE flags to satisfy "app-text/feelings[test]".
669!!! One of the following packages is required to complete your request:
670- app-text/feelings-1.0.0 (Change USE: +test)
671(dependency required by "app-text/happypackage-2.0" [ebuild])
672(dependency required by "happypackage" [argument])
673</pre>
674
675<p>
676Such warning or error occurs when you want to install a package which not only
677depends on another package, but also requires that that package is built with a
678particular USE flag (or set of USE flags). In the given example, the package
679<c>app-text/feelings</c> needs to be built with <c>USE="test"</c>, but this USE
680flag is not set on the system.
681</p>
682
683<p>
684To resolve this, either add the requested USE flag to your global USE flags in
685<path>/etc/make.conf</path>, or set it for the specific package in
686<path>/etc/portage/package.use</path>.
687</p>
437 688
438</body> 689</body>
439</subsection> 690</subsection>
440<subsection id="missingdependencies"> 691<subsection id="missingdependencies">
441<title>Missing Dependencies</title> 692<title>Missing Dependencies</title>
442<body> 693<body>
443 694
444<pre caption="Portage warning about missing dependency"> 695<pre caption="Portage warning about missing dependency">
445emerge: there are no ebuilds to satisfy "&gt;=sys-devel/gcc-4.2-r4". 696emerge: there are no ebuilds to satisfy "&gt;=sys-devel/gcc-3.4.2-r4".
446 697
447!!! Problem with ebuild sys-devel/gcc-3.4.2-r2 698!!! Problem with ebuild sys-devel/gcc-3.4.2-r2
448!!! Possibly a DEPEND/*DEPEND problem. 699!!! Possibly a DEPEND/*DEPEND problem.
449</pre> 700</pre>
450 701
461<subsection id="ambiguousebuild"> 712<subsection id="ambiguousebuild">
462<title>Ambiguous Ebuild Name</title> 713<title>Ambiguous Ebuild Name</title>
463<body> 714<body>
464 715
465<pre caption="Portage warning about ambiguous ebuild names"> 716<pre caption="Portage warning about ambiguous ebuild names">
717[ Results for search key : listen ]
718[ Applications found : 2 ]
719
720* dev-tinyos/listen [ Masked ]
721 Latest version available: 1.1.15
722 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
723 Size of files: 10,032 kB
724 Homepage: http://www.tinyos.net/
725 Description: Raw listen for TinyOS
726 License: BSD
727
728* media-sound/listen [ Masked ]
729 Latest version available: 0.6.3
730 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
731 Size of files: 859 kB
732 Homepage: http://www.listen-project.org
733 Description: A Music player and management for GNOME
734 License: GPL-2
735
466!!! The short ebuild name "aterm" is ambiguous. Please specify 736!!! The short ebuild name "listen" is ambiguous. Please specify
467!!! one of the following fully-qualified ebuild names instead: 737!!! one of the above fully-qualified ebuild names instead.
468
469 dev-libs/aterm
470 x11-terms/aterm
471</pre> 738</pre>
472 739
473<p> 740<p>
474The application you want to install has a name that corresponds with more than 741The application you want to install has a name that corresponds with more than
475one package. You need to supply the category name as well. Portage will inform 742one package. You need to supply the category name as well. Portage will inform
538from the system. 805from the system.
539</p> 806</p>
540 807
541</body> 808</body>
542</subsection> 809</subsection>
810<subsection id="digesterror">
811<title>Digest Verification Failures</title>
812<body>
813
814<p>
815Sometimes, when you attempt to emerge a package, it will fail with the message:
816</p>
817
818<pre caption="Digest verification failure">
819&gt;&gt;&gt; checking ebuild checksums
820!!! Digest verification failed:
821</pre>
822
823<p>
824This is a sign that something is wrong with the Portage tree -- often, it is
825because a developer may have made a mistake when committing a package to the
826tree.
827</p>
828
829<p>
830When the digest verification fails, do <e>not</e> try to re-digest the package
831yourself. Running <c>ebuild foo manifest</c> will not fix the problem; it will
832almost certainly make it worse!
833</p>
834
835<p>
836Instead, wait an hour or two for the tree to settle down. It's likely that the
837error was noticed right away, but it can take a little time for the fix to
838trickle down the Portage tree. While you're waiting, check <uri
839link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri> and see if anyone has reported
840the problem yet. If not, go ahead and file a bug for the broken package.
841</p>
842
843<p>
844Once you see that the bug has been fixed, you may want to re-sync to pick up
845the fixed digest.
846</p>
847
848<impo>
849This does <e>not</e> mean that you can re-sync your tree multiple times! As
850stated in the rsync policy (when you run <c>emerge --sync</c>), users who sync
851too often will be banned! In fact, it's better to just wait until your next
852scheduled sync, so that you don't overload the rsync servers.
853</impo>
854
855</body>
856</subsection>
543</section> 857</section>
544</sections> 858</sections>

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