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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.35 2004/08/29 10:56:31 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.51 2005/05/17 14:39:26 neysx Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10
11<version>1.46</version>
12<date>2005-05-17</date>
13
10<section> 14<section>
11<title>Obtaining Package Information</title> 15<title>Welcome to Portage</title>
12<subsection>
13<title>The Lord of All Tools: emerge</title>
14<body> 16<body>
15 17
16<p>
17The main Portage tool that most users will use is <c>emerge</c>. We have already
18used it during the Gentoo installation and in the previous chapter, but we just
19briefly explained how to use it. This chapter will elaborate on <c>emerge</c>
20and teach you how to use <c>emerge</c> to fix all your software-related needs.
21</p> 18<p>
22 19Portage is probably Gentoo's most notable innovation in software management.
20With its high flexibility and enormous amount of features it is frequently seen
21as the best software management tool available for Linux.
23<p> 22</p>
24<c>emerge</c> is the command used to install, remove, query and maintain 23
25software packages. It is a front-end for <c>ebuild</c>; people interested in
26becoming Gentoo professionals will learn how to use <c>ebuild</c> later on. For
27now, we will focus on <c>emerge</c> as it has functionality that <c>ebuild</c>
28lacks (such as resolving dependencies, searching the Portage tree, etc.).
29</p> 24<p>
30 25Portage is completely written in <uri link="http://www.python.org">Python</uri>
26and <uri link="http://www.gnu.org/software/bash">Bash</uri> and therefore fully
27visible to the users as both are scripting languages.
31<p> 28</p>
32Since <c>emerge</c> is the most important tool for Gentoo users, it has an 29
33extensive manpage you can read by issuing <c>man emerge</c>. You can also view
34the in-command help by running <c>emerge --help</c>.
35</p> 30<p>
31Most users will work with Portage through the <c>emerge</c> tool. This chapter
32is not meant to duplicate the information available from the emerge man page.
33For a complete rundown of emerge's options, please consult the man page:
34</p>
36 35
37<pre caption="Retrieving help for emerge"> 36<pre caption="Reading the emerge man page">
38# <i>man emerge</i> 37$ <i>man emerge</i>
39# <i>emerge --help</i>
40</pre> 38</pre>
41 39
42</body>
43</subsection>
44<subsection>
45<title>The Portage Tree</title>
46<body> 40</body>
47
48<p>
49Before we continue describing <c>emerge</c>, let us first take a look at the
50Portage Tree. Go to <path>/usr/portage</path> and do a listing of the available
51directories. We use <c>ls --classify</c> to list the contents of a
52directory as it will show directories with a trailing "/".
53</p>
54
55<pre caption="Viewing the Portage Tree">
56# <i>cd /usr/portage; ls --classify</i>
57app-admin/ dev-ml/ gnome-libs/ net-print/
58app-arch/ dev-perl/ gnome-office/ net-wireless/
59app-benchmarks/ dev-php/ header.txt net-www/
60app-cdr/ dev-python/ incoming/ net-zope/
61app-crypt/ dev-ruby/ jython/ packages/
62app-dicts/ dev-tcltk/ kde-apps/ profiles/
63app-doc/ dev-tex/ kde-base/ releases/
64app-editors/ dev-util/ kde-i18n/ scripts/
65app-emacs/ distfiles/ kde-libs/ sec-policy/
66app-emulation/ eclass/ licenses/ skel.ChangeLog
67app-games/ experimental/ media-fonts/ skel.ebuild
68app-gnustep/ files/ media-gfx/ skel.metadata.xml
69app-i18n/ fresco-base/ media-libs/ snapshots/
70app-misc/ games-action/ media-plugins/ sys-apps/
71app-office/ games-arcade/ media-radio/ sys-build/
72app-pda/ games-board/ media-sound/ sys-cluster/
73app-portage/ games-emulation/ media-tv/ sys-devel/
74app-sci/ games-engines/ media-video/ sys-fs/
75app-shells/ games-fps/ metadata/ sys-kernel/
76app-text/ games-kids/ net-analyzer/ sys-kmods/
77app-vim/ games-misc/ net-apache/ sys-libs/
78app-xemacs/ games-mud/ net-dialup/ unix2tcp/
79berlin-base/ games-puzzle/ net-dns/ x11-base/
80dev-ada/ games-roguelike/ net-firewall/ x11-libs/
81dev-cpp/ games-rpg/ net-fs/ x11-misc/
82dev-db/ games-server/ net-ftp/ x11-plugins/
83dev-dotnet/ games-simulation/ net-im/ x11-terms/
84dev-embedded/ games-sports/ net-irc/ x11-themes/
85dev-games/ games-strategy/ net-libs/ x11-wm/
86dev-haskell/ games-util/ net-mail/ xfce-base/
87dev-java/ glep/ net-misc/ xfce-extra/
88dev-lang/ gnome-apps/ net-nds/
89dev-libs/ gnome-base/ net-news/
90dev-lisp/ gnome-extra/ net-p2p/
91</pre>
92
93<p>
94As you can see, the Portage tree has several subdirectories. Most of them are
95the <e>categories</e> in which the Gentoo packages reside. Take a look at, for
96instance, <path>app-office</path>:
97</p>
98
99<pre caption="Viewing a category">
100# <i>cd app-office; ls --classify</i>
101abiword/ gnotime/ kmymoney2/ ooodi/ plan/ timestamp.x
102dia/ gnucash/ koffice/ oooqs/ qhacc/
103dia2code/ gnumeric/ lxbank/ openoffice/ sc/
104facturalux/ ical/ lyx/ openoffice-bin/ scribus/
105gaby/ kbudget/ mdbtools/ openoffice-ximian/ siag/
106gnofin/ khacc/ mrproject/ phprojekt/ texmacs/
107</pre>
108
109<p>
110Inside a category you will find the packages belonging to that category, with a
111separate directory for each package. Let us take a look at the <c>openoffice</c>
112package:
113</p>
114
115<pre caption="Viewing a package">
116# <i>cd openoffice; ls --classify</i>
117ChangeLog files/ openoffice-1.0.3-r1.ebuild openoffice-1.1.0-r2.ebuild
118Manifest metadata.xml openoffice-1.1.0-r1.ebuild openoffice-1.1.0.ebuild
119</pre>
120
121<p>
122In the example directory, four ebuilds are stored. An <e>ebuild</e> is a script
123which contains all the necessary information about a specific version of a
124package. The naming for the ebuilds is almost identical; they only differ in
125the version name.
126You are free to view the contents of such an ebuild: they are plain scripts. We
127will not discuss it right now as it isn't important to know if you plan on just
128using Gentoo.
129</p>
130
131<p>
132The other files are the <path>ChangeLog</path> (which contains a listing of all
133the changes done to the ebuilds), <path>Manifest</path> (which contains the
134checksums and filesizes of all the files in the directory) and
135<path>metadata.xml</path> (which contains more information about the package,
136such as the responsible development group -- called <e>herd</e> -- and a more
137extensive description).
138</p>
139
140<p>
141Inside the <path>files</path> directory, you will find extra files, needed by
142Portage: digests (names, sizes and checksums of the files needed by a single
143version of the package), patches, example configuration files, etc.
144</p>
145
146<pre caption="Viewing the extra files">
147# <i>cd files; ls --classify</i>
1481.0.3/ digest-openoffice-1.0.3-r1 digest-openoffice-1.1.0-r1
1491.1.0/ digest-openoffice-1.1.0 digest-openoffice-1.1.0-r2
150# <i>cd 1.1.0; ls --classify</i>
151fixed-gcc.patch ooffice-wrapper-1.3
152newstlportfix.patch openoffice-1.1.0-linux-2.6-fix.patch
153no-mozab.patch openoffice-1.1.0-sparc64-fix.patch
154nptl.patch
155</pre>
156
157<p>
158If you go back to the root of the Portage tree (<path>/usr/portage</path>) you
159will notice that there are other, non-category directories, too. We will discuss
160those later in this chapter.
161</p>
162
163</body>
164</subsection>
165<subsection>
166<title>Search for a Package</title>
167<body>
168
169<p>
170If you are new to Linux or Gentoo, you might not know what tool you need for
171what job. To facilitate searching, <c>emerge</c> provides you with a way to
172search through the available packages on your system. There are two ways you can
173search through packages: by <e>name</e>, or by <e>name</e> and
174<e>description</e>.
175</p>
176
177<p>
178To search through the Portage tree by name, use <c>emerge search</c>. For
179instance, to find out more about <c>mozilla</c>:
180</p>
181
182<pre caption="Showing information about mozilla">
183# <i>emerge search mozilla</i>
184Searching...
185[ Results for search key : mozilla ]
186[ Applications found : 5 ]
187<comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
188* net-www/mozilla
189 Latest version available: 1.5-r1
190 Latest version installed: 1.4-r3
191 Size of downloaded files: 29,153 kB
192 Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org
193 Description: The Mozilla Web Browser
194
195* net-www/mozilla-firebird
196 Latest version available: 0.7
197 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
198 Size of downloaded files: 37,850 kB
199 Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org/projects/firebird/
200 Description: The Mozilla Firebird Web Browser
201<comment>(...)</comment>
202</pre>
203
204<p>
205If you want to include a search through the descriptions too, use the
206<c>--searchdesc</c> argument:
207</p>
208
209<pre caption="Search through the descriptions too">
210# <i>emerge --searchdesc mozilla</i>
211Searching...
212[ Results for search key : mozilla ]
213[ Applications found : 10 ]
214<comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
215* dev-libs/nss-3.8
216 Latest version available: 3.8
217 Latest version installed: 3.8
218 Size of downloaded files: 2,782 kB
219 Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org/projects/security/pki/nss/
220 Description: Mozilla's Netscape Security Services Library that implements PKI support
221</pre>
222
223<p>
224As you can see, the output of <c>emerge</c> informs you about the category and
225name of the package, the available version, the currently installed version,
226the size of the downloaded files, the homepage and the small description.
227</p>
228
229<p>
230You see something new? Yes, <e>downloaded files</e>. When you tell Portage to
231install a package, it of course needs to have the necessary sources (or
232precompiled packages) available. It therefore checks the contents of
233<path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> to see if the necessary files are already
234available. If not, it downloads the necessary files and places them in that
235directory.
236</p>
237
238</body>
239</subsection>
240<subsection>
241<title>Viewing the ChangeLog</title>
242<body>
243
244<p>
245While browsing through the Portage Tree, you saw that there was a ChangeLog for
246each package. You can view the ChangeLog entries between the available version
247and the installed version with <c>emerge</c> too. Use the
248<c>--pretend --changelog</c> (<c>-pl</c> in short) options. As an example we
249will view the ChangeLog entries for <c>gnumeric</c>:
250</p>
251
252<pre caption="Viewing the ChangeLog entries for gnumeric">
253# <i>emerge --pretend --changelog gnumeric</i>
254<comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
255*gnumeric-1.2.2
256
257 27 Nov 2003; foser &lt;foser@gentoo.org&gt; gnumeric-1.2.2.ebuild :
258 New release, requested in #34492
259 updated deps
260
261 12 Nov 2003; Jason Wever &lt;weeve@gentoo.org&gt; gnumeric-1.2.0.ebuild:
262 Marked stable on sparc, fixes bug #32405.
263
264 14 Oct 2003; Jason Wever &lt;weeve@gentoo.org&gt; gnumeric-1.0.8.ebuild:
265 Added ~sparc keyword. Fixes bug #31150.
266</pre>
267
268</body>
269</subsection>
270</section> 41</section>
271<section> 42<section>
272<title>Updating Portage</title> 43<title>The Portage Tree</title>
273<subsection>
274<title>Introduction</title>
275<body>
276
277<p>
278Searching through Portage is nice, but if you don't update your Portage Tree
279regularly, you will be stuck with the packages and versions available on your
280system. This means that your system will get outdated pretty soon and that
281you will be missing bugfixes and remedies for possible security problems.
282</p>
283
284<p>
285There are several ways to update your Portage Tree. The most popular method is
286by using one of our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">rsync mirrors</uri>.
287Another one is by using a Portage snapshot (in case a firewall or unavailability
288of a network prohibits the use of the rsync server).
289</p>
290
291</body>
292</subsection> 44<subsection>
45<title>Ebuilds</title>
46<body>
47
48<p>
49When we talk about packages, we often mean software titles that are available to
50the Gentoo users through the Portage tree. The Portage tree is a collection of
51<e>ebuilds</e>, files that contain all information Portage needs to maintain
52software (install, search, query, ...). These ebuilds reside in
53<path>/usr/portage</path> by default.
54</p>
55
56<p>
57Whenever you ask Portage to perform some action regarding software titles, it
58will use the ebuilds on your system as a base. It is therefore important that
59you regularly update the ebuilds on your system so Portage knows about new
60software, security updates, etc.
61</p>
62
63</body>
293<subsection> 64</subsection>
294<title>Selecting a Mirror for rsync</title>
295<body>
296
297<p>
298It is adviseable to first select a fast <uri
299link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror</uri> close to you. You can do this manually
300(by setting the <c>SYNC</c> variable in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>) or use
301<c>mirrorselect</c> to do this for you automatically. As the <c>SYNC</c>
302variable will be discussed later on, we will focus on using <c>mirrorselect</c>.
303First install <c>mirrorselect</c> by emerging it:
304</p>
305
306<pre caption="Installing mirrorselect">
307# <i>emerge --usepkg mirrorselect</i>
308</pre>
309
310<p>
311Now run <c>mirrorselect</c> to automatically select mirrors for you (it will
312also setup Portage to use a mirror for the source code):
313</p>
314
315<pre caption="Running mirrorselect">
316# <i>mirrorselect -a -s3</i>
317</pre>
318
319</body>
320</subsection> 65<subsection>
321<subsection>
322<title>Updating Portage</title> 66<title>Updating the Portage Tree</title>
323<body> 67<body>
324 68
325<p>
326To update Portage using rsync, simply run <c>emerge sync</c>:
327</p> 69<p>
70The Portage tree is usually updated with <uri
71link="http://rsync.samba.org/">rsync</uri>, a fast incremental file transfer
72utility. Updating is fairly simple as the <c>emerge</c> command provides a
73front-end for rsync:
74</p>
328 75
329<pre caption="Updating Portage using emerge sync"> 76<pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
330# <i>emerge sync</i> 77# <i>emerge --sync</i>
331</pre> 78</pre>
332 79
333<p>
334If this fails (due to network problems, or a firewall), you can try using
335<c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will download a Portage Tree snapshot using
336<c>wget</c>. This also means that you can use proxies if you want. We discussed
337how to setup your system to use proxies during the Gentoo installation.
338</p> 80<p>
81If you are unable to rsync due to firewall restrictions you can still update
82your Portage tree by using our daily generated Portage tree snapshots. The
83<c>emerge-webrsync</c> tool automatically fetches and installs the latest
84snapshot on your system:
85</p>
339 86
340<pre caption="Updating Portage using emerge-webrsync"> 87<pre caption="Running emerge-webrsync">
341# <i>emerge-webrsync</i> 88# <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
342</pre> 89</pre>
343 90
344</body> 91</body>
345</subsection> 92</subsection>
346</section> 93</section>
347<section> 94<section>
348<title>Maintaining Software</title> 95<title>Maintaining Software</title>
349<subsection> 96<subsection>
350<title>Building or Prebuilt?</title> 97<title>Searching for Software</title>
351<body>
352
353<p>
354Gentoo provides ebuilds, the Gentoo packages if you like. But when you want to
355install such an ebuild, you can choose between <e>building</e> the package and
356using a <e>prebuilt</e> package. But what are the advantages/disadvantages of
357both approaches, and can they be used next to each other?
358</p>
359
360<p>
361As you probably have guessed, building packages takes a lot of time (especially
362if you have little resources or want to build big packages, such as <uri
363link="http://www.kde.org">KDE</uri>, <uri
364link="http://www.openoffice.org">OpenOffice.org</uri>, etc.). By building the
365package, you can use the <c>USE</c> setting to tweak the package to your system.
366Of course, you can also define high optimization options (in the <c>CFLAGS</c>
367and <c>CXXFLAGS</c> variables) to compile the package with.
368</p>
369
370<p>
371Using prebuilt packages improves the installation time (as no more compilation
372is needed), but you will lose the advantages of the <c>USE</c> setting and the
373<c>CFLAGS</c> &amp; <c>CXXFLAGS</c> variables.
374</p>
375
376<p>
377As previously stated, prebuilt packages are stored in the
378<path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> directory, while the source code of the
379packages is placed in <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. If you have finished
380installing a package you can remove the package or source code from the
381respective directory. However, you might want to keep the package/source code of
382the latest version, just in case you want to reinstall the package (so you don't
383have to redownload it).
384</p>
385
386</body> 98<body>
387</subsection> 99
100<p>
101To search through the Portage tree after software titles, you can use
102<c>emerge</c> built-in search capabilities. By default, <c>emerge --search</c>
103returns the names of packages whose title matches (either fully or partially)
104the given search term.
105</p>
106
107<p>
108For instance, to search for all packages who have "pdf" in their name:
109</p>
110
111<pre caption="Searching for pdf-named packages">
112$ <i>emerge --search pdf</i>
113</pre>
114
115<p>
116If you want to search through the descriptions as well you can use the
117<c>--searchdesc</c> (or <c>-S</c>) switch:
118</p>
119
120<pre caption="Searching for pdf-related packages">
121$ <i>emerge --searchdesc pdf</i>
122</pre>
123
124<p>
125When you take a look at the output, you'll notice that it gives you a lot of
126information. The fields are clearly labelled so we won't go further into their
127meanings:
128</p>
129
130<pre caption="Example 'emerge --search' output">
131* net-print/cups-pdf
132 Latest version available: 1.5.2
133 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
134 Size of downloaded files: 15 kB
135 Homepage: http://cip.physik.uni-wuerzburg.de/~vrbehr/cups-pdf/
136 Description: Provides a virtual printer for CUPS to produce PDF files.
137 License: GPL-2
138</pre>
139
140</body>
388<subsection> 141</subsection>
142<subsection>
389<title>Installing Software from Sources</title> 143<title>Installing Software</title>
390<body> 144<body>
391 145
392<p> 146<p>
393Okay, enough talking, let's cut to the chase. To install a package, you will use 147Once you've found a software title to your liking, you can easily install it
394the <c>emerge</c> command. If you don't want to use any prebuilt packages, you 148with <c>emerge</c>: just add the package name. For instance, to install
395can just use <c>emerge &lt;package-name&gt;</c> or <c>emerge
396&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package-name&gt;</c>. As an example we'll install
397<c>gnumeric</c>: 149<c>gnumeric</c>:
398</p> 150</p>
399 151
400<pre caption="Building gnumeric"> 152<pre caption="Installing gnumeric">
401# <i>emerge gnumeric</i> 153# <i>emerge gnumeric</i>
402</pre> 154</pre>
403 155
404<p> 156<p>
405This will download the source code for you and unpacks, compiles and installs 157Since many applications depend on each other, any attempt to install a certain
406the package on your system. It will also do the same for all the dependencies. 158software package might result in the installation of several dependencies as
407If you want to see what dependencies will be installed with it, use the 159well. Don't worry, Portage handles dependencies well. If you want to find out
408<c>--pretend</c> option (<c>-p</c> in short): 160what Portage <e>would</e> install when you ask it to install a certain package,
161add the <c>--pretend</c> switch. For instance:
409</p> 162</p>
410 163
411<pre caption="Pretending to build gnumeric"> 164<pre caption="Pretend to install gnumeric">
412# <i>emerge --pretend gnumeric</i> 165# <i>emerge --pretend gnumeric</i>
413</pre> 166</pre>
414 167
415<p> 168<p>
416If you want to download the source code of the package and its dependencies, 169When you ask Portage to install a package, it will download the necessary source
417but don't want to build the package, use the <c>--fetchonly</c> option 170code from the internet (if necessary) and store it by default in
418(<c>-f</c> in short): 171<path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. After this it will unpack, compile and
172install the package. If you want Portage to only download the sources without
173installing them, add the <c>--fetchonly</c> option to the <c>emerge</c> command:
419</p> 174</p>
420 175
421<pre caption="Fetching sources for gnumeric"> 176<pre caption="Download the sourcecode for gnumeric">
422# <i>emerge --fetchonly gnumeric</i> 177# <i>emerge --fetchonly gnumeric</i>
423</pre> 178</pre>
424 179
425<p>
426If you want to see where <c>emerge</c> downloads the sources from, combine the
427<c>--fetchonly</c> and <c>--pretend</c> options:
428</p>
429
430<pre caption="Showing URLs of the sources for gnumeric">
431# <i>emerge --fetchonly --pretend gnumeric</i>
432</pre>
433
434<p>
435You can also opt to install a specific version of a package.
436For instance, if you want to install a gnumeric version older than 1.2 -- for
437any reason whatsoever :) you would type:
438</p>
439
440<pre caption="Installing a specific gnumeric version">
441# <i>emerge "&lt;gnumeric-1.2"</i>
442</pre>
443
444<p>
445Other possibilities are of course "&gt;" (later version) and "=" (the exact
446version).
447</p>
448
449</body> 180</body>
450</subsection>
451<subsection> 181</subsection>
452<title>Installing Prebuilt Packages</title>
453<body>
454
455<p>
456When you want to install a prebuilt package, you should use the <c>--usepkg</c>
457option (<c>-k</c> in short). This will use the binary package available in
458<path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> <e>if</e> the package and the version of
459the application you want to install match.
460</p>
461
462<pre caption="Installing a prebuilt package for gnumeric">
463# <i>emerge --usepkg gnumeric</i>
464</pre>
465
466<p>
467If you want to use the binary package, even if the versions don't match, use
468<c>--usepkgonly</c> (<c>-K</c> in short).
469</p>
470
471<pre caption="Installing the prebuilt package for gnumeric">
472# <i>emerge --usepkgonly gnumeric</i>
473</pre>
474
475<p>
476If you don't have the prebuilt package on your system yet, you can have
477<c>emerge</c> download it from a mirror, defined in the <c>PORTAGE_BINHOST</c>
478variable declared in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>.
479</p>
480
481<note>
482Gentoo does not have any server or mirror containing such prebuilt packages.
483Portage has been extended with this feature to fullfil the community request.
484</note>
485
486<p>
487To download the binary package in case this package doesn't exist on
488your system already, use <c>--getbinpkg</c> (<c>-g</c> in short):
489</p>
490
491<pre caption="Downloading and installing a prebuilt package for gnumeric">
492# <i>emerge --getbinpkg gnumeric</i>
493</pre>
494
495<p>
496This will download the package and the package-related information for you and
497install it on your system, together with the dependencies. If you want to see
498what dependencies will be installed with it, use the <c>--pretend</c> option
499(<c>-p</c> in short):
500</p>
501
502<pre caption="Pretending to download the prebuilt packages for gnumeric">
503# <i>emerge --getbinpkg --pretend gnumeric</i>
504</pre>
505
506<p>
507You can also opt to download the prebuilt package (and the package-related
508information) <e>without</e> checking the information on your local system and
509<e>without</e> using the prebuilt package already on your system (if
510applicable), use the <c>--getbinpkgonly</c> option (<c>-G</c> in short):
511</p>
512
513<pre caption="Installing a prebuilt package without using local information">
514# <i>emerge --getbinpkgonly gnumeric</i>
515</pre>
516
517<p>
518You can also opt to install a specific version of a package.
519For instance, if you want to install a gnumeric version older than 1.2 -- for
520any reason whatsoever :) you would type:
521</p>
522
523<pre caption="Installing a specific gnumeric version">
524# <i>emerge --usepkg "&lt;gnumeric-1.2"</i>
525</pre>
526
527<p>
528Other possibilities are of course "&gt;" (later version) and "=" (the exact
529version).
530</p>
531
532
533</body>
534</subsection> 182<subsection>
535<subsection> 183<title>Removing Software</title>
536<title>Working with Dependencies</title>
537<body> 184<body>
538 185
539<p>
540Portage has an extensive support for dependency handling. Although you usually
541don't need to even think about this (as dependencies are automatically handled
542by Portage) some users might want to know how you can work with <c>emerge</c>
543and dependencies.
544</p> 186<p>
545 187When you want to remove a software package from your system, use <c>emerge
188--unmerge</c>. This will tell Portage to remove all files installed by that
189package from your system <e>except</e> the configuration files of that
190application if you have altered those after the installation. Leaving the
191configuration files allows you to continue working with the package if you ever
192decide to install it again.
546<p> 193</p>
547For instance, if you want Portage to pretend that none of the dependencies of a 194
548package are installed, you can use <c>--emptytree</c> (<c>-e</c> in short). This
549is useful with <c>--pretend</c> to display a complete tree of dependencies for
550any particular package. Without <c>--pretend</c>, <c>emerge</c> will (re)compile
551all listed packages.
552</p> 195<p>
553 196However, a <brite>big warning</brite> applies: Portage will <e>not</e> check if
554<pre caption="Show all dependencies of gnumeric"> 197the package you want to remove is required by another package. It will however
555# <i>emerge --emptytree --pretend gnumeric</i> 198warn you when you want to remove an important package that breaks your system
556</pre> 199if you unmerge it.
557
558<p> 200</p>
559Another argument is <c>--nodeps</c>, which will ask Portage to try install the
560given package without taking care of the dependencies. It is trivial that this
561can lead to failures.
562</p>
563 201
564<pre caption="Installing gnumeric without taking care of the dependencies"> 202<pre caption="Removing gnumeric from the system">
565# <i>emerge --nodeps gnumeric</i> 203# <i>emerge --unmerge gnumeric</i>
566</pre> 204</pre>
567 205
568<p>
569The opposite of <c>--nodeps</c> is <c>--onlydeps</c>, which will have Portage
570install all dependencies of a given package, but not the package itself:
571</p> 206<p>
572 207When you remove a package from your system, the dependencies of that package
573<pre caption="Installing the dependencies of gnumeric"> 208that were installed automatically when you installed the software are left. To
574# <i>emerge --onlydeps gnumeric</i> 209have Portage locate all dependencies that can now be removed, use
575</pre> 210<c>emerge</c>'s <c>--depclean</c> functionality. We will talk about this later
576 211on.
577<p> 212</p>
578When you uninstall software Portage will not automatically unmerge the
579dependencies that aren't needed anymore. If you want to "clean" your system from
580those orphaned dependencies, you can use <c>emerge depclean</c>. This will
581search for all installed software that you haven't installed explicitly and that
582isn't a dependency of software that you have installed explicitly.
583</p>
584
585<warn>
586Using depclean can seriously impair your system. Use with caution and
587double-check the list of dependencies that Portage wants to remove before you go
588ahead!
589</warn>
590
591<pre caption="Listing and removing the orphaned dependencies">
592# <i>emerge -p depclean</i>
593<comment>(After seriously verifying the list, remove the orphaned dependencies)</comment>
594# <i>emerge depclean</i>
595</pre>
596 213
597</body> 214</body>
598</subsection> 215</subsection>
599<subsection> 216<subsection>
600<title>Updating your System</title> 217<title>Updating your System</title>
601<body> 218<body>
602 219
603<p> 220<p>
604Portage knows two special tags to denote a set of software packages: 221To keep your system in perfect shape (and not to mention install the latest
605<e>system</e> and <e>world</e>. You have already seen the former while 222security updates) you need to update your system regularly. Since Portage only
606installing Gentoo if you didn't use a <e>stage3</e> installation. To refresh 223checks the ebuilds in your Portage tree you first have to update your Portage
607things: <e>system</e> is the collection of <e>core</e> packages, necessary to 224tree. When your Portage tree is updated, you can update your system with
608have a working Gentoo system. 225<c>emerge --update world</c>:
609</p>
610
611<p> 226</p>
612The <e>world</e> tag consists of all software you have installed yourself on 227
613your system plus the <e>system</e> information. In other words, every time you 228<pre caption="Updating your system">
614emerge a package using <c>emerge &lt;package-name&gt;</c>, the 229# <i>emerge --update world</i>
615<c>&lt;package-name&gt;</c> is registered in the <e>world</e> file 230</pre>
616(<path>/var/cache/edb/world</path>). Dependencies are <e>not</e> part of the 231
617<e>world</e> file, but we will get to that later.
618</p> 232<p>
619 233Portage will then search for newer version of the applications you have
620<p> 234installed. However, it will only verify the versions for the applications you
621If you want to update the system packages, use the <c>--update</c> option 235have explicitly installed - not the dependencies. If you want to update every
622(<c>-u</c> in short): 236single package on your system, add the <c>--deep</c> argument:
623</p>
624
625<pre caption="Updating the system packages">
626# <i>emerge --update system</i>
627</pre>
628
629<p>
630An identical approach can be used for the world packages:
631</p> 237</p>
632 238
633<pre caption="Updating your entire system"> 239<pre caption="Updating your entire system">
634# <i>emerge --update world</i> 240# <i>emerge --update --deep world</i>
635</pre> 241</pre>
636 242
637<p>
638Again, if you want to see what <c>emerge</c> wants to update, use the
639<c>--pretend</c> option together with the <c>--update</c> option:
640</p> 243<p>
641 244If you have altered any of your <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>
642<pre caption="Pretending to update your entire system"> 245lately you might want to add <c>--newuse</c> as well. Portage will then verify
643# <i>emerge --pretend --update world</i> 246if the change requires the installation of new packages or recompilation of
644<comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment> 247existing ones:
645[ebuild U ] net-misc/wget-1.9-r1 [1.9]
646[ebuild UD] media-video/dvdauthor-0.5.0 [0.5.3]
647[ebuild U ] net-analyzer/ethereal-0.9.16 [0.9.14]
648</pre>
649
650<p> 248</p>
651Right next to the word "ebuild" you will notice a letter (or combination of 249
652letters) which gives you more information about the package: 250<pre caption="Performing a full update">
251# <i>emerge --update --deep --newuse world</i>
252</pre>
253
254</body>
255</subsection>
256<subsection>
257<title>Metapackages</title>
258<body>
259
260<p>
261Some packages in the Portage tree don't have any real content but are used to
262install a collection of packages. For instance, the <c>kde</c> package will
263install a complete KDE environment on your system by pulling in various
264KDE-related packages as dependencies.
265</p>
266
267<p>
268If you ever want to remove such a package from your system, running <c>emerge
269--unmerge</c> on the package won't have much effect as the dependencies remain
270on the system.
271</p>
272
273<p>
274Portage has the functionality to remove orphaned dependencies as well, but since
275the availability of software is dynamically dependent you first need to update
276your entire system fully, including the new changes you applied when changing
277USE flags. After this you can run <c>emerge --depclean</c> to remove the
278orphaned dependencies. When this is done, you need to rebuild the applications
279that were dynamically linked to the now-removed software titles but don't
280require them anymore.
281</p>
282
283<p>
284All this is handled with the following three commands:
285</p>
286
287<pre caption="Removing orphaned dependencies">
288# <i>emerge --update --deep --newuse world</i>
289# <i>emerge --depclean</i>
290# <i>revdep-rebuild</i>
291</pre>
292
293<p>
294<c>revdep-rebuild</c> is provided by the <c>gentoolkit</c> package; don't forget
295to emerge it first:
296</p>
297
298<pre caption="Installing the gentoolkit package">
299# <i>emerge gentoolkit</i>
300</pre>
301
302</body>
303</subsection>
304</section>
305<section>
306<title>When Portage is Complaining...</title>
307<subsection>
308<title>About SLOTs, Virtuals, Branches, Architectures and Profiles</title>
309<body>
310
311<p>
312As we stated before, Portage is extremely powerful and supports many features
313that other software management tools lack. To understand this, we explain a few
314aspects of Portage without going into too much detail.
315</p>
316
317<p>
318With Portage different versions of a single package can coexist on a system.
319While other distributions tend to name their package to those versions (like
320<c>freetype</c> and <c>freetype2</c>) Portage uses a technology called
321<e>SLOT</e>s. An ebuild declares a certain SLOT for its version. Ebuilds with
322different SLOTs can coexist on the same system. For instance, the
323<c>freetype</c> package has ebuilds with <c>SLOT="1"</c> and <c>SLOT="2"</c>.
324</p>
325
326<p>
327There are also packages that provide the same functionality but are implemented
328differently. For instance, <c>metalogd</c>, <c>sysklogd</c> and <c>syslog-ng</c>
329are all system loggers. Applications that rely on the availability of "a system
330logger" cannot depend on, for instance, <c>metalogd</c>, as the other system
331loggers are as good a choice as any. Portage allows for <e>virtuals</e>: each
332system logger provides <c>virtual/syslog</c> so that applications can depend on
333<c>virtual/syslog</c>.
334</p>
335
336<p>
337Software in the Portage tree can reside in different branches. By default your
338system only accepts packages that Gentoo deems stable. Most new software titles,
339when committed, are added to the testing branch, meaning more testing needs to
340be done before it is marked as stable. Although you will see the ebuilds for
341those software in the Portage tree, Portage will not update them before they are
342placed in the stable branch.
343</p>
344
345<p>
346Some software is only available for a few architectures. Or the software doesn't
347work on the other architectures, or it needs more testing, or the developer that
348committed the software to the Portage tree is unable to verify if the package
349works on different architectures.
350</p>
351
352<p>
353Each Gentoo installation adheres to a certain <c>profile</c> which contains,
354amongst other information, the list of packages that are required for a system
355to function normally.
356</p>
357
358</body>
359</subsection>
360<subsection id="blocked">
361<title>Blocked Packages</title>
362<body>
363
364<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (with --pretend)">
365[blocks B ] gnome-base/bonobo-activation (from pkg gnome-base/libbonobo-2.4.0)
366</pre>
367
368<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (without --pretend)">
369!!! Error: the gnome-base/bonobo-activation package conflicts with another package.
370!!! both can't be installed on the same system together.
371!!! Please use 'emerge --pretend' to determine blockers.
372</pre>
373
374<p>
375Ebuilds contain specific fields that inform Portage about its dependencies.
376There are two possible dependencies: build dependencies, declared in
377<c>DEPEND</c> and run-time dependencies, declared in <c>RDEPEND</c>. When one of
378these dependencies explicitly marks a package or virtual as being <e>not</e>
379compatible, it triggers a blockage.
380</p>
381
382<p>
383To fix a blockage, you can choose to not install the package or unmerge the
384conflicting package first. In the given example, you can opt not to install
385<c>libbonobo</c> or to remove <c>bonobo-activation</c> first.
386</p>
387
388</body>
389</subsection>
390<subsection id="masked">
391<title>Masked Packages</title>
392<body>
393
394<pre caption="Portage warning about masked packages">
395!!! all ebuilds that could satisfy "bootsplash" have been masked.
396</pre>
397
398<pre caption="Portage warning about masked packages - reason">
399!!! possible candidates are:
400
401- gnome-base/gnome-2.8.0_pre1 (masked by: <i>~x86 keyword</i>)
402- lm-sensors/lm-sensors-2.8.7 (masked by: <i>-sparc keyword</i>)
403- sys-libs/glibc-2.3.4.20040808 (masked by: <i>-* keyword</i>)
404- dev-util/cvsd-1.0.2 (masked by: <i>missing keyword</i>)
405- media-video/ati-gatos-4.3.0 (masked by: <i>package.mask</i>)
406- sys-libs/glibc-2.3.2-r11 (masked by: <i>profile</i>)
407</pre>
408
409<p>
410When you want to install a package that isn't available for your system, you
411will receive this masking error. You should try installing a different
412application that is available for your system or wait until the package is put
413available. There is always a reason why a package is masked:
653</p> 414</p>
654 415
655<ul> 416<ul>
656 <li> 417 <li>
657 <e>B</e> (blocks) The package listed to the left is blocking the emerge of 418 <b>~arch keyword</b> means that the application is not tested sufficiently
658 the package listed to the right 419 to be put in the stable branch. Wait a few days or weeks and try again.
659 </li> 420 </li>
660 <li> 421 <li>
661 <e>N</e> (new) The package is new to your system and will be emerged for the 422 <b>-arch keyword</b> or <b>-* keyword</b> means that the application does
662 first time 423 not work on your architecture. If you believe the package does work file
424 a bug at our <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> website.
663 </li> 425 </li>
664 <li> 426 <li>
665 <e>R</e> (replace) The package isn't new, but will be reemerged 427 <b>missing keyword</b> means that the application has not been tested on
428 your architecture yet. Ask the architecture porting team to test the package
429 or test it for them and report your findings on our <uri
430 link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> website.
666 </li> 431 </li>
667 <li> 432 <li>
668 <e>F</e> (fetch) The package requires that you download the source code 433 <b>package.mask</b> means that the package has been found corrupt, unstable
669 manually (for instance due to licencing issues) 434 or worse and has been deliberately marked as do-not-use.
670 </li> 435 </li>
671 <li> 436 <li>
672 <e>U</e> (update) The package already exists on your system but will be 437 <b>profile</b> means that the package has been found not suitable for your
673 upgraded 438 profile. The application might break your system if you installed it or is
674 </li> 439 just not compatible with the profile you use.
675 <li>
676 <e>UD</e> (downgrade) The package already exists on your system but will be
677 downgraded
678 </li> 440 </li>
679</ul> 441</ul>
680 442
681<p>
682We have mentioned that the <e>world</e> file doesn't contain dependencies. When
683you run <c>emerge --update world</c> only the packages mentioned in the
684<e>world</e> file and it's immediate dependencies are checked and, if necessary,
685upgraded. If you want <c>emerge</c> to check <e>all</e> the dependencies
686(including the dependencies of the dependencies), add the <c>--deep</c> flag:
687</p>
688
689<pre caption="Upgrading your entire system, including all dependencies">
690# <i>emerge --update --deep world</i>
691</pre>
692
693<p>
694Of course, we are talking here about <e>system</e> and <e>world</e>, but you can
695perform the same actions for individual software packages.
696</p>
697
698</body> 443</body>
699</subsection>
700<subsection> 444</subsection>
701<title>Removing Software</title> 445<subsection id="missingdependencies">
702<body> 446<title>Missing Dependencies</title>
703
704<p>
705If you want to remove software from your system, you can use the <c>unmerge</c>
706option (<c>-C</c> - capital C - in short):
707</p>
708
709<pre caption="Uninstalling software">
710# <i>emerge unmerge gnumeric</i>
711</pre>
712
713<p>
714If you want to test a removal (but not perform it), you can use <c>--pretend</c>
715again:
716</p>
717
718<pre caption="Pretending to uninstall software">
719# <i>emerge --pretend unmerge gnumeric</i>
720</pre>
721
722<warn>
723Portage doesn't verify if a package is a dependency for another
724installed package. It also doesn't warn you if the package is part of
725<e>system</e>, i.e. a core application necessary for the correct functioning of
726your system!
727</warn>
728
729<p>
730Once the unmerge begins you will see a long list of filenames belonging to the
731package. Some of these filenames will have a flag displayed to the
732left of the filename. The flags <c>!mtime</c>, <c>!empty</c>, and <c>cfgpro</c>
733specify reasons why certain files are not being removed while the package is.
734Files listed without any of these three flags are removed from the
735filesystem successfully. The three flags specify the following reasons:
736</p>
737
738<ul>
739 <li>
740 <c>!mtime</c> : The listed file has been changed since it was installed,
741 probably by you or some tool
742 </li>
743 <li>
744 <c>!empty</c> : The listed directory is not empty
745 </li>
746 <li>
747 <c>cfgpro</c> : This file is located inside a protected directory and will
748 not be touched for safety
749 </li>
750</ul>
751
752</body> 447<body>
753</subsection> 448
754</section> 449<pre caption="Portage warning about missing dependency">
755<section> 450emerge: there are no ebuilds to satisfy "&gt;=sys-devel/gcc-3.4.2-r4".
756<title>Working with Masked Packages</title> 451
452!!! Problem with ebuild sys-devel/gcc-3.4.2-r2
453!!! Possibly a DEPEND/*DEPEND problem.
454</pre>
455
456<p>
457The application you are trying to install depends on another package that is not
458available for your system. Please check <uri
459link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> if the issue is known and if not,
460please report it. Unless you are mixing branches this should not occur and is
461therefore a bug.
462</p>
463
464</body>
757<subsection> 465</subsection>
758<title>ARCH or not?</title> 466<subsection id="ambiguousebuild">
759<body> 467<title>Ambiguous Ebuild Name</title>
760
761<p>
762When a Gentoo developer puts an ebuild online it informs Portage how to treat
763the package depending on the architecture and stability of the software title.
764He does so by defining a variable called <c>KEYWORDS</c> inside the ebuild.
765This variable contains one or more architectures and marks them with a special
766flag. An explanation of the available flags is given in the next table.
767</p>
768
769<table>
770<tr>
771 <th>Flag</th>
772 <th>Description</th>
773</tr>
774<tr>
775 <ti>ARCH</ti>
776 <ti>Known to work well on the given architecture</ti>
777</tr>
778<tr>
779 <ti>~ARCH</ti>
780 <ti>
781 Probably works well but needs some further testing on the given
782 architecture
783 </ti>
784</tr>
785<tr>
786 <ti>-ARCH</ti>
787 <ti>Known not to work on the given architecture</ti>
788</tr>
789<tr>
790 <ti>-*</ti>
791 <ti>Known not to work or being extremely dangerous on any architecture</ti>
792</tr>
793</table>
794
795<p>
796Let's take a look at an example:
797</p>
798
799<pre caption="Example KEYWORDS setting">
800KEYWORDS="x86 -sparc ~alpha ~ppc"
801</pre>
802
803<p>
804This example can be read as follows:
805</p>
806
807<ul>
808 <li>
809 The ebuild works well on the x86 architecture
810 </li>
811 <li>
812 The ebuild doesn't work on the sparc architecture
813 </li>
814 <li>
815 The ebuild probably works on the alpha architecture but needs more testing
816 </li>
817 <li>
818 The ebuild probably works on the ppc architecture but needs more testing
819 </li>
820 <li>
821 The ebuild might work on the other architectures but hasn't been tried yet
822 </li>
823</ul>
824
825<p>
826Your system will use <e>ARCH</e> packages per default. If you want to live on
827the edge, don't mind having a broken package once in a while, know how to deal
828with a broken system and you like submitting bugreports to <uri
829link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugs.gentoo.org</uri>, then you can opt to use
830<e>~ARCH</e> packages. To "move" your system to a <e>~ARCH</e>-using system,
831edit the <c>ACCEPT_KEYWORDS</c> variable in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so that
832it reads <e>~ARCH</e> (again: for x86-based systems: <e>~x86</e>, etc.).
833</p>
834
835<p>
836Note though that it is far from trivial (if even impossible) to go back to
837<e>ARCH</e> from <e>~ARCH</e>.
838</p>
839
840<p>
841If you want to update your system now, you will notice that <e>a lot</e> of
842packages will be updated!
843</p>
844
845</body> 468<body>
846</subsection> 469
470<pre caption="Portage warning about ambiguous ebuild names">
471!!! The short ebuild name "aterm" is ambiguous. Please specify
472!!! one of the following fully-qualified ebuild names instead:
473
474 dev-libs/aterm
475 x11-terms/aterm
476</pre>
477
478<p>
479The application you want to install has a name that corresponds with more than
480one package. You need to supply the category name as well. Portage will inform
481you of possible matches to choose from.
482</p>
483
484</body>
847<subsection> 485</subsection>
848<title>Masked Packages</title> 486<subsection id="circulardependencies">
849<body> 487<title>Circular Dependencies</title>
850
851<p>
852When you want to install a package, you might come across the following message:
853</p>
854
855<pre caption="Message about masked packages">
856Calculating dependencies
857!!! <comment>all ebuilds that could satisfy </comment>&lt;your package&gt;<comment> have been masked.</comment>
858</pre>
859
860<p>
861A package can be masked due to several reasons:
862</p>
863
864<ol>
865 <li>The package is in <e>~ARCH</e> while you use <e>ARCH</e></li>
866 <li>The package is hard-masked explicitly</li>
867 <li>The package isn't available for your ARCH entirely</li>
868 <li>The package is masked by your profile</li>
869</ol>
870
871<p>
872Portage will inform you why a certain package cannot be installed:
873</p>
874
875<ul>
876 <li>
877 <b>~arch keyword</b>: the package is known to work on the given architecture
878 but requires more testing while your system requires that a package is
879 known to work well
880 </li>
881 <li>
882 <b>-arch keyword</b>: the package is known not to work on the given
883 architecture
884 </li>
885 <li>
886 <b>-* keyword</b>: the package is known not to work on any architecture
887 </li>
888 <li>
889 <b>package.mask</b>: the package is listed in the <path>package.mask</path>
890 file, meaning that it breaks something, crashes your system, has severe
891 security issues or worse
892 </li>
893 <li>
894 <b>profile</b>: the package is not available for your profile
895 </li>
896</ul>
897
898<p>
899If the package is masked because of <b>~arch keyword</b>, and you <e>really</e>
900want to install it (knowing that there <e>is</e> a reason why it isn't
901available in <e>ARCH</e>), you can accept the <e>~ARCH</e> version of any
902package by adding it to your <path>/etc/portage/package.keywords</path> file:
903</p>
904
905<pre caption="Accepting the ~ARCH version of a package">
906<comment>(Create the /etc/portage directory if it doesn't exist yet)</comment>
907# <i>mkdir /etc/portage</i>
908
909# <i>echo "app-office/gnumeric ~x86" &gt;&gt; /etc/portage/package.keywords</i>
910# <i>emerge gnumeric</i>
911</pre>
912
913<p>
914Similarly, if you want to install a package marked <b>-arch keyword</b> or <b>-*
915keyword</b> regardless of all the warnings we might put in front of you, edit
916<path>/etc/portage/package.keywords</path> and add the package with the required
917keyword:
918</p>
919
920<pre caption="Accepting the -arch or -* version of a package">
921<comment>(Create the /etc/portage directory if it doesn't exist yet)</comment>
922# <i>mkdir /etc/portage</i>
923
924# <i>echo "app-office/gnumeric -x86" &gt;&gt; /etc/portage/package.keywords</i>
925<comment>(or)</comment>
926# <i>echo "app-office/gnumeric -*" &gt;&gt; /etc/portage/package.keywords</i>
927# <i>emerge gnumeric</i>
928</pre>
929
930<p>
931If you only want to allow the merging of such a package for a specific version
932or version range, you can use the "&lt;, &lt;=, =, &gt;= or &gt;" operands:
933</p>
934
935<pre caption="Accepting a specific ~arch-marked version of a package">
936# <i>echo "=app-office/gnumeric-2.0 ~x86" &gt;&gt; /etc/portage/package.keywords</i>
937</pre>
938
939<p>
940A package is masked due to <b>package.mask</b> if it is listed in
941<path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path>. If you read this file, you
942will also read the reason why the package is hardmasked (it is usually added as
943a comment). If you want to install the package nevertheless (despite all the
944possible warnings we could ever throw at your head about "breaking your system",
945"breaks other packages", or "badly needs testing"), create the
946<path>/etc/portage/package.unmask</path> file and list the package in it (use
947the same format as is used in <path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path>).
948</p>
949
950<pre caption="Unmasking a hard-masked application">
951<comment>(Create the /etc/portage directory if it doesn't exist yet)</comment>
952# <i>mkdir /etc/portage</i>
953
954# <i>echo "=app-office/gnumeric-1.2.12" &gt;&gt; /etc/portage/package.unmask</i>
955</pre>
956
957<p>
958Do <e>not</e> alter the <path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path> file as
959all changes are undone the next time you update your Portage tree.
960</p>
961
962<p>
963Sometimes you might want to hardmask a (collection of) package(s). This is the
964case when newer versions of an application don't support something you require
965or when these versions break something else in your environment.
966</p>
967
968<p>
969To hard-mask a package, create <path>/etc/portage/package.mask</path> and list
970the package in it (use the same format as mentioned above).
971</p>
972
973<pre caption="Hard-masking a package">
974<comment>(Create the /etc/portage directory if it doesn't exist yet)</comment>
975# <i>mkdir /etc/portage</i>
976
977# <i>echo "&gt;app-office/gnumeric-1.2.10" &gt;&gt; /etc/portage/package.mask</i>
978</pre>
979
980<p>
981When Portage tells you that it cannot install a package due to <b>profile</b> it
982means that you are working with a certain profile that doesn't allow the package
983to be installed. But what is this "profile"?
984</p>
985
986<p>
987A profile contains a list of package names and a set of default configuration
988options to be used by Portage. Those files tell Portage which packages
989and which specific versions of those packages to allow, disallow, or
990treat as required. Users can switch profiles by changing a single symlink
991(<path>/etc/make.profile</path>).
992</p>
993
994<p>
995You cannot override a package that is blocked due to <b>profile</b>; if you
996really want to use it, switch to the required profile.
997</p>
998
999<p>
1000You will find more information in our <uri
1001link="/proj/en/releng/docs/cascading-profiles.xml">Cascading Profiles
1002Document</uri>.
1003</p>
1004
1005</body> 488<body>
1006</subsection> 489
490<pre caption="Portage warning about circular dependencies">
491!!! Error: circular dependencies:
492
493ebuild / net-print/cups-1.1.15-r2 depends on ebuild / app-text/ghostscript-7.05.3-r1
494ebuild / app-text/ghostscript-7.05.3-r1 depends on ebuild / net-print/cups-1.1.15-r2
495</pre>
496
497<p>
498Two (or more) packages you want to install depend on each other and can
499therefore not be installed. This is most likely a bug in the Portage tree.
500Please resync after a while and try again. You can also check <uri
501link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> if the issue is known and if not,
502report it.
503</p>
504
505</body>
1007<subsection> 506</subsection>
1008<title>Blocked Packages</title> 507<subsection id="fetchfailed">
508<title>Fetch failed</title>
509<body>
510
511<pre caption="Portage warning about fetch failed">
512!!! Fetch failed for sys-libs/ncurses-5.4-r5, continuing...
513<comment>(...)</comment>
514!!! Some fetch errors were encountered. Please see above for details.
515</pre>
516
517<p>
518Portage was unable to download the sources for the given application and will
519try to continue installing the other applications (if applicable). This failure
520can be due to a mirror that has not synchronised correctly or because the ebuild
521points to an incorrect location. The server where the sources reside can also be
522down for some reason.
523</p>
524
525<p>
526Retry after one hour to see if the issue still persists.
527</p>
528
1009<body> 529</body>
530</subsection>
531<subsection id="profileprotect">
532<title>System Profile Protection</title>
533<body>
1010 534
1011<p> 535<pre caption="Portage warning about profile-protected package">
1012You have a situation when you receive the following error on your screen: 536!!! Trying to unmerge package(s) in system profile. 'sys-apps/portage'
537!!! This could be damaging to your system.
538</pre>
539
1013</p> 540<p>
1014 541You have asked to remove a package that is part of your system's core packages.
1015<pre caption="Blocking package"> 542It is listed in your profile as required and should therefore not be removed
1016[blocks B ] gnome-base/bonobo-activation (from pkg gnome-base/libbonobo-2.4.0) 543from the system.
1017</pre>
1018
1019<p> 544</p>
1020In the above example, the package <c>bonobo-activation</c> is blocking the
1021emerge of <c>libbonobo</c>. To resolve this issue, remove the
1022<c>bonobo-activation</c> package and continue:
1023</p>
1024
1025<pre caption="Resolving a blocking situation">
1026# <i>emerge unmerge bonobo-activation</i>
1027</pre>
1028 545
1029</body> 546</body>
1030</subsection> 547</subsection>
1031</section> 548</section>
1032</sections> 549</sections>

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