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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.51 2005/05/17 14:39:26 neysx Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.65 2007/10/21 19:16:11 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10 10
11<abstract>
12This chapter explains the "simple" steps a user definitely needs to know to
13maintain the software on his system.
14</abstract>
15
11<version>1.46</version> 16<version>1.59</version>
12<date>2005-05-17</date> 17<date>2007-10-21</date>
13 18
14<section> 19<section>
15<title>Welcome to Portage</title> 20<title>Welcome to Portage</title>
16<body> 21<body>
17 22
178</pre> 183</pre>
179 184
180</body> 185</body>
181</subsection> 186</subsection>
182<subsection> 187<subsection>
188<title>Finding Installed Package Documentation</title>
189<body>
190
191<p>
192Many packages come with their own documentation. Sometimes, the <c>doc</c> USE
193flag determines whether the package documentation should be installed or not.
194You can check the existence of a <c>doc</c> USE flag with the <c>emerge -vp
195&lt;package name&gt;</c> command.
196</p>
197
198<pre caption="Checking the existence of a doc USE flag">
199<comment>(alsa-lib is just an example, of course.)</comment>
200# <i>emerge -vp alsa-lib</i>
201[ebuild N ] media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1 -debug +doc 698 kB
202</pre>
203
204<p>
205You can enable or disable the <c>doc</c> USE flag either globally in the
206<path>/etc/make.conf</path> file or per package in
207<path>/etc/portage/package.use</path>. The <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE
208Flags</uri> chapter covers this aspect in detail.
209</p>
210
211<p>
212Once the package installed, its documentation is generally found in a
213subdirectory named after the package under the <path>/usr/share/doc</path>
214directory. You can also list all installed files with the <c>equery</c> tool
215which is part of the <c>app-portage/gentoolkit</c> <uri
216link="/doc/en/gentoolkit.xml">package</uri>.
217</p>
218
219<pre caption="Locating package documentation">
220# <i>ls -l /usr/share/doc/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1</i>
221total 28
222-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 669 May 17 21:54 ChangeLog.gz
223-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 9373 May 17 21:54 COPYING.gz
224drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 8560 May 17 21:54 html
225-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 196 May 17 21:54 TODO.gz
226
227<comment>(Alternatively, use equery to locate interesting files:)</comment>
228# <i>equery files alsa-lib | less</i>
229media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1
230* Contents of media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1:
231/usr
232/usr/bin
233/usr/bin/alsalisp
234<comment>(Output truncated)</comment>
235</pre>
236
237</body>
238</subsection>
239<subsection>
183<title>Removing Software</title> 240<title>Removing Software</title>
184<body> 241<body>
185 242
186<p> 243<p>
187When you want to remove a software package from your system, use <c>emerge 244When you want to remove a software package from your system, use <c>emerge
220<p> 277<p>
221To keep your system in perfect shape (and not to mention install the latest 278To keep your system in perfect shape (and not to mention install the latest
222security updates) you need to update your system regularly. Since Portage only 279security updates) you need to update your system regularly. Since Portage only
223checks the ebuilds in your Portage tree you first have to update your Portage 280checks the ebuilds in your Portage tree you first have to update your Portage
224tree. When your Portage tree is updated, you can update your system with 281tree. When your Portage tree is updated, you can update your system with
225<c>emerge --update world</c>: 282<c>emerge --update world</c>. In the next example, we'll also use the
283<c>--ask</c> switch which will tell Portage to display the list of packages it
284wants to upgrade and ask you if you want to continue:
226</p> 285</p>
227 286
228<pre caption="Updating your system"> 287<pre caption="Updating your system">
229# <i>emerge --update world</i> 288# <i>emerge --update --ask world</i>
230</pre> 289</pre>
231 290
232<p> 291<p>
233Portage will then search for newer version of the applications you have 292Portage will then search for newer version of the applications you have
234installed. However, it will only verify the versions for the applications you 293installed. However, it will only verify the versions for the applications you
235have explicitly installed - not the dependencies. If you want to update every 294have <e>explicitly</e> installed (the applications listed in
236single package on your system, add the <c>--deep</c> argument: 295<path>/var/lib/portage/world</path>) - it does not thoroughly check their
296dependencies. If you want to update <e>every single package</e> on your system,
297add the <c>--deep</c> argument:
237</p> 298</p>
238 299
239<pre caption="Updating your entire system"> 300<pre caption="Updating your entire system">
240# <i>emerge --update --deep world</i> 301# <i>emerge --update --deep world</i>
241</pre> 302</pre>
303
304<p>
305Since security updates also happen in packages you have not explicitly installed
306on your system (but that are pulled in as dependencies of other programs), it
307is recommended to run this command once in a while.
308</p>
242 309
243<p> 310<p>
244If you have altered any of your <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri> 311If you have altered any of your <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>
245lately you might want to add <c>--newuse</c> as well. Portage will then verify 312lately you might want to add <c>--newuse</c> as well. Portage will then verify
246if the change requires the installation of new packages or recompilation of 313if the change requires the installation of new packages or recompilation of
360<subsection id="blocked"> 427<subsection id="blocked">
361<title>Blocked Packages</title> 428<title>Blocked Packages</title>
362<body> 429<body>
363 430
364<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (with --pretend)"> 431<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (with --pretend)">
365[blocks B ] gnome-base/bonobo-activation (from pkg gnome-base/libbonobo-2.4.0) 432[blocks B ] mail-mta/ssmtp (is blocking mail-mta/postfix-2.2.2-r1)
366</pre> 433</pre>
367 434
368<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (without --pretend)"> 435<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (without --pretend)">
369!!! Error: the gnome-base/bonobo-activation package conflicts with another package. 436!!! Error: the mail-mta/postfix package conflicts with another package.
370!!! both can't be installed on the same system together. 437!!! both can't be installed on the same system together.
371!!! Please use 'emerge --pretend' to determine blockers. 438!!! Please use 'emerge --pretend' to determine blockers.
372</pre> 439</pre>
373 440
374<p> 441<p>
380</p> 447</p>
381 448
382<p> 449<p>
383To fix a blockage, you can choose to not install the package or unmerge the 450To fix a blockage, you can choose to not install the package or unmerge the
384conflicting package first. In the given example, you can opt not to install 451conflicting package first. In the given example, you can opt not to install
385<c>libbonobo</c> or to remove <c>bonobo-activation</c> first. 452<c>postfix</c> or to remove <c>ssmtp</c> first.
453</p>
454
455<p>
456You may also see blocking packages with specific atoms, such as
457<b>&lt;</b>media-video/mplayer-bin-1.0_rc1-r2. In this case, updating to a more
458recent version of the blocking package would remove the block.
459</p>
460
461<p>
462It is also possible that two packages that are yet to be installed are blocking
463each other. In this rare case, you should find out why you need to install both.
464In most cases you can do with one of the packages alone. If not, please file a
465bug on <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">Gentoo's bugtracking system</uri>.
386</p> 466</p>
387 467
388</body> 468</body>
389</subsection> 469</subsection>
390<subsection id="masked"> 470<subsection id="masked">
400 480
401- gnome-base/gnome-2.8.0_pre1 (masked by: <i>~x86 keyword</i>) 481- gnome-base/gnome-2.8.0_pre1 (masked by: <i>~x86 keyword</i>)
402- lm-sensors/lm-sensors-2.8.7 (masked by: <i>-sparc keyword</i>) 482- lm-sensors/lm-sensors-2.8.7 (masked by: <i>-sparc keyword</i>)
403- sys-libs/glibc-2.3.4.20040808 (masked by: <i>-* keyword</i>) 483- sys-libs/glibc-2.3.4.20040808 (masked by: <i>-* keyword</i>)
404- dev-util/cvsd-1.0.2 (masked by: <i>missing keyword</i>) 484- dev-util/cvsd-1.0.2 (masked by: <i>missing keyword</i>)
405- media-video/ati-gatos-4.3.0 (masked by: <i>package.mask</i>) 485- games-fps/unreal-tournament-451 (masked by: <i>package.mask</i>)
406- sys-libs/glibc-2.3.2-r11 (masked by: <i>profile</i>) 486- sys-libs/glibc-2.3.2-r11 (masked by: <i>profile</i>)
407</pre> 487</pre>
408 488
409<p> 489<p>
410When you want to install a package that isn't available for your system, you 490When you want to install a package that isn't available for your system, you
543from the system. 623from the system.
544</p> 624</p>
545 625
546</body> 626</body>
547</subsection> 627</subsection>
628<subsection id="digesterror">
629<title>Digest Verification Failures</title>
630<body>
631
632<p>
633Sometimes, when you attempt to emerge a package, it will fail with the message:
634</p>
635
636<pre caption="Digest verification failure">
637&gt;&gt;&gt; checking ebuild checksums
638!!! Digest verification failed:
639</pre>
640
641<p>
642This is a sign that something is wrong with the Portage tree -- often, it is
643because a developer may have made a mistake when committing a package to the
644tree.
645</p>
646
647<p>
648When the digest verification fails, do <e>not</e> try to re-digest the package
649yourself. Running <c>ebuild foo digest</c> will not fix the problem; it will
650almost certainly make it worse!
651</p>
652
653<p>
654Instead, wait an hour or two for the tree to settle down. It's likely that the
655error was noticed right away, but it can take a little time for the fix to
656trickle down the Portage tree. While you're waiting, check <uri
657link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri> and see if anyone has reported
658the problem yet. If not, go ahead and file a bug for the broken package.
659</p>
660
661<p>
662Once you see that the bug has been fixed, you may want to re-sync to pick up
663the fixed digest.
664</p>
665
666<impo>
667This does <e>not</e> mean that you can re-sync your tree multiple times! As
668stated in the rsync policy (when you run <c>emerge --sync</c>), users who sync
669too often will be banned! In fact, it's better to just wait until your next
670scheduled sync, so that you don't overload the rsync servers.
671</impo>
672
673</body>
674</subsection>
548</section> 675</section>
549</sections> 676</sections>

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