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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.51 2005/05/17 14:39:26 neysx Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.75 2010/10/30 01:54:20 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10 10
11<abstract>
12This chapter explains the "simple" steps a user definitely needs to know to
13maintain the software on his system.
14</abstract>
15
11<version>1.46</version> 16<version>2</version>
12<date>2005-05-17</date> 17<date>2010-10-29</date>
13 18
14<section> 19<section>
15<title>Welcome to Portage</title> 20<title>Welcome to Portage</title>
16<body> 21<body>
17 22
178</pre> 183</pre>
179 184
180</body> 185</body>
181</subsection> 186</subsection>
182<subsection> 187<subsection>
188<title>Finding Installed Package Documentation</title>
189<body>
190
191<p>
192Many packages come with their own documentation. Sometimes, the <c>doc</c> USE
193flag determines whether the package documentation should be installed or not.
194You can check the existence of a <c>doc</c> USE flag with the <c>emerge -vp
195&lt;package name&gt;</c> command.
196</p>
197
198<pre caption="Checking the existence of a doc USE flag">
199<comment>(alsa-lib is just an example, of course.)</comment>
200# <i>emerge -vp alsa-lib</i>
201[ebuild N ] media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1 -debug +doc 698 kB
202</pre>
203
204<p>
205The best way of enabling the <c>doc</c> USE flag is doing it on a per-package
206basis via <path>/etc/portage/package.use</path>, so that you get documentation
207only for packages that you are interested in. Enabling this flag globally is
208known to cause problems with circular dependencies. For more information, please
209read the <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE Flags</uri> chapter.
210</p>
211
212<p>
213Once the package installed, its documentation is generally found in a
214subdirectory named after the package under the <path>/usr/share/doc</path>
215directory. You can also list all installed files with the <c>equery</c> tool
216which is part of the <c>app-portage/gentoolkit</c> <uri
217link="/doc/en/gentoolkit.xml">package</uri>.
218</p>
219
220<pre caption="Locating package documentation">
221# <i>ls -l /usr/share/doc/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1</i>
222total 28
223-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 669 May 17 21:54 ChangeLog.gz
224-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 9373 May 17 21:54 COPYING.gz
225drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 8560 May 17 21:54 html
226-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 196 May 17 21:54 TODO.gz
227
228<comment>(Alternatively, use equery to locate interesting files:)</comment>
229# <i>equery files alsa-lib | less</i>
230media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1
231* Contents of media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1:
232/usr
233/usr/bin
234/usr/bin/alsalisp
235<comment>(Output truncated)</comment>
236</pre>
237
238</body>
239</subsection>
240<subsection>
183<title>Removing Software</title> 241<title>Removing Software</title>
184<body> 242<body>
185 243
186<p> 244<p>
187When you want to remove a software package from your system, use <c>emerge 245When you want to remove a software package from your system, use <c>emerge
220<p> 278<p>
221To keep your system in perfect shape (and not to mention install the latest 279To keep your system in perfect shape (and not to mention install the latest
222security updates) you need to update your system regularly. Since Portage only 280security updates) you need to update your system regularly. Since Portage only
223checks the ebuilds in your Portage tree you first have to update your Portage 281checks the ebuilds in your Portage tree you first have to update your Portage
224tree. When your Portage tree is updated, you can update your system with 282tree. When your Portage tree is updated, you can update your system with
225<c>emerge --update world</c>: 283<c>emerge --update world</c>. In the next example, we'll also use the
284<c>--ask</c> switch which will tell Portage to display the list of packages it
285wants to upgrade and ask you if you want to continue:
226</p> 286</p>
227 287
228<pre caption="Updating your system"> 288<pre caption="Updating your system">
229# <i>emerge --update world</i> 289# <i>emerge --update --ask world</i>
230</pre> 290</pre>
231 291
232<p> 292<p>
233Portage will then search for newer version of the applications you have 293Portage will then search for newer version of the applications you have
234installed. However, it will only verify the versions for the applications you 294installed. However, it will only verify the versions for the applications you
235have explicitly installed - not the dependencies. If you want to update every 295have <e>explicitly</e> installed (the applications listed in
236single package on your system, add the <c>--deep</c> argument: 296<path>/var/lib/portage/world</path>) - it does not thoroughly check their
297dependencies. If you want to update <e>every single package</e> on your system,
298add the <c>--deep</c> argument:
237</p> 299</p>
238 300
239<pre caption="Updating your entire system"> 301<pre caption="Updating your entire system">
240# <i>emerge --update --deep world</i> 302# <i>emerge --update --deep world</i>
241</pre> 303</pre>
304
305<p>
306Since security updates also happen in packages you have not explicitly installed
307on your system (but that are pulled in as dependencies of other programs), it
308is recommended to run this command once in a while.
309</p>
242 310
243<p> 311<p>
244If you have altered any of your <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri> 312If you have altered any of your <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>
245lately you might want to add <c>--newuse</c> as well. Portage will then verify 313lately you might want to add <c>--newuse</c> as well. Portage will then verify
246if the change requires the installation of new packages or recompilation of 314if the change requires the installation of new packages or recompilation of
257<title>Metapackages</title> 325<title>Metapackages</title>
258<body> 326<body>
259 327
260<p> 328<p>
261Some packages in the Portage tree don't have any real content but are used to 329Some packages in the Portage tree don't have any real content but are used to
262install a collection of packages. For instance, the <c>kde</c> package will 330install a collection of packages. For instance, the <c>kde-meta</c> package will
263install a complete KDE environment on your system by pulling in various 331install a complete KDE environment on your system by pulling in various
264KDE-related packages as dependencies. 332KDE-related packages as dependencies.
265</p> 333</p>
266 334
267<p> 335<p>
300</pre> 368</pre>
301 369
302</body> 370</body>
303</subsection> 371</subsection>
304</section> 372</section>
373<section id="license">
374<title>Licenses</title>
375<subsection>
376<body>
377
378<p>
379Beginning with Portage version 2.1.7, you can accept or reject software
380installation based on its license. All packages in the tree contain a
381<c>LICENSE</c> entry in their ebuilds. Running <c>emerge --search
382packagename</c> will tell you the package's license.
383</p>
384
385<p>
386By default, Portage permits all licenses, except End User License Agreements
387(EULAs) that require reading and signing an acceptance agreement.
388</p>
389
390<p>
391The variable that controls permitted licenses is <c>ACCEPT_LICENSE</c>, which
392can be set in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
393</p>
394
395<pre caption="Default ACCEPT_LICENSE in /etc/make.conf">
396ACCEPT_LICENSE="* -@EULA"
397</pre>
398
399<p>
400With this configuration, packages that require interaction during installation
401to approve their EULA <e>will not</e> be installed. Packages without an EULA
402<e>will</e> be installed.
403</p>
404
405<p>
406You can set <c>ACCEPT_LICENSE</c> globally in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, or
407you can specify it on a per-package basis in
408<path>/etc/portage/package.license</path>.
409</p>
410
411<p>
412For example, if you want to allow the <c>truecrypt-2.7</c> license for
413<c>app-crypt/truecrypt</c>, add the following to
414<path>/etc/portage/package.license</path>:
415</p>
416
417<pre caption="Specifying a truecrypt license in package.license">
418app-crypt/truecrypt truecrypt-2.7
419</pre>
420
421<p>
422This permits installation of truecrypt versions that have the
423<c>truecrypt-2.7</c> license, but not versions with the <c>truecrypt-2.8</c>
424license.
425</p>
426
427<impo>
428Licenses are stored in <path>/usr/portage/licenses</path>, and license groups
429are kept in <path>/usr/portage/profiles/license_groups</path>. The first entry
430of each line in CAPITAL letters is the name of the license group, and every
431entry after that is an individual license.
432</impo>
433
434<p>
435License groups defined in <c>ACCEPT_LICENSE</c> are prefixed with an <b>@</b>
436sign. Here's an example of a system that globally permits the GPL-compatible
437license group, as well as a few other groups and individual licenses:
438</p>
439
440<pre caption="ACCEPT_LICENSE in /etc/make.conf">
441ACCEPT_LICENSE="@GPL-COMPATIBLE @OSI-APPROVED @EULA atheros-hal BitstreamVera"
442</pre>
443
444<p>
445If you want only free software and documentation on your system, you might use
446the following setup:
447</p>
448
449<pre caption="Use only free licenses">
450ACCEPT_LICENSE="-* @FREE"
451</pre>
452
453<p>
454In this case, "free" is mostly defined by the <uri
455link="http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/free-sw.html">FSF</uri> and <uri
456link="http://www.opensource.org/docs/osd">OSI</uri>. Any package whose license
457does not meet these requirements will not be installed on your system.
458</p>
459
460</body>
461</subsection>
462</section>
305<section> 463<section>
306<title>When Portage is Complaining...</title> 464<title>When Portage is Complaining...</title>
307<subsection> 465<subsection>
308<title>About SLOTs, Virtuals, Branches, Architectures and Profiles</title> 466<title>About SLOTs, Virtuals, Branches, Architectures and Profiles</title>
309<body> 467<body>
360<subsection id="blocked"> 518<subsection id="blocked">
361<title>Blocked Packages</title> 519<title>Blocked Packages</title>
362<body> 520<body>
363 521
364<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (with --pretend)"> 522<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (with --pretend)">
365[blocks B ] gnome-base/bonobo-activation (from pkg gnome-base/libbonobo-2.4.0) 523[blocks B ] mail-mta/ssmtp (is blocking mail-mta/postfix-2.2.2-r1)
366</pre> 524</pre>
367 525
368<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (without --pretend)"> 526<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (without --pretend)">
369!!! Error: the gnome-base/bonobo-activation package conflicts with another package. 527!!! Error: the mail-mta/postfix package conflicts with another package.
370!!! both can't be installed on the same system together. 528!!! both can't be installed on the same system together.
371!!! Please use 'emerge --pretend' to determine blockers. 529!!! Please use 'emerge --pretend' to determine blockers.
372</pre> 530</pre>
373 531
374<p> 532<p>
378these dependencies explicitly marks a package or virtual as being <e>not</e> 536these dependencies explicitly marks a package or virtual as being <e>not</e>
379compatible, it triggers a blockage. 537compatible, it triggers a blockage.
380</p> 538</p>
381 539
382<p> 540<p>
541While recent versions of Portage are smart enough to work around minor blockages
542without user intervention, occasionally you will need to fix it yourself, as
543explained below.
544</p>
545
546<p>
383To fix a blockage, you can choose to not install the package or unmerge the 547To fix a blockage, you can choose to not install the package or unmerge the
384conflicting package first. In the given example, you can opt not to install 548conflicting package first. In the given example, you can opt not to install
385<c>libbonobo</c> or to remove <c>bonobo-activation</c> first. 549<c>postfix</c> or to remove <c>ssmtp</c> first.
550</p>
551
552<p>
553You may also see blocking packages with specific atoms, such as
554<b>&lt;</b>media-video/mplayer-1.0_rc1-r2. In this case, updating to a more
555recent version of the blocking package would remove the block.
556</p>
557
558<p>
559It is also possible that two packages that are yet to be installed are blocking
560each other. In this rare case, you should find out why you need to install both.
561In most cases you can do with one of the packages alone. If not, please file a
562bug on <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">Gentoo's bugtracking system</uri>.
386</p> 563</p>
387 564
388</body> 565</body>
389</subsection> 566</subsection>
390<subsection id="masked"> 567<subsection id="masked">
400 577
401- gnome-base/gnome-2.8.0_pre1 (masked by: <i>~x86 keyword</i>) 578- gnome-base/gnome-2.8.0_pre1 (masked by: <i>~x86 keyword</i>)
402- lm-sensors/lm-sensors-2.8.7 (masked by: <i>-sparc keyword</i>) 579- lm-sensors/lm-sensors-2.8.7 (masked by: <i>-sparc keyword</i>)
403- sys-libs/glibc-2.3.4.20040808 (masked by: <i>-* keyword</i>) 580- sys-libs/glibc-2.3.4.20040808 (masked by: <i>-* keyword</i>)
404- dev-util/cvsd-1.0.2 (masked by: <i>missing keyword</i>) 581- dev-util/cvsd-1.0.2 (masked by: <i>missing keyword</i>)
405- media-video/ati-gatos-4.3.0 (masked by: <i>package.mask</i>) 582- games-fps/unreal-tournament-451 (masked by: <i>package.mask</i>)
406- sys-libs/glibc-2.3.2-r11 (masked by: <i>profile</i>) 583- sys-libs/glibc-2.3.2-r11 (masked by: <i>profile</i>)
584- net-im/skype-2.1.0.81 (masked by: skype-eula <i>license</i>(s))
407</pre> 585</pre>
408 586
409<p> 587<p>
410When you want to install a package that isn't available for your system, you 588When you want to install a package that isn't available for your system, you
411will receive this masking error. You should try installing a different 589will receive this masking error. You should try installing a different
436 <li> 614 <li>
437 <b>profile</b> means that the package has been found not suitable for your 615 <b>profile</b> means that the package has been found not suitable for your
438 profile. The application might break your system if you installed it or is 616 profile. The application might break your system if you installed it or is
439 just not compatible with the profile you use. 617 just not compatible with the profile you use.
440 </li> 618 </li>
619 <li>
620 <b>license</b> means that the package's license is not compatible with your
621 <c>ACCEPT_LICENSE</c> setting. You must explicitly permit its license or
622 license group by setting it in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> or in
623 <path>/etc/portage/package.license</path>. Refer to <uri
624 link="#license">Licenses</uri> to learn how licenses work.
625 </li>
441</ul> 626</ul>
442 627
443</body> 628</body>
444</subsection> 629</subsection>
445<subsection id="missingdependencies"> 630<subsection id="missingdependencies">
466<subsection id="ambiguousebuild"> 651<subsection id="ambiguousebuild">
467<title>Ambiguous Ebuild Name</title> 652<title>Ambiguous Ebuild Name</title>
468<body> 653<body>
469 654
470<pre caption="Portage warning about ambiguous ebuild names"> 655<pre caption="Portage warning about ambiguous ebuild names">
656[ Results for search key : listen ]
657[ Applications found : 2 ]
658
659* dev-tinyos/listen [ Masked ]
660 Latest version available: 1.1.15
661 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
662 Size of files: 10,032 kB
663 Homepage: http://www.tinyos.net/
664 Description: Raw listen for TinyOS
665 License: BSD
666
667* media-sound/listen [ Masked ]
668 Latest version available: 0.6.3
669 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
670 Size of files: 859 kB
671 Homepage: http://www.listen-project.org
672 Description: A Music player and management for GNOME
673 License: GPL-2
674
471!!! The short ebuild name "aterm" is ambiguous. Please specify 675!!! The short ebuild name "listen" is ambiguous. Please specify
472!!! one of the following fully-qualified ebuild names instead: 676!!! one of the above fully-qualified ebuild names instead.
473
474 dev-libs/aterm
475 x11-terms/aterm
476</pre> 677</pre>
477 678
478<p> 679<p>
479The application you want to install has a name that corresponds with more than 680The application you want to install has a name that corresponds with more than
480one package. You need to supply the category name as well. Portage will inform 681one package. You need to supply the category name as well. Portage will inform
543from the system. 744from the system.
544</p> 745</p>
545 746
546</body> 747</body>
547</subsection> 748</subsection>
749<subsection id="digesterror">
750<title>Digest Verification Failures</title>
751<body>
752
753<p>
754Sometimes, when you attempt to emerge a package, it will fail with the message:
755</p>
756
757<pre caption="Digest verification failure">
758&gt;&gt;&gt; checking ebuild checksums
759!!! Digest verification failed:
760</pre>
761
762<p>
763This is a sign that something is wrong with the Portage tree -- often, it is
764because a developer may have made a mistake when committing a package to the
765tree.
766</p>
767
768<p>
769When the digest verification fails, do <e>not</e> try to re-digest the package
770yourself. Running <c>ebuild foo manifest</c> will not fix the problem; it will
771almost certainly make it worse!
772</p>
773
774<p>
775Instead, wait an hour or two for the tree to settle down. It's likely that the
776error was noticed right away, but it can take a little time for the fix to
777trickle down the Portage tree. While you're waiting, check <uri
778link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri> and see if anyone has reported
779the problem yet. If not, go ahead and file a bug for the broken package.
780</p>
781
782<p>
783Once you see that the bug has been fixed, you may want to re-sync to pick up
784the fixed digest.
785</p>
786
787<impo>
788This does <e>not</e> mean that you can re-sync your tree multiple times! As
789stated in the rsync policy (when you run <c>emerge --sync</c>), users who sync
790too often will be banned! In fact, it's better to just wait until your next
791scheduled sync, so that you don't overload the rsync servers.
792</impo>
793
794</body>
795</subsection>
548</section> 796</section>
549</sections> 797</sections>

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