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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.51 2005/05/17 14:39:26 neysx Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.77 2011/10/13 16:58:14 swift Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10 10
11<abstract>
12This chapter explains the "simple" steps a user definitely needs to know to
13maintain the software on his system.
14</abstract>
15
11<version>1.46</version> 16<version>3</version>
12<date>2005-05-17</date> 17<date>2011-08-12</date>
13 18
14<section> 19<section>
15<title>Welcome to Portage</title> 20<title>Welcome to Portage</title>
16<body> 21<body>
17 22
178</pre> 183</pre>
179 184
180</body> 185</body>
181</subsection> 186</subsection>
182<subsection> 187<subsection>
188<title>Finding Installed Package Documentation</title>
189<body>
190
191<p>
192Many packages come with their own documentation. Sometimes, the <c>doc</c> USE
193flag determines whether the package documentation should be installed or not.
194You can check the existence of a <c>doc</c> USE flag with the <c>emerge -vp
195&lt;package name&gt;</c> command.
196</p>
197
198<pre caption="Checking the existence of a doc USE flag">
199<comment>(alsa-lib is just an example, of course.)</comment>
200# <i>emerge -vp alsa-lib</i>
201[ebuild N ] media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1 -debug +doc 698 kB
202</pre>
203
204<p>
205The best way of enabling the <c>doc</c> USE flag is doing it on a per-package
206basis via <path>/etc/portage/package.use</path>, so that you get documentation
207only for packages that you are interested in. Enabling this flag globally is
208known to cause problems with circular dependencies. For more information, please
209read the <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE Flags</uri> chapter.
210</p>
211
212<p>
213Once the package installed, its documentation is generally found in a
214subdirectory named after the package under the <path>/usr/share/doc</path>
215directory. You can also list all installed files with the <c>equery</c> tool
216which is part of the <c>app-portage/gentoolkit</c> <uri
217link="/doc/en/gentoolkit.xml">package</uri>.
218</p>
219
220<pre caption="Locating package documentation">
221# <i>ls -l /usr/share/doc/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1</i>
222total 28
223-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 669 May 17 21:54 ChangeLog.gz
224-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 9373 May 17 21:54 COPYING.gz
225drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 8560 May 17 21:54 html
226-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 196 May 17 21:54 TODO.gz
227
228<comment>(Alternatively, use equery to locate interesting files:)</comment>
229# <i>equery files alsa-lib | less</i>
230media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1
231* Contents of media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1:
232/usr
233/usr/bin
234/usr/bin/alsalisp
235<comment>(Output truncated)</comment>
236</pre>
237
238</body>
239</subsection>
240<subsection>
183<title>Removing Software</title> 241<title>Removing Software</title>
184<body> 242<body>
185 243
186<p> 244<p>
187When you want to remove a software package from your system, use <c>emerge 245When you want to remove a software package from your system, use <c>emerge
220<p> 278<p>
221To keep your system in perfect shape (and not to mention install the latest 279To keep your system in perfect shape (and not to mention install the latest
222security updates) you need to update your system regularly. Since Portage only 280security updates) you need to update your system regularly. Since Portage only
223checks the ebuilds in your Portage tree you first have to update your Portage 281checks the ebuilds in your Portage tree you first have to update your Portage
224tree. When your Portage tree is updated, you can update your system with 282tree. When your Portage tree is updated, you can update your system with
225<c>emerge --update world</c>: 283<c>emerge --update world</c>. In the next example, we'll also use the
284<c>--ask</c> switch which will tell Portage to display the list of packages it
285wants to upgrade and ask you if you want to continue:
226</p> 286</p>
227 287
228<pre caption="Updating your system"> 288<pre caption="Updating your system">
229# <i>emerge --update world</i> 289# <i>emerge --update --ask world</i>
230</pre> 290</pre>
231 291
232<p> 292<p>
233Portage will then search for newer version of the applications you have 293Portage will then search for newer version of the applications you have
234installed. However, it will only verify the versions for the applications you 294installed. However, it will only verify the versions for the applications you
235have explicitly installed - not the dependencies. If you want to update every 295have <e>explicitly</e> installed (the applications listed in
236single package on your system, add the <c>--deep</c> argument: 296<path>/var/lib/portage/world</path>) - it does not thoroughly check their
297dependencies. If you want to update the dependencies of those packages as well,
298add the <c>--deep</c> argument:
299</p>
300
301<pre caption="Updating your system with dependencies">
302# <i>emerge --update --deep world</i>
303</pre>
304
305<p>
306Still, this doesn't mean <e>all packages</e>: some packages on your system are
307needed during the compile and build process of packages, but once that package
308is installed, these dependencies are no longer required. Portage calls those
309<e>build dependencies</e>. To include those in an update cycle, add
310<c>--with-bdeps=y</c>:
237</p> 311</p>
238 312
239<pre caption="Updating your entire system"> 313<pre caption="Updating your entire system">
240# <i>emerge --update --deep world</i> 314# <i>emerge --update --deep --with-bdeps=y world</i>
315</pre>
316
317<p>
318Since security updates also happen in packages you have not explicitly installed
319on your system (but that are pulled in as dependencies of other programs), it
320is recommended to run this command once in a while.
241</pre> 321</p>
242 322
243<p> 323<p>
244If you have altered any of your <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri> 324If you have altered any of your <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>
245lately you might want to add <c>--newuse</c> as well. Portage will then verify 325lately you might want to add <c>--newuse</c> as well. Portage will then verify
246if the change requires the installation of new packages or recompilation of 326if the change requires the installation of new packages or recompilation of
247existing ones: 327existing ones:
248</p> 328</p>
249 329
250<pre caption="Performing a full update"> 330<pre caption="Performing a full update">
251# <i>emerge --update --deep --newuse world</i> 331# <i>emerge --update --deep --with-bdeps=y --newuse world</i>
252</pre> 332</pre>
253 333
254</body> 334</body>
255</subsection> 335</subsection>
256<subsection> 336<subsection>
257<title>Metapackages</title> 337<title>Metapackages</title>
258<body> 338<body>
259 339
260<p> 340<p>
261Some packages in the Portage tree don't have any real content but are used to 341Some packages in the Portage tree don't have any real content but are used to
262install a collection of packages. For instance, the <c>kde</c> package will 342install a collection of packages. For instance, the <c>kde-meta</c> package will
263install a complete KDE environment on your system by pulling in various 343install a complete KDE environment on your system by pulling in various
264KDE-related packages as dependencies. 344KDE-related packages as dependencies.
265</p> 345</p>
266 346
267<p> 347<p>
300</pre> 380</pre>
301 381
302</body> 382</body>
303</subsection> 383</subsection>
304</section> 384</section>
385<section id="license">
386<title>Licenses</title>
387<subsection>
388<body>
389
390<p>
391Beginning with Portage version 2.1.7, you can accept or reject software
392installation based on its license. All packages in the tree contain a
393<c>LICENSE</c> entry in their ebuilds. Running <c>emerge --search
394packagename</c> will tell you the package's license.
395</p>
396
397<p>
398By default, Portage permits all licenses, except End User License Agreements
399(EULAs) that require reading and signing an acceptance agreement.
400</p>
401
402<p>
403The variable that controls permitted licenses is <c>ACCEPT_LICENSE</c>, which
404can be set in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
405</p>
406
407<pre caption="Default ACCEPT_LICENSE in /etc/make.conf">
408ACCEPT_LICENSE="* -@EULA"
409</pre>
410
411<p>
412With this configuration, packages that require interaction during installation
413to approve their EULA <e>will not</e> be installed. Packages without an EULA
414<e>will</e> be installed.
415</p>
416
417<p>
418You can set <c>ACCEPT_LICENSE</c> globally in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, or
419you can specify it on a per-package basis in
420<path>/etc/portage/package.license</path>.
421</p>
422
423<p>
424For example, if you want to allow the <c>truecrypt-2.7</c> license for
425<c>app-crypt/truecrypt</c>, add the following to
426<path>/etc/portage/package.license</path>:
427</p>
428
429<pre caption="Specifying a truecrypt license in package.license">
430app-crypt/truecrypt truecrypt-2.7
431</pre>
432
433<p>
434This permits installation of truecrypt versions that have the
435<c>truecrypt-2.7</c> license, but not versions with the <c>truecrypt-2.8</c>
436license.
437</p>
438
439<impo>
440Licenses are stored in <path>/usr/portage/licenses</path>, and license groups
441are kept in <path>/usr/portage/profiles/license_groups</path>. The first entry
442of each line in CAPITAL letters is the name of the license group, and every
443entry after that is an individual license.
444</impo>
445
446<p>
447License groups defined in <c>ACCEPT_LICENSE</c> are prefixed with an <b>@</b>
448sign. Here's an example of a system that globally permits the GPL-compatible
449license group, as well as a few other groups and individual licenses:
450</p>
451
452<pre caption="ACCEPT_LICENSE in /etc/make.conf">
453ACCEPT_LICENSE="@GPL-COMPATIBLE @OSI-APPROVED @EULA atheros-hal BitstreamVera"
454</pre>
455
456<p>
457If you want only free software and documentation on your system, you might use
458the following setup:
459</p>
460
461<pre caption="Use only free licenses">
462ACCEPT_LICENSE="-* @FREE"
463</pre>
464
465<p>
466In this case, "free" is mostly defined by the <uri
467link="http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/free-sw.html">FSF</uri> and <uri
468link="http://www.opensource.org/docs/osd">OSI</uri>. Any package whose license
469does not meet these requirements will not be installed on your system.
470</p>
471
472</body>
473</subsection>
474</section>
305<section> 475<section>
306<title>When Portage is Complaining...</title> 476<title>When Portage is Complaining...</title>
307<subsection> 477<subsection>
308<title>About SLOTs, Virtuals, Branches, Architectures and Profiles</title> 478<title>About SLOTs, Virtuals, Branches, Architectures and Profiles</title>
309<body> 479<body>
360<subsection id="blocked"> 530<subsection id="blocked">
361<title>Blocked Packages</title> 531<title>Blocked Packages</title>
362<body> 532<body>
363 533
364<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (with --pretend)"> 534<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (with --pretend)">
365[blocks B ] gnome-base/bonobo-activation (from pkg gnome-base/libbonobo-2.4.0) 535[blocks B ] mail-mta/ssmtp (is blocking mail-mta/postfix-2.2.2-r1)
366</pre> 536</pre>
367 537
368<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (without --pretend)"> 538<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (without --pretend)">
369!!! Error: the gnome-base/bonobo-activation package conflicts with another package. 539!!! Error: the mail-mta/postfix package conflicts with another package.
370!!! both can't be installed on the same system together. 540!!! both can't be installed on the same system together.
371!!! Please use 'emerge --pretend' to determine blockers. 541!!! Please use 'emerge --pretend' to determine blockers.
372</pre> 542</pre>
373 543
374<p> 544<p>
378these dependencies explicitly marks a package or virtual as being <e>not</e> 548these dependencies explicitly marks a package or virtual as being <e>not</e>
379compatible, it triggers a blockage. 549compatible, it triggers a blockage.
380</p> 550</p>
381 551
382<p> 552<p>
553While recent versions of Portage are smart enough to work around minor blockages
554without user intervention, occasionally you will need to fix it yourself, as
555explained below.
556</p>
557
558<p>
383To fix a blockage, you can choose to not install the package or unmerge the 559To fix a blockage, you can choose to not install the package or unmerge the
384conflicting package first. In the given example, you can opt not to install 560conflicting package first. In the given example, you can opt not to install
385<c>libbonobo</c> or to remove <c>bonobo-activation</c> first. 561<c>postfix</c> or to remove <c>ssmtp</c> first.
562</p>
563
564<p>
565You may also see blocking packages with specific atoms, such as
566<b>&lt;</b>media-video/mplayer-1.0_rc1-r2. In this case, updating to a more
567recent version of the blocking package would remove the block.
568</p>
569
570<p>
571It is also possible that two packages that are yet to be installed are blocking
572each other. In this rare case, you should find out why you need to install both.
573In most cases you can do with one of the packages alone. If not, please file a
574bug on <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">Gentoo's bugtracking system</uri>.
386</p> 575</p>
387 576
388</body> 577</body>
389</subsection> 578</subsection>
390<subsection id="masked"> 579<subsection id="masked">
400 589
401- gnome-base/gnome-2.8.0_pre1 (masked by: <i>~x86 keyword</i>) 590- gnome-base/gnome-2.8.0_pre1 (masked by: <i>~x86 keyword</i>)
402- lm-sensors/lm-sensors-2.8.7 (masked by: <i>-sparc keyword</i>) 591- lm-sensors/lm-sensors-2.8.7 (masked by: <i>-sparc keyword</i>)
403- sys-libs/glibc-2.3.4.20040808 (masked by: <i>-* keyword</i>) 592- sys-libs/glibc-2.3.4.20040808 (masked by: <i>-* keyword</i>)
404- dev-util/cvsd-1.0.2 (masked by: <i>missing keyword</i>) 593- dev-util/cvsd-1.0.2 (masked by: <i>missing keyword</i>)
405- media-video/ati-gatos-4.3.0 (masked by: <i>package.mask</i>) 594- games-fps/unreal-tournament-451 (masked by: <i>package.mask</i>)
406- sys-libs/glibc-2.3.2-r11 (masked by: <i>profile</i>) 595- sys-libs/glibc-2.3.2-r11 (masked by: <i>profile</i>)
596- net-im/skype-2.1.0.81 (masked by: skype-eula <i>license</i>(s))
407</pre> 597</pre>
408 598
409<p> 599<p>
410When you want to install a package that isn't available for your system, you 600When you want to install a package that isn't available for your system, you
411will receive this masking error. You should try installing a different 601will receive this masking error. You should try installing a different
436 <li> 626 <li>
437 <b>profile</b> means that the package has been found not suitable for your 627 <b>profile</b> means that the package has been found not suitable for your
438 profile. The application might break your system if you installed it or is 628 profile. The application might break your system if you installed it or is
439 just not compatible with the profile you use. 629 just not compatible with the profile you use.
440 </li> 630 </li>
631 <li>
632 <b>license</b> means that the package's license is not compatible with your
633 <c>ACCEPT_LICENSE</c> setting. You must explicitly permit its license or
634 license group by setting it in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> or in
635 <path>/etc/portage/package.license</path>. Refer to <uri
636 link="#license">Licenses</uri> to learn how licenses work.
637 </li>
441</ul> 638</ul>
639
640</body>
641</subsection>
642<subsection id="USEdependency">
643<title>Necessary USE Flag Changes</title>
644<body>
645
646<pre caption="Portage warning about USE flag change requirement">
647The following USE changes are necessary to proceed:
648#required by app-text/happypackage-2.0, required by happypackage (argument)
649>=app-text/feelings-1.0.0 test
650</pre>
651
652<p>
653The error message might also be displayed as follows, if <c>--autounmask</c>
654isn't set:
655</p>
656
657<pre caption="Portage error about USE flag change requirement">
658emerge: there are no ebuilds built with USE flags to satisfy "app-text/feelings[test]".
659!!! One of the following packages is required to complete your request:
660- app-text/feelings-1.0.0 (Change USE: +test)
661(dependency required by "app-text/happypackage-2.0" [ebuild])
662(dependency required by "happypackage" [argument])
663</pre>
664
665<p>
666Such warning or error occurs when you want to install a package which not only
667depends on another package, but also requires that that package is built with a
668particular USE flag (or set of USE flags). In the given example, the package
669<c>app-text/feelings</c> needs to be built with <c>USE="test"</c>, but this USE
670flag is not set on the system.
671</p>
672
673<p>
674To resolve this, either add the requested USE flag to your global USE flags in
675<path>/etc/make.conf</path>, or set it for the specific package in
676<path>/etc/portage/package.use</path>.
677</p>
442 678
443</body> 679</body>
444</subsection> 680</subsection>
445<subsection id="missingdependencies"> 681<subsection id="missingdependencies">
446<title>Missing Dependencies</title> 682<title>Missing Dependencies</title>
466<subsection id="ambiguousebuild"> 702<subsection id="ambiguousebuild">
467<title>Ambiguous Ebuild Name</title> 703<title>Ambiguous Ebuild Name</title>
468<body> 704<body>
469 705
470<pre caption="Portage warning about ambiguous ebuild names"> 706<pre caption="Portage warning about ambiguous ebuild names">
707[ Results for search key : listen ]
708[ Applications found : 2 ]
709
710* dev-tinyos/listen [ Masked ]
711 Latest version available: 1.1.15
712 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
713 Size of files: 10,032 kB
714 Homepage: http://www.tinyos.net/
715 Description: Raw listen for TinyOS
716 License: BSD
717
718* media-sound/listen [ Masked ]
719 Latest version available: 0.6.3
720 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
721 Size of files: 859 kB
722 Homepage: http://www.listen-project.org
723 Description: A Music player and management for GNOME
724 License: GPL-2
725
471!!! The short ebuild name "aterm" is ambiguous. Please specify 726!!! The short ebuild name "listen" is ambiguous. Please specify
472!!! one of the following fully-qualified ebuild names instead: 727!!! one of the above fully-qualified ebuild names instead.
473
474 dev-libs/aterm
475 x11-terms/aterm
476</pre> 728</pre>
477 729
478<p> 730<p>
479The application you want to install has a name that corresponds with more than 731The application you want to install has a name that corresponds with more than
480one package. You need to supply the category name as well. Portage will inform 732one package. You need to supply the category name as well. Portage will inform
543from the system. 795from the system.
544</p> 796</p>
545 797
546</body> 798</body>
547</subsection> 799</subsection>
800<subsection id="digesterror">
801<title>Digest Verification Failures</title>
802<body>
803
804<p>
805Sometimes, when you attempt to emerge a package, it will fail with the message:
806</p>
807
808<pre caption="Digest verification failure">
809&gt;&gt;&gt; checking ebuild checksums
810!!! Digest verification failed:
811</pre>
812
813<p>
814This is a sign that something is wrong with the Portage tree -- often, it is
815because a developer may have made a mistake when committing a package to the
816tree.
817</p>
818
819<p>
820When the digest verification fails, do <e>not</e> try to re-digest the package
821yourself. Running <c>ebuild foo manifest</c> will not fix the problem; it will
822almost certainly make it worse!
823</p>
824
825<p>
826Instead, wait an hour or two for the tree to settle down. It's likely that the
827error was noticed right away, but it can take a little time for the fix to
828trickle down the Portage tree. While you're waiting, check <uri
829link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri> and see if anyone has reported
830the problem yet. If not, go ahead and file a bug for the broken package.
831</p>
832
833<p>
834Once you see that the bug has been fixed, you may want to re-sync to pick up
835the fixed digest.
836</p>
837
838<impo>
839This does <e>not</e> mean that you can re-sync your tree multiple times! As
840stated in the rsync policy (when you run <c>emerge --sync</c>), users who sync
841too often will be banned! In fact, it's better to just wait until your next
842scheduled sync, so that you don't overload the rsync servers.
843</impo>
844
845</body>
846</subsection>
548</section> 847</section>
549</sections> 848</sections>

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