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2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
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3 6
4<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.1 2003/11/20 10:52:35 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.54 2005/06/11 12:16:14 swift Exp $ -->
5 8
6<sections> 9<sections>
10
11<version>1.49</version>
12<date>2005-06-11</date>
13
7<section> 14<section>
8<title>Obtaining Package Information</title> 15<title>Welcome to Portage</title>
9<subsection>
10<title>The Lord of All Tools: emerge</title>
11<body>
12
13</body> 16<body>
14</subsection> 17
15<subsection> 18<p>
16<title>Search for a Package</title> 19Portage is probably Gentoo's most notable innovation in software management.
20With its high flexibility and enormous amount of features it is frequently seen
21as the best software management tool available for Linux.
22</p>
23
24<p>
25Portage is completely written in <uri link="http://www.python.org">Python</uri>
26and <uri link="http://www.gnu.org/software/bash">Bash</uri> and therefore fully
27visible to the users as both are scripting languages.
28</p>
29
30<p>
31Most users will work with Portage through the <c>emerge</c> tool. This chapter
32is not meant to duplicate the information available from the emerge man page.
33For a complete rundown of emerge's options, please consult the man page:
34</p>
35
36<pre caption="Reading the emerge man page">
37$ <i>man emerge</i>
38</pre>
39
17<body> 40</body>
18
19</body>
20</subsection>
21</section> 41</section>
22<section> 42<section>
23<title>Updating Portage</title> 43<title>The Portage Tree</title>
24<subsection>
25<title>Using rsync</title>
26<body>
27
28</body>
29</subsection> 44<subsection>
45<title>Ebuilds</title>
46<body>
47
48<p>
49When we talk about packages, we often mean software titles that are available to
50the Gentoo users through the Portage tree. The Portage tree is a collection of
51<e>ebuilds</e>, files that contain all information Portage needs to maintain
52software (install, search, query, ...). These ebuilds reside in
53<path>/usr/portage</path> by default.
54</p>
55
56<p>
57Whenever you ask Portage to perform some action regarding software titles, it
58will use the ebuilds on your system as a base. It is therefore important that
59you regularly update the ebuilds on your system so Portage knows about new
60software, security updates, etc.
61</p>
62
63</body>
30<subsection> 64</subsection>
31<title>Using a Downloaded Snapshot</title> 65<subsection>
66<title>Updating the Portage Tree</title>
32<body> 67<body>
68
69<p>
70The Portage tree is usually updated with <uri
71link="http://rsync.samba.org/">rsync</uri>, a fast incremental file transfer
72utility. Updating is fairly simple as the <c>emerge</c> command provides a
73front-end for rsync:
74</p>
75
76<pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
77# <i>emerge --sync</i>
78</pre>
79
80<p>
81If you are unable to rsync due to firewall restrictions you can still update
82your Portage tree by using our daily generated Portage tree snapshots. The
83<c>emerge-webrsync</c> tool automatically fetches and installs the latest
84snapshot on your system:
85</p>
86
87<pre caption="Running emerge-webrsync">
88# <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
89</pre>
33 90
34</body> 91</body>
35</subsection> 92</subsection>
36</section> 93</section>
37<section> 94<section>
38<title>Maintaining Software</title> 95<title>Maintaining Software</title>
39<subsection> 96<subsection>
97<title>Searching for Software</title>
98<body>
99
100<p>
101To search through the Portage tree after software titles, you can use
102<c>emerge</c> built-in search capabilities. By default, <c>emerge --search</c>
103returns the names of packages whose title matches (either fully or partially)
104the given search term.
105</p>
106
107<p>
108For instance, to search for all packages who have "pdf" in their name:
109</p>
110
111<pre caption="Searching for pdf-named packages">
112$ <i>emerge --search pdf</i>
113</pre>
114
115<p>
116If you want to search through the descriptions as well you can use the
117<c>--searchdesc</c> (or <c>-S</c>) switch:
118</p>
119
120<pre caption="Searching for pdf-related packages">
121$ <i>emerge --searchdesc pdf</i>
122</pre>
123
124<p>
125When you take a look at the output, you'll notice that it gives you a lot of
126information. The fields are clearly labelled so we won't go further into their
127meanings:
128</p>
129
130<pre caption="Example 'emerge --search' output">
131* net-print/cups-pdf
132 Latest version available: 1.5.2
133 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
134 Size of downloaded files: 15 kB
135 Homepage: http://cip.physik.uni-wuerzburg.de/~vrbehr/cups-pdf/
136 Description: Provides a virtual printer for CUPS to produce PDF files.
137 License: GPL-2
138</pre>
139
140</body>
141</subsection>
142<subsection>
40<title>Installing Software</title> 143<title>Installing Software</title>
41<body> 144<body>
42 145
146<p>
147Once you've found a software title to your liking, you can easily install it
148with <c>emerge</c>: just add the package name. For instance, to install
149<c>gnumeric</c>:
150</p>
151
152<pre caption="Installing gnumeric">
153# <i>emerge gnumeric</i>
154</pre>
155
156<p>
157Since many applications depend on each other, any attempt to install a certain
158software package might result in the installation of several dependencies as
159well. Don't worry, Portage handles dependencies well. If you want to find out
160what Portage <e>would</e> install when you ask it to install a certain package,
161add the <c>--pretend</c> switch. For instance:
162</p>
163
164<pre caption="Pretend to install gnumeric">
165# <i>emerge --pretend gnumeric</i>
166</pre>
167
168<p>
169When you ask Portage to install a package, it will download the necessary source
170code from the internet (if necessary) and store it by default in
171<path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. After this it will unpack, compile and
172install the package. If you want Portage to only download the sources without
173installing them, add the <c>--fetchonly</c> option to the <c>emerge</c> command:
174</p>
175
176<pre caption="Download the sourcecode for gnumeric">
177# <i>emerge --fetchonly gnumeric</i>
178</pre>
179
43</body> 180</body>
44</subsection>
45<subsection> 181</subsection>
46<title>Updating Software</title> 182<subsection>
183<title>Finding Installed Package Documentation</title>
47<body> 184<body>
185
186<p>
187Many packages come with their own documentation. Sometimes, the <c>doc</c> USE
188flag determines whether the package documentation should be installed or not.
189You can check the existence of a <c>doc</c> USE flag with the <c>emerge -vp
190&lt;package name&gt;</c> command.
191</p>
192
193<pre caption="Checking the existence of a doc USE flag">
194<comment>(alsa-lib is just an example, of course.)</comment>
195# <i>emerge -vp alsa-lib</i>
196[ebuild N ] media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.9_rc3 +doc -jack 674 kB
197</pre>
198
199<p>
200You can enable or disable the <c>doc</c> USE flag either globally in the
201<path>/etc/make.conf</path> file or per package in the
202<path>/etc/portage/package.use</path> file. The <uri
203link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE Flags</uri> chapter covers this aspect in detail.
204</p>
205
206<p>
207Once the package installed, its documentation is generally found in a
208subdirectory named after the package under the <path>/usr/share/doc</path>
209directory. You can also list all installed files with the <c>equery</c> tool
210which is part of the <c>app-portage/gentoolkit</c> <uri
211link="/doc/en/gentoolkit.xml">package</uri>.
212</p>
213
214<pre caption="Locating package documentation">
215# <i>ls -l /usr/share/doc/alsa-lib-1.0.9_rc3</i>
216total 28
217-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 669 May 17 21:54 ChangeLog.gz
218-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 9373 May 17 21:54 COPYING.gz
219drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 8560 May 17 21:54 html
220-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 196 May 17 21:54 TODO.gz
221
222<comment>(Alternatively, use equery to locate interesting files:)</comment>
223# <i>equery files alsa-lib | less</i>
224media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.9_rc3
225* Contents of media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.9_rc3:
226/usr
227/usr/bin
228/usr/bin/alsalisp
229<comment>(Output truncated)</comment>
230</pre>
48 231
49</body> 232</body>
50</subsection> 233</subsection>
51<subsection> 234<subsection>
52<title>Removing Software</title> 235<title>Removing Software</title>
53<body> 236<body>
237
238<p>
239When you want to remove a software package from your system, use <c>emerge
240--unmerge</c>. This will tell Portage to remove all files installed by that
241package from your system <e>except</e> the configuration files of that
242application if you have altered those after the installation. Leaving the
243configuration files allows you to continue working with the package if you ever
244decide to install it again.
245</p>
246
247<p>
248However, a <brite>big warning</brite> applies: Portage will <e>not</e> check if
249the package you want to remove is required by another package. It will however
250warn you when you want to remove an important package that breaks your system
251if you unmerge it.
252</p>
253
254<pre caption="Removing gnumeric from the system">
255# <i>emerge --unmerge gnumeric</i>
256</pre>
257
258<p>
259When you remove a package from your system, the dependencies of that package
260that were installed automatically when you installed the software are left. To
261have Portage locate all dependencies that can now be removed, use
262<c>emerge</c>'s <c>--depclean</c> functionality. We will talk about this later
263on.
264</p>
265
266</body>
267</subsection>
268<subsection>
269<title>Updating your System</title>
270<body>
271
272<p>
273To keep your system in perfect shape (and not to mention install the latest
274security updates) you need to update your system regularly. Since Portage only
275checks the ebuilds in your Portage tree you first have to update your Portage
276tree. When your Portage tree is updated, you can update your system with
277<c>emerge --update world</c>:
278</p>
279
280<pre caption="Updating your system">
281# <i>emerge --update world</i>
282</pre>
283
284<p>
285Portage will then search for newer version of the applications you have
286installed. However, it will only verify the versions for the applications you
287have explicitly installed - not the dependencies. If you want to update every
288single package on your system, add the <c>--deep</c> argument:
289</p>
290
291<pre caption="Updating your entire system">
292# <i>emerge --update --deep world</i>
293</pre>
294
295<p>
296Since security updates also happen in packages you have not explicitly installed
297on your system (but that are pulled in as dependencies of other programs), it
298is recommended to run this command once in a while.
299</p>
300
301<p>
302If you have altered any of your <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>
303lately you might want to add <c>--newuse</c> as well. Portage will then verify
304if the change requires the installation of new packages or recompilation of
305existing ones:
306</p>
307
308<pre caption="Performing a full update">
309# <i>emerge --update --deep --newuse world</i>
310</pre>
311
312</body>
313</subsection>
314<subsection>
315<title>Metapackages</title>
316<body>
317
318<p>
319Some packages in the Portage tree don't have any real content but are used to
320install a collection of packages. For instance, the <c>kde</c> package will
321install a complete KDE environment on your system by pulling in various
322KDE-related packages as dependencies.
323</p>
324
325<p>
326If you ever want to remove such a package from your system, running <c>emerge
327--unmerge</c> on the package won't have much effect as the dependencies remain
328on the system.
329</p>
330
331<p>
332Portage has the functionality to remove orphaned dependencies as well, but since
333the availability of software is dynamically dependent you first need to update
334your entire system fully, including the new changes you applied when changing
335USE flags. After this you can run <c>emerge --depclean</c> to remove the
336orphaned dependencies. When this is done, you need to rebuild the applications
337that were dynamically linked to the now-removed software titles but don't
338require them anymore.
339</p>
340
341<p>
342All this is handled with the following three commands:
343</p>
344
345<pre caption="Removing orphaned dependencies">
346# <i>emerge --update --deep --newuse world</i>
347# <i>emerge --depclean</i>
348# <i>revdep-rebuild</i>
349</pre>
350
351<p>
352<c>revdep-rebuild</c> is provided by the <c>gentoolkit</c> package; don't forget
353to emerge it first:
354</p>
355
356<pre caption="Installing the gentoolkit package">
357# <i>emerge gentoolkit</i>
358</pre>
54 359
55</body> 360</body>
56</subsection> 361</subsection>
57</section> 362</section>
58<section> 363<section>
59<title>Software Availability</title> 364<title>When Portage is Complaining...</title>
60<subsection>
61<title>ARCH or not?</title>
62<body>
63
64</body>
65</subsection> 365<subsection>
366<title>About SLOTs, Virtuals, Branches, Architectures and Profiles</title>
367<body>
368
369<p>
370As we stated before, Portage is extremely powerful and supports many features
371that other software management tools lack. To understand this, we explain a few
372aspects of Portage without going into too much detail.
373</p>
374
375<p>
376With Portage different versions of a single package can coexist on a system.
377While other distributions tend to name their package to those versions (like
378<c>freetype</c> and <c>freetype2</c>) Portage uses a technology called
379<e>SLOT</e>s. An ebuild declares a certain SLOT for its version. Ebuilds with
380different SLOTs can coexist on the same system. For instance, the
381<c>freetype</c> package has ebuilds with <c>SLOT="1"</c> and <c>SLOT="2"</c>.
382</p>
383
384<p>
385There are also packages that provide the same functionality but are implemented
386differently. For instance, <c>metalogd</c>, <c>sysklogd</c> and <c>syslog-ng</c>
387are all system loggers. Applications that rely on the availability of "a system
388logger" cannot depend on, for instance, <c>metalogd</c>, as the other system
389loggers are as good a choice as any. Portage allows for <e>virtuals</e>: each
390system logger provides <c>virtual/syslog</c> so that applications can depend on
391<c>virtual/syslog</c>.
392</p>
393
394<p>
395Software in the Portage tree can reside in different branches. By default your
396system only accepts packages that Gentoo deems stable. Most new software titles,
397when committed, are added to the testing branch, meaning more testing needs to
398be done before it is marked as stable. Although you will see the ebuilds for
399those software in the Portage tree, Portage will not update them before they are
400placed in the stable branch.
401</p>
402
403<p>
404Some software is only available for a few architectures. Or the software doesn't
405work on the other architectures, or it needs more testing, or the developer that
406committed the software to the Portage tree is unable to verify if the package
407works on different architectures.
408</p>
409
410<p>
411Each Gentoo installation adheres to a certain <c>profile</c> which contains,
412amongst other information, the list of packages that are required for a system
413to function normally.
414</p>
415
416</body>
66<subsection> 417</subsection>
418<subsection id="blocked">
419<title>Blocked Packages</title>
420<body>
421
422<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (with --pretend)">
423[blocks B ] gnome-base/bonobo-activation (from pkg gnome-base/libbonobo-2.4.0)
424</pre>
425
426<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (without --pretend)">
427!!! Error: the gnome-base/bonobo-activation package conflicts with another package.
428!!! both can't be installed on the same system together.
429!!! Please use 'emerge --pretend' to determine blockers.
430</pre>
431
432<p>
433Ebuilds contain specific fields that inform Portage about its dependencies.
434There are two possible dependencies: build dependencies, declared in
435<c>DEPEND</c> and run-time dependencies, declared in <c>RDEPEND</c>. When one of
436these dependencies explicitly marks a package or virtual as being <e>not</e>
437compatible, it triggers a blockage.
438</p>
439
440<p>
441To fix a blockage, you can choose to not install the package or unmerge the
442conflicting package first. In the given example, you can opt not to install
443<c>libbonobo</c> or to remove <c>bonobo-activation</c> first.
444</p>
445
446</body>
447</subsection>
448<subsection id="masked">
67<title>Masked Packages</title> 449<title>Masked Packages</title>
68<body> 450<body>
69 451
452<pre caption="Portage warning about masked packages">
453!!! all ebuilds that could satisfy "bootsplash" have been masked.
454</pre>
455
456<pre caption="Portage warning about masked packages - reason">
457!!! possible candidates are:
458
459- gnome-base/gnome-2.8.0_pre1 (masked by: <i>~x86 keyword</i>)
460- lm-sensors/lm-sensors-2.8.7 (masked by: <i>-sparc keyword</i>)
461- sys-libs/glibc-2.3.4.20040808 (masked by: <i>-* keyword</i>)
462- dev-util/cvsd-1.0.2 (masked by: <i>missing keyword</i>)
463- media-video/ati-gatos-4.3.0 (masked by: <i>package.mask</i>)
464- sys-libs/glibc-2.3.2-r11 (masked by: <i>profile</i>)
465</pre>
466
467<p>
468When you want to install a package that isn't available for your system, you
469will receive this masking error. You should try installing a different
470application that is available for your system or wait until the package is put
471available. There is always a reason why a package is masked:
472</p>
473
474<ul>
475 <li>
476 <b>~arch keyword</b> means that the application is not tested sufficiently
477 to be put in the stable branch. Wait a few days or weeks and try again.
478 </li>
479 <li>
480 <b>-arch keyword</b> or <b>-* keyword</b> means that the application does
481 not work on your architecture. If you believe the package does work file
482 a bug at our <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> website.
483 </li>
484 <li>
485 <b>missing keyword</b> means that the application has not been tested on
486 your architecture yet. Ask the architecture porting team to test the package
487 or test it for them and report your findings on our <uri
488 link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> website.
489 </li>
490 <li>
491 <b>package.mask</b> means that the package has been found corrupt, unstable
492 or worse and has been deliberately marked as do-not-use.
493 </li>
494 <li>
495 <b>profile</b> means that the package has been found not suitable for your
496 profile. The application might break your system if you installed it or is
497 just not compatible with the profile you use.
498 </li>
499</ul>
500
70</body> 501</body>
71</subsection>
72<subsection> 502</subsection>
73<title>Blocked Packages</title> 503<subsection id="missingdependencies">
504<title>Missing Dependencies</title>
505<body>
506
507<pre caption="Portage warning about missing dependency">
508emerge: there are no ebuilds to satisfy "&gt;=sys-devel/gcc-3.4.2-r4".
509
510!!! Problem with ebuild sys-devel/gcc-3.4.2-r2
511!!! Possibly a DEPEND/*DEPEND problem.
512</pre>
513
514<p>
515The application you are trying to install depends on another package that is not
516available for your system. Please check <uri
517link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> if the issue is known and if not,
518please report it. Unless you are mixing branches this should not occur and is
519therefore a bug.
520</p>
521
74<body> 522</body>
523</subsection>
524<subsection id="ambiguousebuild">
525<title>Ambiguous Ebuild Name</title>
526<body>
527
528<pre caption="Portage warning about ambiguous ebuild names">
529!!! The short ebuild name "aterm" is ambiguous. Please specify
530!!! one of the following fully-qualified ebuild names instead:
531
532 dev-libs/aterm
533 x11-terms/aterm
534</pre>
535
536<p>
537The application you want to install has a name that corresponds with more than
538one package. You need to supply the category name as well. Portage will inform
539you of possible matches to choose from.
540</p>
541
542</body>
543</subsection>
544<subsection id="circulardependencies">
545<title>Circular Dependencies</title>
546<body>
547
548<pre caption="Portage warning about circular dependencies">
549!!! Error: circular dependencies:
550
551ebuild / net-print/cups-1.1.15-r2 depends on ebuild / app-text/ghostscript-7.05.3-r1
552ebuild / app-text/ghostscript-7.05.3-r1 depends on ebuild / net-print/cups-1.1.15-r2
553</pre>
554
555<p>
556Two (or more) packages you want to install depend on each other and can
557therefore not be installed. This is most likely a bug in the Portage tree.
558Please resync after a while and try again. You can also check <uri
559link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> if the issue is known and if not,
560report it.
561</p>
562
563</body>
564</subsection>
565<subsection id="fetchfailed">
566<title>Fetch failed</title>
567<body>
568
569<pre caption="Portage warning about fetch failed">
570!!! Fetch failed for sys-libs/ncurses-5.4-r5, continuing...
571<comment>(...)</comment>
572!!! Some fetch errors were encountered. Please see above for details.
573</pre>
574
575<p>
576Portage was unable to download the sources for the given application and will
577try to continue installing the other applications (if applicable). This failure
578can be due to a mirror that has not synchronised correctly or because the ebuild
579points to an incorrect location. The server where the sources reside can also be
580down for some reason.
581</p>
582
583<p>
584Retry after one hour to see if the issue still persists.
585</p>
586
587</body>
588</subsection>
589<subsection id="profileprotect">
590<title>System Profile Protection</title>
591<body>
592
593<pre caption="Portage warning about profile-protected package">
594!!! Trying to unmerge package(s) in system profile. 'sys-apps/portage'
595!!! This could be damaging to your system.
596</pre>
597
598<p>
599You have asked to remove a package that is part of your system's core packages.
600It is listed in your profile as required and should therefore not be removed
601from the system.
602</p>
75 603
76</body> 604</body>
77</subsection> 605</subsection>
78</section> 606</section>
79</sections> 607</sections>

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