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2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
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6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.44 2004/11/15 12:47:47 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.54 2005/06/11 12:16:14 swift Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10 10
11<version>1.42</version> 11<version>1.49</version>
12<date>October 24, 2004</date> 12<date>2005-06-11</date>
13 13
14<section> 14<section>
15<title>Welcome to Portage</title> 15<title>Welcome to Portage</title>
16<body> 16<body>
17 17
66<title>Updating the Portage Tree</title> 66<title>Updating the Portage Tree</title>
67<body> 67<body>
68 68
69<p> 69<p>
70The Portage tree is usually updated with <uri 70The Portage tree is usually updated with <uri
71link="http://rsync.gentoo.org">rsync</uri>, a fast incremental file transfer 71link="http://rsync.samba.org/">rsync</uri>, a fast incremental file transfer
72utility. Updating is fairly simple as the <c>emerge</c> command provides a 72utility. Updating is fairly simple as the <c>emerge</c> command provides a
73front-end for rsync: 73front-end for rsync:
74</p> 74</p>
75 75
76<pre caption="Updating the Portage tree"> 76<pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
97<title>Searching for Software</title> 97<title>Searching for Software</title>
98<body> 98<body>
99 99
100<p> 100<p>
101To search through the Portage tree after software titles, you can use 101To search through the Portage tree after software titles, you can use
102<c>emerge</c> built-in search capabilities. By default, <c>emerge search</c> 102<c>emerge</c> built-in search capabilities. By default, <c>emerge --search</c>
103returns the names of packages whose title matches (either fully or partially) 103returns the names of packages whose title matches (either fully or partially)
104the given search term. 104the given search term.
105</p> 105</p>
106 106
107<p> 107<p>
108For instance, to search for all packages who have "pdf" in their name: 108For instance, to search for all packages who have "pdf" in their name:
109</p> 109</p>
110 110
111<pre caption="Searching for pdf-named packages"> 111<pre caption="Searching for pdf-named packages">
112$ <i>emerge search pdf</i> 112$ <i>emerge --search pdf</i>
113</pre> 113</pre>
114 114
115<p> 115<p>
116If you want to search through the descriptions as well you can use the 116If you want to search through the descriptions as well you can use the
117<c>--searchdesc</c> (or <c>-S</c>) switch: 117<c>--searchdesc</c> (or <c>-S</c>) switch:
125When you take a look at the output, you'll notice that it gives you a lot of 125When you take a look at the output, you'll notice that it gives you a lot of
126information. The fields are clearly labelled so we won't go further into their 126information. The fields are clearly labelled so we won't go further into their
127meanings: 127meanings:
128</p> 128</p>
129 129
130<pre caption="Example emerge search output"> 130<pre caption="Example 'emerge --search' output">
131* net-print/cups-pdf 131* net-print/cups-pdf
132 Latest version available: 1.5.2 132 Latest version available: 1.5.2
133 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ] 133 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
134 Size of downloaded files: 15 kB 134 Size of downloaded files: 15 kB
135 Homepage: http://cip.physik.uni-wuerzburg.de/~vrbehr/cups-pdf/ 135 Homepage: http://cip.physik.uni-wuerzburg.de/~vrbehr/cups-pdf/
178</pre> 178</pre>
179 179
180</body> 180</body>
181</subsection> 181</subsection>
182<subsection> 182<subsection>
183<title>Finding Installed Package Documentation</title>
184<body>
185
186<p>
187Many packages come with their own documentation. Sometimes, the <c>doc</c> USE
188flag determines whether the package documentation should be installed or not.
189You can check the existence of a <c>doc</c> USE flag with the <c>emerge -vp
190&lt;package name&gt;</c> command.
191</p>
192
193<pre caption="Checking the existence of a doc USE flag">
194<comment>(alsa-lib is just an example, of course.)</comment>
195# <i>emerge -vp alsa-lib</i>
196[ebuild N ] media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.9_rc3 +doc -jack 674 kB
197</pre>
198
199<p>
200You can enable or disable the <c>doc</c> USE flag either globally in the
201<path>/etc/make.conf</path> file or per package in the
202<path>/etc/portage/package.use</path> file. The <uri
203link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE Flags</uri> chapter covers this aspect in detail.
204</p>
205
206<p>
207Once the package installed, its documentation is generally found in a
208subdirectory named after the package under the <path>/usr/share/doc</path>
209directory. You can also list all installed files with the <c>equery</c> tool
210which is part of the <c>app-portage/gentoolkit</c> <uri
211link="/doc/en/gentoolkit.xml">package</uri>.
212</p>
213
214<pre caption="Locating package documentation">
215# <i>ls -l /usr/share/doc/alsa-lib-1.0.9_rc3</i>
216total 28
217-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 669 May 17 21:54 ChangeLog.gz
218-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 9373 May 17 21:54 COPYING.gz
219drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 8560 May 17 21:54 html
220-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 196 May 17 21:54 TODO.gz
221
222<comment>(Alternatively, use equery to locate interesting files:)</comment>
223# <i>equery files alsa-lib | less</i>
224media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.9_rc3
225* Contents of media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.9_rc3:
226/usr
227/usr/bin
228/usr/bin/alsalisp
229<comment>(Output truncated)</comment>
230</pre>
231
232</body>
233</subsection>
234<subsection>
183<title>Removing Software</title> 235<title>Removing Software</title>
184<body> 236<body>
185 237
186<p> 238<p>
187When you want to remove a software package from your system, use <c>emerge 239When you want to remove a software package from your system, use <c>emerge
188unmerge</c>. This will tell Portage to remove all files installed by that 240--unmerge</c>. This will tell Portage to remove all files installed by that
189package from your system <e>except</e> the configuration files of that 241package from your system <e>except</e> the configuration files of that
190application if you have altered those after the installation. Leaving the 242application if you have altered those after the installation. Leaving the
191configuration files allows you to continue working with the package if you ever 243configuration files allows you to continue working with the package if you ever
192decide to install it again. 244decide to install it again.
193</p> 245</p>
198warn you when you want to remove an important package that breaks your system 250warn you when you want to remove an important package that breaks your system
199if you unmerge it. 251if you unmerge it.
200</p> 252</p>
201 253
202<pre caption="Removing gnumeric from the system"> 254<pre caption="Removing gnumeric from the system">
203# <i>emerge unmerge gnumeric</i> 255# <i>emerge --unmerge gnumeric</i>
204</pre> 256</pre>
205 257
206<p> 258<p>
207When you remove a package from your system, the dependencies of that package 259When you remove a package from your system, the dependencies of that package
208that were installed automatically when you installed the software are left. To 260that were installed automatically when you installed the software are left. To
209have Portage locate all dependencies that can now be removed, use 261have Portage locate all dependencies that can now be removed, use
210<c>emerge</c>'s <c>depclean</c> functionality. We will talk about this later on. 262<c>emerge</c>'s <c>--depclean</c> functionality. We will talk about this later
263on.
211</p> 264</p>
212 265
213</body> 266</body>
214</subsection> 267</subsection>
215<subsection> 268<subsection>
238<pre caption="Updating your entire system"> 291<pre caption="Updating your entire system">
239# <i>emerge --update --deep world</i> 292# <i>emerge --update --deep world</i>
240</pre> 293</pre>
241 294
242<p> 295<p>
296Since security updates also happen in packages you have not explicitly installed
297on your system (but that are pulled in as dependencies of other programs), it
298is recommended to run this command once in a while.
299</p>
300
301<p>
243If you have altered any of your <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri> 302If you have altered any of your <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>
244lately you might want to add <c>--newuse</c> as well. Portage will then verify 303lately you might want to add <c>--newuse</c> as well. Portage will then verify
245if the change requires the installation of new packages or recompilation of 304if the change requires the installation of new packages or recompilation of
246existing ones: 305existing ones:
247</p> 306</p>
251</pre> 310</pre>
252 311
253</body> 312</body>
254</subsection> 313</subsection>
255<subsection> 314<subsection>
256<title>Stub Packages</title> 315<title>Metapackages</title>
257<body> 316<body>
258 317
259<p> 318<p>
260Some packages in the Portage tree don't have any real content but are used to 319Some packages in the Portage tree don't have any real content but are used to
261install a collection of packages. For instance, the <c>kde</c> package will 320install a collection of packages. For instance, the <c>kde</c> package will
263KDE-related packages as dependencies. 322KDE-related packages as dependencies.
264</p> 323</p>
265 324
266<p> 325<p>
267If you ever want to remove such a package from your system, running <c>emerge 326If you ever want to remove such a package from your system, running <c>emerge
268unmerge</c> on the package won't have much effect as the dependencies remain on 327--unmerge</c> on the package won't have much effect as the dependencies remain
269the system. 328on the system.
270</p> 329</p>
271 330
272<p> 331<p>
273Portage has the functionality to remove orphaned dependencies as well, but since 332Portage has the functionality to remove orphaned dependencies as well, but since
274the availability of software is dynamically dependent you first need to update 333the availability of software is dynamically dependent you first need to update
275your entire system fully, including the new changes you applied when changing 334your entire system fully, including the new changes you applied when changing
276USE flags. After this you can run <c>emerge depclean</c> to remove the orphaned 335USE flags. After this you can run <c>emerge --depclean</c> to remove the
277dependencies. When this is done, you need to rebuild the applications that were 336orphaned dependencies. When this is done, you need to rebuild the applications
278dynamically linked to the now-removed software titles but don't require them 337that were dynamically linked to the now-removed software titles but don't
279anymore. 338require them anymore.
280</p> 339</p>
281 340
282<p> 341<p>
283All this is handled with the following three commands: 342All this is handled with the following three commands:
284</p> 343</p>
285 344
286<pre caption="Removing orphaned dependencies"> 345<pre caption="Removing orphaned dependencies">
287# <i>emerge --update --deep --newuse world</i> 346# <i>emerge --update --deep --newuse world</i>
288# <i>emerge depclean</i> 347# <i>emerge --depclean</i>
289# <i>revdep-rebuild</i> 348# <i>revdep-rebuild</i>
290</pre> 349</pre>
291 350
292<p> 351<p>
293<c>revdep-rebuild</c> is provided by the <c>gentoolkit</c> package; don't forget 352<c>revdep-rebuild</c> is provided by the <c>gentoolkit</c> package; don't forget
308<body> 367<body>
309 368
310<p> 369<p>
311As we stated before, Portage is extremely powerful and supports many features 370As we stated before, Portage is extremely powerful and supports many features
312that other software management tools lack. To understand this, we explain a few 371that other software management tools lack. To understand this, we explain a few
313aspects of Portage without going in too much detail. 372aspects of Portage without going into too much detail.
314</p> 373</p>
315 374
316<p> 375<p>
317With Portage different versions of a single package can coexist on a system. 376With Portage different versions of a single package can coexist on a system.
318While other distributions tend to name their package to those versions (like 377While other distributions tend to name their package to those versions (like
444<subsection id="missingdependencies"> 503<subsection id="missingdependencies">
445<title>Missing Dependencies</title> 504<title>Missing Dependencies</title>
446<body> 505<body>
447 506
448<pre caption="Portage warning about missing dependency"> 507<pre caption="Portage warning about missing dependency">
449emerge: there are no ebuilds to satisfy "&gt;=sys-devel/gcc-4.2-r4". 508emerge: there are no ebuilds to satisfy "&gt;=sys-devel/gcc-3.4.2-r4".
450 509
451!!! Problem with ebuild sys-devel/gcc-3.4.2-r2 510!!! Problem with ebuild sys-devel/gcc-3.4.2-r2
452!!! Possibly a DEPEND/*DEPEND problem. 511!!! Possibly a DEPEND/*DEPEND problem.
453</pre> 512</pre>
454 513

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