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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.54 2005/06/11 12:16:14 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.63 2007/03/25 23:58:47 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10 10
11<abstract>
12This chapter explains the "simple" steps a user definitely needs to know to
13maintain the software on his system.
14</abstract>
15
11<version>1.49</version> 16<version>1.57</version>
12<date>2005-06-11</date> 17<date>2007-03-25</date>
13 18
14<section> 19<section>
15<title>Welcome to Portage</title> 20<title>Welcome to Portage</title>
16<body> 21<body>
17 22
191</p> 196</p>
192 197
193<pre caption="Checking the existence of a doc USE flag"> 198<pre caption="Checking the existence of a doc USE flag">
194<comment>(alsa-lib is just an example, of course.)</comment> 199<comment>(alsa-lib is just an example, of course.)</comment>
195# <i>emerge -vp alsa-lib</i> 200# <i>emerge -vp alsa-lib</i>
196[ebuild N ] media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.9_rc3 +doc -jack 674 kB 201[ebuild N ] media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1 -debug +doc 698 kB
197</pre> 202</pre>
198 203
199<p> 204<p>
200You can enable or disable the <c>doc</c> USE flag either globally in the 205You can enable or disable the <c>doc</c> USE flag either globally in the
201<path>/etc/make.conf</path> file or per package in the 206<path>/etc/make.conf</path> file or per package in the
210which is part of the <c>app-portage/gentoolkit</c> <uri 215which is part of the <c>app-portage/gentoolkit</c> <uri
211link="/doc/en/gentoolkit.xml">package</uri>. 216link="/doc/en/gentoolkit.xml">package</uri>.
212</p> 217</p>
213 218
214<pre caption="Locating package documentation"> 219<pre caption="Locating package documentation">
215# <i>ls -l /usr/share/doc/alsa-lib-1.0.9_rc3</i> 220# <i>ls -l /usr/share/doc/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1</i>
216total 28 221total 28
217-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 669 May 17 21:54 ChangeLog.gz 222-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 669 May 17 21:54 ChangeLog.gz
218-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 9373 May 17 21:54 COPYING.gz 223-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 9373 May 17 21:54 COPYING.gz
219drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 8560 May 17 21:54 html 224drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 8560 May 17 21:54 html
220-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 196 May 17 21:54 TODO.gz 225-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 196 May 17 21:54 TODO.gz
221 226
222<comment>(Alternatively, use equery to locate interesting files:)</comment> 227<comment>(Alternatively, use equery to locate interesting files:)</comment>
223# <i>equery files alsa-lib | less</i> 228# <i>equery files alsa-lib | less</i>
224media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.9_rc3 229media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1
225* Contents of media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.9_rc3: 230* Contents of media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1:
226/usr 231/usr
227/usr/bin 232/usr/bin
228/usr/bin/alsalisp 233/usr/bin/alsalisp
229<comment>(Output truncated)</comment> 234<comment>(Output truncated)</comment>
230</pre> 235</pre>
272<p> 277<p>
273To keep your system in perfect shape (and not to mention install the latest 278To keep your system in perfect shape (and not to mention install the latest
274security updates) you need to update your system regularly. Since Portage only 279security updates) you need to update your system regularly. Since Portage only
275checks the ebuilds in your Portage tree you first have to update your Portage 280checks the ebuilds in your Portage tree you first have to update your Portage
276tree. When your Portage tree is updated, you can update your system with 281tree. When your Portage tree is updated, you can update your system with
277<c>emerge --update world</c>: 282<c>emerge --update world</c>. In the next example, we'll also use the
283<c>--ask</c> switch which will tell Portage to display the list of packages it
284wants to upgrade and ask you if you want to continue:
278</p> 285</p>
279 286
280<pre caption="Updating your system"> 287<pre caption="Updating your system">
281# <i>emerge --update world</i> 288# <i>emerge --update --ask world</i>
282</pre> 289</pre>
283 290
284<p> 291<p>
285Portage will then search for newer version of the applications you have 292Portage will then search for newer version of the applications you have
286installed. However, it will only verify the versions for the applications you 293installed. However, it will only verify the versions for the applications you
287have explicitly installed - not the dependencies. If you want to update every 294have <e>explicitly</e> installed (the applications listed in
288single package on your system, add the <c>--deep</c> argument: 295<path>/var/lib/portage/world</path>) - it does not thoroughly check their
296dependencies. If you want to update <e>every single package</e> on your system,
297add the <c>--deep</c> argument:
289</p> 298</p>
290 299
291<pre caption="Updating your entire system"> 300<pre caption="Updating your entire system">
292# <i>emerge --update --deep world</i> 301# <i>emerge --update --deep world</i>
293</pre> 302</pre>
418<subsection id="blocked"> 427<subsection id="blocked">
419<title>Blocked Packages</title> 428<title>Blocked Packages</title>
420<body> 429<body>
421 430
422<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (with --pretend)"> 431<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (with --pretend)">
423[blocks B ] gnome-base/bonobo-activation (from pkg gnome-base/libbonobo-2.4.0) 432[blocks B ] mail-mta/ssmtp (is blocking mail-mta/postfix-2.2.2-r1)
424</pre> 433</pre>
425 434
426<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (without --pretend)"> 435<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (without --pretend)">
427!!! Error: the gnome-base/bonobo-activation package conflicts with another package. 436!!! Error: the mail-mta/postfix package conflicts with another package.
428!!! both can't be installed on the same system together. 437!!! both can't be installed on the same system together.
429!!! Please use 'emerge --pretend' to determine blockers. 438!!! Please use 'emerge --pretend' to determine blockers.
430</pre> 439</pre>
431 440
432<p> 441<p>
438</p> 447</p>
439 448
440<p> 449<p>
441To fix a blockage, you can choose to not install the package or unmerge the 450To fix a blockage, you can choose to not install the package or unmerge the
442conflicting package first. In the given example, you can opt not to install 451conflicting package first. In the given example, you can opt not to install
443<c>libbonobo</c> or to remove <c>bonobo-activation</c> first. 452<c>postfix</c> or to remove <c>ssmtp</c> first.
453</p>
454
455<p>
456You may also see blocking packages with specific atoms, such as
457<b>&lt;</b>media-video/mplayer-bin-1.0_rc1-r2. In this case, updating to a more
458recent version of the blocking package would remove the block.
459</p>
460
461<p>
462It is also possible that two packages that are yet to be installed are blocking
463each other. In this rare case, you should find out why you need to install both.
464In most cases you can do with one of the packages alone. If not, please file a
465bug on <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">Gentoo's bugtracking system</uri>.
444</p> 466</p>
445 467
446</body> 468</body>
447</subsection> 469</subsection>
448<subsection id="masked"> 470<subsection id="masked">
601from the system. 623from the system.
602</p> 624</p>
603 625
604</body> 626</body>
605</subsection> 627</subsection>
628<subsection id="digesterror">
629<title>Digest Verification Failures</title>
630<body>
631
632<p>
633Sometimes, when you attempt to emerge a package, it will fail with the message:
634</p>
635
636<pre caption="Digest verification failure">
637&gt;&gt;&gt; checking ebuild checksums
638!!! Digest verification failed:
639</pre>
640
641<p>
642This is a sign that something is wrong with the Portage tree -- often, it is
643because a developer may have made a mistake when committing a package to the
644tree.
645</p>
646
647<p>
648When the digest verification fails, do <e>not</e> try to re-digest the package
649yourself. Running <c>ebuild foo digest</c> will not fix the problem; it will
650almost certainly make it worse!
651</p>
652
653<p>
654Instead, wait an hour or two for the tree to settle down. It's likely that the
655error was noticed right away, but it can take a little time for the fix to
656trickle down the Portage tree. While you're waiting, check <uri
657link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri> and see if anyone has reported
658the problem yet. If not, go ahead and file a bug for the broken package.
659</p>
660
661<p>
662Once you see that the bug has been fixed, you may want to re-sync to pick up
663the fixed digest.
664</p>
665
666<impo>
667This does <e>not</e> mean that you can re-sync your tree multiple times! As
668stated in the rsync policy (when you run <c>emerge --sync</c>), users who sync
669too often will be banned! In fact, it's better to just wait until your next
670scheduled sync, so that you don't overload the rsync servers.
671</impo>
672
673</body>
674</subsection>
606</section> 675</section>
607</sections> 676</sections>

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