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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.54 2005/06/11 12:16:14 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.72 2008/12/24 07:07:48 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10 10
11<abstract>
12This chapter explains the "simple" steps a user definitely needs to know to
13maintain the software on his system.
14</abstract>
15
11<version>1.49</version> 16<version>1.65</version>
12<date>2005-06-11</date> 17<date>2008-12-23</date>
13 18
14<section> 19<section>
15<title>Welcome to Portage</title> 20<title>Welcome to Portage</title>
16<body> 21<body>
17 22
191</p> 196</p>
192 197
193<pre caption="Checking the existence of a doc USE flag"> 198<pre caption="Checking the existence of a doc USE flag">
194<comment>(alsa-lib is just an example, of course.)</comment> 199<comment>(alsa-lib is just an example, of course.)</comment>
195# <i>emerge -vp alsa-lib</i> 200# <i>emerge -vp alsa-lib</i>
196[ebuild N ] media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.9_rc3 +doc -jack 674 kB 201[ebuild N ] media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1 -debug +doc 698 kB
197</pre> 202</pre>
198 203
199<p> 204<p>
200You can enable or disable the <c>doc</c> USE flag either globally in the 205The best way of enabling the <c>doc</c> USE flag is doing it on a per-package
201<path>/etc/make.conf</path> file or per package in the 206basis via <path>/etc/portage/package.use</path>, so that you get documentation
202<path>/etc/portage/package.use</path> file. The <uri 207only for packages that you are interested in. Enabling this flag globally is
203link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE Flags</uri> chapter covers this aspect in detail. 208known to cause problems with circular dependencies. For more information, please
209read the <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE Flags</uri> chapter.
204</p> 210</p>
205 211
206<p> 212<p>
207Once the package installed, its documentation is generally found in a 213Once the package installed, its documentation is generally found in a
208subdirectory named after the package under the <path>/usr/share/doc</path> 214subdirectory named after the package under the <path>/usr/share/doc</path>
210which is part of the <c>app-portage/gentoolkit</c> <uri 216which is part of the <c>app-portage/gentoolkit</c> <uri
211link="/doc/en/gentoolkit.xml">package</uri>. 217link="/doc/en/gentoolkit.xml">package</uri>.
212</p> 218</p>
213 219
214<pre caption="Locating package documentation"> 220<pre caption="Locating package documentation">
215# <i>ls -l /usr/share/doc/alsa-lib-1.0.9_rc3</i> 221# <i>ls -l /usr/share/doc/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1</i>
216total 28 222total 28
217-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 669 May 17 21:54 ChangeLog.gz 223-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 669 May 17 21:54 ChangeLog.gz
218-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 9373 May 17 21:54 COPYING.gz 224-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 9373 May 17 21:54 COPYING.gz
219drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 8560 May 17 21:54 html 225drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 8560 May 17 21:54 html
220-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 196 May 17 21:54 TODO.gz 226-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 196 May 17 21:54 TODO.gz
221 227
222<comment>(Alternatively, use equery to locate interesting files:)</comment> 228<comment>(Alternatively, use equery to locate interesting files:)</comment>
223# <i>equery files alsa-lib | less</i> 229# <i>equery files alsa-lib | less</i>
224media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.9_rc3 230media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1
225* Contents of media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.9_rc3: 231* Contents of media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1:
226/usr 232/usr
227/usr/bin 233/usr/bin
228/usr/bin/alsalisp 234/usr/bin/alsalisp
229<comment>(Output truncated)</comment> 235<comment>(Output truncated)</comment>
230</pre> 236</pre>
272<p> 278<p>
273To keep your system in perfect shape (and not to mention install the latest 279To keep your system in perfect shape (and not to mention install the latest
274security updates) you need to update your system regularly. Since Portage only 280security updates) you need to update your system regularly. Since Portage only
275checks the ebuilds in your Portage tree you first have to update your Portage 281checks the ebuilds in your Portage tree you first have to update your Portage
276tree. When your Portage tree is updated, you can update your system with 282tree. When your Portage tree is updated, you can update your system with
277<c>emerge --update world</c>: 283<c>emerge --update world</c>. In the next example, we'll also use the
284<c>--ask</c> switch which will tell Portage to display the list of packages it
285wants to upgrade and ask you if you want to continue:
278</p> 286</p>
279 287
280<pre caption="Updating your system"> 288<pre caption="Updating your system">
281# <i>emerge --update world</i> 289# <i>emerge --update --ask world</i>
282</pre> 290</pre>
283 291
284<p> 292<p>
285Portage will then search for newer version of the applications you have 293Portage will then search for newer version of the applications you have
286installed. However, it will only verify the versions for the applications you 294installed. However, it will only verify the versions for the applications you
287have explicitly installed - not the dependencies. If you want to update every 295have <e>explicitly</e> installed (the applications listed in
288single package on your system, add the <c>--deep</c> argument: 296<path>/var/lib/portage/world</path>) - it does not thoroughly check their
297dependencies. If you want to update <e>every single package</e> on your system,
298add the <c>--deep</c> argument:
289</p> 299</p>
290 300
291<pre caption="Updating your entire system"> 301<pre caption="Updating your entire system">
292# <i>emerge --update --deep world</i> 302# <i>emerge --update --deep world</i>
293</pre> 303</pre>
418<subsection id="blocked"> 428<subsection id="blocked">
419<title>Blocked Packages</title> 429<title>Blocked Packages</title>
420<body> 430<body>
421 431
422<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (with --pretend)"> 432<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (with --pretend)">
423[blocks B ] gnome-base/bonobo-activation (from pkg gnome-base/libbonobo-2.4.0) 433[blocks B ] mail-mta/ssmtp (is blocking mail-mta/postfix-2.2.2-r1)
424</pre> 434</pre>
425 435
426<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (without --pretend)"> 436<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (without --pretend)">
427!!! Error: the gnome-base/bonobo-activation package conflicts with another package. 437!!! Error: the mail-mta/postfix package conflicts with another package.
428!!! both can't be installed on the same system together. 438!!! both can't be installed on the same system together.
429!!! Please use 'emerge --pretend' to determine blockers. 439!!! Please use 'emerge --pretend' to determine blockers.
430</pre> 440</pre>
431 441
432<p> 442<p>
438</p> 448</p>
439 449
440<p> 450<p>
441To fix a blockage, you can choose to not install the package or unmerge the 451To fix a blockage, you can choose to not install the package or unmerge the
442conflicting package first. In the given example, you can opt not to install 452conflicting package first. In the given example, you can opt not to install
443<c>libbonobo</c> or to remove <c>bonobo-activation</c> first. 453<c>postfix</c> or to remove <c>ssmtp</c> first.
454</p>
455
456<p>
457You may also see blocking packages with specific atoms, such as
458<b>&lt;</b>media-video/mplayer-bin-1.0_rc1-r2. In this case, updating to a more
459recent version of the blocking package would remove the block.
460</p>
461
462<p>
463It is also possible that two packages that are yet to be installed are blocking
464each other. In this rare case, you should find out why you need to install both.
465In most cases you can do with one of the packages alone. If not, please file a
466bug on <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">Gentoo's bugtracking system</uri>.
444</p> 467</p>
445 468
446</body> 469</body>
447</subsection> 470</subsection>
448<subsection id="masked"> 471<subsection id="masked">
458 481
459- gnome-base/gnome-2.8.0_pre1 (masked by: <i>~x86 keyword</i>) 482- gnome-base/gnome-2.8.0_pre1 (masked by: <i>~x86 keyword</i>)
460- lm-sensors/lm-sensors-2.8.7 (masked by: <i>-sparc keyword</i>) 483- lm-sensors/lm-sensors-2.8.7 (masked by: <i>-sparc keyword</i>)
461- sys-libs/glibc-2.3.4.20040808 (masked by: <i>-* keyword</i>) 484- sys-libs/glibc-2.3.4.20040808 (masked by: <i>-* keyword</i>)
462- dev-util/cvsd-1.0.2 (masked by: <i>missing keyword</i>) 485- dev-util/cvsd-1.0.2 (masked by: <i>missing keyword</i>)
463- media-video/ati-gatos-4.3.0 (masked by: <i>package.mask</i>) 486- games-fps/unreal-tournament-451 (masked by: <i>package.mask</i>)
464- sys-libs/glibc-2.3.2-r11 (masked by: <i>profile</i>) 487- sys-libs/glibc-2.3.2-r11 (masked by: <i>profile</i>)
465</pre> 488</pre>
466 489
467<p> 490<p>
468When you want to install a package that isn't available for your system, you 491When you want to install a package that isn't available for your system, you
601from the system. 624from the system.
602</p> 625</p>
603 626
604</body> 627</body>
605</subsection> 628</subsection>
629<subsection id="digesterror">
630<title>Digest Verification Failures</title>
631<body>
632
633<p>
634Sometimes, when you attempt to emerge a package, it will fail with the message:
635</p>
636
637<pre caption="Digest verification failure">
638&gt;&gt;&gt; checking ebuild checksums
639!!! Digest verification failed:
640</pre>
641
642<p>
643This is a sign that something is wrong with the Portage tree -- often, it is
644because a developer may have made a mistake when committing a package to the
645tree.
646</p>
647
648<p>
649When the digest verification fails, do <e>not</e> try to re-digest the package
650yourself. Running <c>ebuild foo manifest</c> will not fix the problem; it will
651almost certainly make it worse!
652</p>
653
654<p>
655Instead, wait an hour or two for the tree to settle down. It's likely that the
656error was noticed right away, but it can take a little time for the fix to
657trickle down the Portage tree. While you're waiting, check <uri
658link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri> and see if anyone has reported
659the problem yet. If not, go ahead and file a bug for the broken package.
660</p>
661
662<p>
663Once you see that the bug has been fixed, you may want to re-sync to pick up
664the fixed digest.
665</p>
666
667<impo>
668This does <e>not</e> mean that you can re-sync your tree multiple times! As
669stated in the rsync policy (when you run <c>emerge --sync</c>), users who sync
670too often will be banned! In fact, it's better to just wait until your next
671scheduled sync, so that you don't overload the rsync servers.
672</impo>
673
674</body>
675</subsection>
606</section> 676</section>
607</sections> 677</sections>

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