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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.54 2005/06/11 12:16:14 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.76 2011/08/12 19:24:18 swift Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10 10
11<abstract>
12This chapter explains the "simple" steps a user definitely needs to know to
13maintain the software on his system.
14</abstract>
15
11<version>1.49</version> 16<version>3</version>
12<date>2005-06-11</date> 17<date>2011-08-12</date>
13 18
14<section> 19<section>
15<title>Welcome to Portage</title> 20<title>Welcome to Portage</title>
16<body> 21<body>
17 22
191</p> 196</p>
192 197
193<pre caption="Checking the existence of a doc USE flag"> 198<pre caption="Checking the existence of a doc USE flag">
194<comment>(alsa-lib is just an example, of course.)</comment> 199<comment>(alsa-lib is just an example, of course.)</comment>
195# <i>emerge -vp alsa-lib</i> 200# <i>emerge -vp alsa-lib</i>
196[ebuild N ] media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.9_rc3 +doc -jack 674 kB 201[ebuild N ] media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1 -debug +doc 698 kB
197</pre> 202</pre>
198 203
199<p> 204<p>
200You can enable or disable the <c>doc</c> USE flag either globally in the 205The best way of enabling the <c>doc</c> USE flag is doing it on a per-package
201<path>/etc/make.conf</path> file or per package in the 206basis via <path>/etc/portage/package.use</path>, so that you get documentation
202<path>/etc/portage/package.use</path> file. The <uri 207only for packages that you are interested in. Enabling this flag globally is
203link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE Flags</uri> chapter covers this aspect in detail. 208known to cause problems with circular dependencies. For more information, please
209read the <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE Flags</uri> chapter.
204</p> 210</p>
205 211
206<p> 212<p>
207Once the package installed, its documentation is generally found in a 213Once the package installed, its documentation is generally found in a
208subdirectory named after the package under the <path>/usr/share/doc</path> 214subdirectory named after the package under the <path>/usr/share/doc</path>
210which is part of the <c>app-portage/gentoolkit</c> <uri 216which is part of the <c>app-portage/gentoolkit</c> <uri
211link="/doc/en/gentoolkit.xml">package</uri>. 217link="/doc/en/gentoolkit.xml">package</uri>.
212</p> 218</p>
213 219
214<pre caption="Locating package documentation"> 220<pre caption="Locating package documentation">
215# <i>ls -l /usr/share/doc/alsa-lib-1.0.9_rc3</i> 221# <i>ls -l /usr/share/doc/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1</i>
216total 28 222total 28
217-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 669 May 17 21:54 ChangeLog.gz 223-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 669 May 17 21:54 ChangeLog.gz
218-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 9373 May 17 21:54 COPYING.gz 224-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 9373 May 17 21:54 COPYING.gz
219drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 8560 May 17 21:54 html 225drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 8560 May 17 21:54 html
220-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 196 May 17 21:54 TODO.gz 226-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 196 May 17 21:54 TODO.gz
221 227
222<comment>(Alternatively, use equery to locate interesting files:)</comment> 228<comment>(Alternatively, use equery to locate interesting files:)</comment>
223# <i>equery files alsa-lib | less</i> 229# <i>equery files alsa-lib | less</i>
224media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.9_rc3 230media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1
225* Contents of media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.9_rc3: 231* Contents of media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1:
226/usr 232/usr
227/usr/bin 233/usr/bin
228/usr/bin/alsalisp 234/usr/bin/alsalisp
229<comment>(Output truncated)</comment> 235<comment>(Output truncated)</comment>
230</pre> 236</pre>
272<p> 278<p>
273To keep your system in perfect shape (and not to mention install the latest 279To keep your system in perfect shape (and not to mention install the latest
274security updates) you need to update your system regularly. Since Portage only 280security updates) you need to update your system regularly. Since Portage only
275checks the ebuilds in your Portage tree you first have to update your Portage 281checks the ebuilds in your Portage tree you first have to update your Portage
276tree. When your Portage tree is updated, you can update your system with 282tree. When your Portage tree is updated, you can update your system with
277<c>emerge --update world</c>: 283<c>emerge --update world</c>. In the next example, we'll also use the
284<c>--ask</c> switch which will tell Portage to display the list of packages it
285wants to upgrade and ask you if you want to continue:
278</p> 286</p>
279 287
280<pre caption="Updating your system"> 288<pre caption="Updating your system">
281# <i>emerge --update world</i> 289# <i>emerge --update --ask world</i>
282</pre> 290</pre>
283 291
284<p> 292<p>
285Portage will then search for newer version of the applications you have 293Portage will then search for newer version of the applications you have
286installed. However, it will only verify the versions for the applications you 294installed. However, it will only verify the versions for the applications you
287have explicitly installed - not the dependencies. If you want to update every 295have <e>explicitly</e> installed (the applications listed in
288single package on your system, add the <c>--deep</c> argument: 296<path>/var/lib/portage/world</path>) - it does not thoroughly check their
297dependencies. If you want to update <e>every single package</e> on your system,
298add the <c>--deep</c> argument:
289</p> 299</p>
290 300
291<pre caption="Updating your entire system"> 301<pre caption="Updating your entire system">
292# <i>emerge --update --deep world</i> 302# <i>emerge --update --deep world</i>
293</pre> 303</pre>
315<title>Metapackages</title> 325<title>Metapackages</title>
316<body> 326<body>
317 327
318<p> 328<p>
319Some packages in the Portage tree don't have any real content but are used to 329Some packages in the Portage tree don't have any real content but are used to
320install a collection of packages. For instance, the <c>kde</c> package will 330install a collection of packages. For instance, the <c>kde-meta</c> package will
321install a complete KDE environment on your system by pulling in various 331install a complete KDE environment on your system by pulling in various
322KDE-related packages as dependencies. 332KDE-related packages as dependencies.
323</p> 333</p>
324 334
325<p> 335<p>
358</pre> 368</pre>
359 369
360</body> 370</body>
361</subsection> 371</subsection>
362</section> 372</section>
373<section id="license">
374<title>Licenses</title>
375<subsection>
376<body>
377
378<p>
379Beginning with Portage version 2.1.7, you can accept or reject software
380installation based on its license. All packages in the tree contain a
381<c>LICENSE</c> entry in their ebuilds. Running <c>emerge --search
382packagename</c> will tell you the package's license.
383</p>
384
385<p>
386By default, Portage permits all licenses, except End User License Agreements
387(EULAs) that require reading and signing an acceptance agreement.
388</p>
389
390<p>
391The variable that controls permitted licenses is <c>ACCEPT_LICENSE</c>, which
392can be set in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
393</p>
394
395<pre caption="Default ACCEPT_LICENSE in /etc/make.conf">
396ACCEPT_LICENSE="* -@EULA"
397</pre>
398
399<p>
400With this configuration, packages that require interaction during installation
401to approve their EULA <e>will not</e> be installed. Packages without an EULA
402<e>will</e> be installed.
403</p>
404
405<p>
406You can set <c>ACCEPT_LICENSE</c> globally in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, or
407you can specify it on a per-package basis in
408<path>/etc/portage/package.license</path>.
409</p>
410
411<p>
412For example, if you want to allow the <c>truecrypt-2.7</c> license for
413<c>app-crypt/truecrypt</c>, add the following to
414<path>/etc/portage/package.license</path>:
415</p>
416
417<pre caption="Specifying a truecrypt license in package.license">
418app-crypt/truecrypt truecrypt-2.7
419</pre>
420
421<p>
422This permits installation of truecrypt versions that have the
423<c>truecrypt-2.7</c> license, but not versions with the <c>truecrypt-2.8</c>
424license.
425</p>
426
427<impo>
428Licenses are stored in <path>/usr/portage/licenses</path>, and license groups
429are kept in <path>/usr/portage/profiles/license_groups</path>. The first entry
430of each line in CAPITAL letters is the name of the license group, and every
431entry after that is an individual license.
432</impo>
433
434<p>
435License groups defined in <c>ACCEPT_LICENSE</c> are prefixed with an <b>@</b>
436sign. Here's an example of a system that globally permits the GPL-compatible
437license group, as well as a few other groups and individual licenses:
438</p>
439
440<pre caption="ACCEPT_LICENSE in /etc/make.conf">
441ACCEPT_LICENSE="@GPL-COMPATIBLE @OSI-APPROVED @EULA atheros-hal BitstreamVera"
442</pre>
443
444<p>
445If you want only free software and documentation on your system, you might use
446the following setup:
447</p>
448
449<pre caption="Use only free licenses">
450ACCEPT_LICENSE="-* @FREE"
451</pre>
452
453<p>
454In this case, "free" is mostly defined by the <uri
455link="http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/free-sw.html">FSF</uri> and <uri
456link="http://www.opensource.org/docs/osd">OSI</uri>. Any package whose license
457does not meet these requirements will not be installed on your system.
458</p>
459
460</body>
461</subsection>
462</section>
363<section> 463<section>
364<title>When Portage is Complaining...</title> 464<title>When Portage is Complaining...</title>
365<subsection> 465<subsection>
366<title>About SLOTs, Virtuals, Branches, Architectures and Profiles</title> 466<title>About SLOTs, Virtuals, Branches, Architectures and Profiles</title>
367<body> 467<body>
418<subsection id="blocked"> 518<subsection id="blocked">
419<title>Blocked Packages</title> 519<title>Blocked Packages</title>
420<body> 520<body>
421 521
422<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (with --pretend)"> 522<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (with --pretend)">
423[blocks B ] gnome-base/bonobo-activation (from pkg gnome-base/libbonobo-2.4.0) 523[blocks B ] mail-mta/ssmtp (is blocking mail-mta/postfix-2.2.2-r1)
424</pre> 524</pre>
425 525
426<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (without --pretend)"> 526<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (without --pretend)">
427!!! Error: the gnome-base/bonobo-activation package conflicts with another package. 527!!! Error: the mail-mta/postfix package conflicts with another package.
428!!! both can't be installed on the same system together. 528!!! both can't be installed on the same system together.
429!!! Please use 'emerge --pretend' to determine blockers. 529!!! Please use 'emerge --pretend' to determine blockers.
430</pre> 530</pre>
431 531
432<p> 532<p>
436these dependencies explicitly marks a package or virtual as being <e>not</e> 536these dependencies explicitly marks a package or virtual as being <e>not</e>
437compatible, it triggers a blockage. 537compatible, it triggers a blockage.
438</p> 538</p>
439 539
440<p> 540<p>
541While recent versions of Portage are smart enough to work around minor blockages
542without user intervention, occasionally you will need to fix it yourself, as
543explained below.
544</p>
545
546<p>
441To fix a blockage, you can choose to not install the package or unmerge the 547To fix a blockage, you can choose to not install the package or unmerge the
442conflicting package first. In the given example, you can opt not to install 548conflicting package first. In the given example, you can opt not to install
443<c>libbonobo</c> or to remove <c>bonobo-activation</c> first. 549<c>postfix</c> or to remove <c>ssmtp</c> first.
550</p>
551
552<p>
553You may also see blocking packages with specific atoms, such as
554<b>&lt;</b>media-video/mplayer-1.0_rc1-r2. In this case, updating to a more
555recent version of the blocking package would remove the block.
556</p>
557
558<p>
559It is also possible that two packages that are yet to be installed are blocking
560each other. In this rare case, you should find out why you need to install both.
561In most cases you can do with one of the packages alone. If not, please file a
562bug on <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">Gentoo's bugtracking system</uri>.
444</p> 563</p>
445 564
446</body> 565</body>
447</subsection> 566</subsection>
448<subsection id="masked"> 567<subsection id="masked">
458 577
459- gnome-base/gnome-2.8.0_pre1 (masked by: <i>~x86 keyword</i>) 578- gnome-base/gnome-2.8.0_pre1 (masked by: <i>~x86 keyword</i>)
460- lm-sensors/lm-sensors-2.8.7 (masked by: <i>-sparc keyword</i>) 579- lm-sensors/lm-sensors-2.8.7 (masked by: <i>-sparc keyword</i>)
461- sys-libs/glibc-2.3.4.20040808 (masked by: <i>-* keyword</i>) 580- sys-libs/glibc-2.3.4.20040808 (masked by: <i>-* keyword</i>)
462- dev-util/cvsd-1.0.2 (masked by: <i>missing keyword</i>) 581- dev-util/cvsd-1.0.2 (masked by: <i>missing keyword</i>)
463- media-video/ati-gatos-4.3.0 (masked by: <i>package.mask</i>) 582- games-fps/unreal-tournament-451 (masked by: <i>package.mask</i>)
464- sys-libs/glibc-2.3.2-r11 (masked by: <i>profile</i>) 583- sys-libs/glibc-2.3.2-r11 (masked by: <i>profile</i>)
584- net-im/skype-2.1.0.81 (masked by: skype-eula <i>license</i>(s))
465</pre> 585</pre>
466 586
467<p> 587<p>
468When you want to install a package that isn't available for your system, you 588When you want to install a package that isn't available for your system, you
469will receive this masking error. You should try installing a different 589will receive this masking error. You should try installing a different
494 <li> 614 <li>
495 <b>profile</b> means that the package has been found not suitable for your 615 <b>profile</b> means that the package has been found not suitable for your
496 profile. The application might break your system if you installed it or is 616 profile. The application might break your system if you installed it or is
497 just not compatible with the profile you use. 617 just not compatible with the profile you use.
498 </li> 618 </li>
619 <li>
620 <b>license</b> means that the package's license is not compatible with your
621 <c>ACCEPT_LICENSE</c> setting. You must explicitly permit its license or
622 license group by setting it in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> or in
623 <path>/etc/portage/package.license</path>. Refer to <uri
624 link="#license">Licenses</uri> to learn how licenses work.
625 </li>
499</ul> 626</ul>
627
628</body>
629</subsection>
630<subsection id="USEdependency">
631<title>Necessary USE Flag Changes</title>
632<body>
633
634<pre caption="Portage warning about USE flag change requirement">
635The following USE changes are necessary to proceed:
636#required by app-text/happypackage-2.0, required by happypackage (argument)
637>=app-text/feelings-1.0.0 test
638</pre>
639
640<p>
641The error message might also be displayed as follows, if <c>--autounmask</c>
642isn't set:
643</p>
644
645<pre caption="Portage error about USE flag change requirement">
646emerge: there are no ebuilds built with USE flags to satisfy "app-text/feelings[test]".
647!!! One of the following packages is required to complete your request:
648- app-text/feelings-1.0.0 (Change USE: +test)
649(dependency required by "app-text/happypackage-2.0" [ebuild])
650(dependency required by "happypackage" [argument])
651</pre>
652
653<p>
654Such warning or error occurs when you want to install a package which not only
655depends on another package, but also requires that that package is built with a
656particular USE flag (or set of USE flags). In the given example, the package
657<c>app-text/feelings</c> needs to be built with <c>USE="test"</c>, but this USE
658flag is not set on the system.
659</p>
660
661<p>
662To resolve this, either add the requested USE flag to your global USE flags in
663<path>/etc/make.conf</path>, or set it for the specific package in
664<path>/etc/portage/package.use</path>.
665</p>
500 666
501</body> 667</body>
502</subsection> 668</subsection>
503<subsection id="missingdependencies"> 669<subsection id="missingdependencies">
504<title>Missing Dependencies</title> 670<title>Missing Dependencies</title>
524<subsection id="ambiguousebuild"> 690<subsection id="ambiguousebuild">
525<title>Ambiguous Ebuild Name</title> 691<title>Ambiguous Ebuild Name</title>
526<body> 692<body>
527 693
528<pre caption="Portage warning about ambiguous ebuild names"> 694<pre caption="Portage warning about ambiguous ebuild names">
695[ Results for search key : listen ]
696[ Applications found : 2 ]
697
698* dev-tinyos/listen [ Masked ]
699 Latest version available: 1.1.15
700 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
701 Size of files: 10,032 kB
702 Homepage: http://www.tinyos.net/
703 Description: Raw listen for TinyOS
704 License: BSD
705
706* media-sound/listen [ Masked ]
707 Latest version available: 0.6.3
708 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
709 Size of files: 859 kB
710 Homepage: http://www.listen-project.org
711 Description: A Music player and management for GNOME
712 License: GPL-2
713
529!!! The short ebuild name "aterm" is ambiguous. Please specify 714!!! The short ebuild name "listen" is ambiguous. Please specify
530!!! one of the following fully-qualified ebuild names instead: 715!!! one of the above fully-qualified ebuild names instead.
531
532 dev-libs/aterm
533 x11-terms/aterm
534</pre> 716</pre>
535 717
536<p> 718<p>
537The application you want to install has a name that corresponds with more than 719The application you want to install has a name that corresponds with more than
538one package. You need to supply the category name as well. Portage will inform 720one package. You need to supply the category name as well. Portage will inform
601from the system. 783from the system.
602</p> 784</p>
603 785
604</body> 786</body>
605</subsection> 787</subsection>
788<subsection id="digesterror">
789<title>Digest Verification Failures</title>
790<body>
791
792<p>
793Sometimes, when you attempt to emerge a package, it will fail with the message:
794</p>
795
796<pre caption="Digest verification failure">
797&gt;&gt;&gt; checking ebuild checksums
798!!! Digest verification failed:
799</pre>
800
801<p>
802This is a sign that something is wrong with the Portage tree -- often, it is
803because a developer may have made a mistake when committing a package to the
804tree.
805</p>
806
807<p>
808When the digest verification fails, do <e>not</e> try to re-digest the package
809yourself. Running <c>ebuild foo manifest</c> will not fix the problem; it will
810almost certainly make it worse!
811</p>
812
813<p>
814Instead, wait an hour or two for the tree to settle down. It's likely that the
815error was noticed right away, but it can take a little time for the fix to
816trickle down the Portage tree. While you're waiting, check <uri
817link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri> and see if anyone has reported
818the problem yet. If not, go ahead and file a bug for the broken package.
819</p>
820
821<p>
822Once you see that the bug has been fixed, you may want to re-sync to pick up
823the fixed digest.
824</p>
825
826<impo>
827This does <e>not</e> mean that you can re-sync your tree multiple times! As
828stated in the rsync policy (when you run <c>emerge --sync</c>), users who sync
829too often will be banned! In fact, it's better to just wait until your next
830scheduled sync, so that you don't overload the rsync servers.
831</impo>
832
833</body>
834</subsection>
606</section> 835</section>
607</sections> 836</sections>

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