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3 6
4<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.6 2003/11/27 14:45:38 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.62 2007/03/10 01:54:44 nightmorph Exp $ -->
5 8
6<sections> 9<sections>
10
11<abstract>
12This chapter explains the "simple" steps a user definitely needs to know to
13maintain the software on his system.
14</abstract>
15
16<version>1.56</version>
17<date>2007-03-09</date>
18
7<section> 19<section>
8<title>Obtaining Package Information</title> 20<title>Welcome to Portage</title>
9<subsection>
10<title>The Lord of All Tools: emerge</title>
11<body> 21<body>
12 22
13<p>
14The main Portage tool that most users will use is <c>emerge</c>. We have already
15used it during the Gentoo installation and in the previous chapter, but we just
16briefly explained how to use it. This chapter will elaborate on <c>emerge</c>
17and learn you how to use <c>emerge</c> to fix all your software-related needs.
18</p> 23<p>
19 24Portage is probably Gentoo's most notable innovation in software management.
25With its high flexibility and enormous amount of features it is frequently seen
26as the best software management tool available for Linux.
20<p> 27</p>
21<c>emerge</c> is the command used to install, remove, query and maintain 28
22software packages. It is a front-end for <c>ebuild</c>; people interested in
23becoming Gentoo professionals will learn how to use <c>ebuild</c> later on. For
24now, we will focus on <c>emerge</c> as it has functionality that <c>ebuild</c>
25lacks (such as resolving dependencies, searching the Portage tree, etc.).
26</p> 29<p>
27 30Portage is completely written in <uri link="http://www.python.org">Python</uri>
31and <uri link="http://www.gnu.org/software/bash">Bash</uri> and therefore fully
32visible to the users as both are scripting languages.
28<p> 33</p>
29Since <c>emerge</c> is the most important tool for Gentoo users, it has an 34
30extensive manpage you can read by issuing <c>man emerge</c>. You can also view
31the in-command help by running <c>emerge --help</c>.
32</p> 35<p>
36Most users will work with Portage through the <c>emerge</c> tool. This chapter
37is not meant to duplicate the information available from the emerge man page.
38For a complete rundown of emerge's options, please consult the man page:
39</p>
33 40
34<pre caption="Retrieving help for emerge"> 41<pre caption="Reading the emerge man page">
35# <i>man emerge</i> 42$ <i>man emerge</i>
36# <i>emerge --help</i>
37</pre> 43</pre>
38 44
39</body>
40</subsection>
41<subsection>
42<title>The Portage Tree</title>
43<body> 45</body>
44
45<p>
46Before we continue describing <c>emerge</c>, let us first take a look at the
47Portage Tree. Go to <path>/usr/portage</path> and do a listing of the available
48directories. We use <c>ls --classify</c> to list the contents of a
49directory as it will show directories with a trailing "/".
50</p>
51
52<pre caption="Viewing the Portage Tree">
53# <i>cd /usr/portage; ls --classify</i>
54app-admin/ dev-ml/ gnome-libs/ net-print/
55app-arch/ dev-perl/ gnome-office/ net-wireless/
56app-benchmarks/ dev-php/ header.txt net-www/
57app-cdr/ dev-python/ incoming/ net-zope/
58app-crypt/ dev-ruby/ jython/ packages/
59app-dicts/ dev-tcltk/ kde-apps/ profiles/
60app-doc/ dev-tex/ kde-base/ releases/
61app-editors/ dev-util/ kde-i18n/ scripts/
62app-emacs/ distfiles/ kde-libs/ sec-policy/
63app-emulation/ eclass/ licenses/ skel.ChangeLog
64app-games/ experimental/ media-fonts/ skel.ebuild
65app-gnustep/ files/ media-gfx/ skel.metadata.xml
66app-i18n/ fresco-base/ media-libs/ snapshots/
67app-misc/ games-action/ media-plugins/ sys-apps/
68app-office/ games-arcade/ media-radio/ sys-build/
69app-pda/ games-board/ media-sound/ sys-cluster/
70app-portage/ games-emulation/ media-tv/ sys-devel/
71app-sci/ games-engines/ media-video/ sys-fs/
72app-shells/ games-fps/ metadata/ sys-kernel/
73app-text/ games-kids/ net-analyzer/ sys-kmods/
74app-vim/ games-misc/ net-apache/ sys-libs/
75app-xemacs/ games-mud/ net-dialup/ unix2tcp/
76berlin-base/ games-puzzle/ net-dns/ x11-base/
77dev-ada/ games-roguelike/ net-firewall/ x11-libs/
78dev-cpp/ games-rpg/ net-fs/ x11-misc/
79dev-db/ games-server/ net-ftp/ x11-plugins/
80dev-dotnet/ games-simulation/ net-im/ x11-terms/
81dev-embedded/ games-sports/ net-irc/ x11-themes/
82dev-games/ games-strategy/ net-libs/ x11-wm/
83dev-haskell/ games-util/ net-mail/ xfce-base/
84dev-java/ glep/ net-misc/ xfce-extra/
85dev-lang/ gnome-apps/ net-nds/
86dev-libs/ gnome-base/ net-news/
87dev-lisp/ gnome-extra/ net-p2p/
88</pre>
89
90<p>
91As you can see, the Portage tree has several subdirectories. Most of them are
92the <e>categories</e> in which the Gentoo packages, called <e>ebuilds</e>,
93reside. Take a look at, for instance, <path>app-office</path>:
94</p>
95
96<pre caption="Viewing a category">
97# <i>cd app-office; ls --classify</i>
98abiword/ gnotime/ kmymoney2/ ooodi/ plan/ timestamp.x
99dia/ gnucash/ koffice/ oooqs/ qhacc/
100dia2code/ gnumeric/ lxbank/ openoffice/ sc/
101facturalux/ ical/ lyx/ openoffice-bin/ scribus/
102gaby/ kbudget/ mdbtools/ openoffice-ximian/ siag/
103gnofin/ khacc/ mrproject/ phprojekt/ texmacs/
104</pre>
105
106<p>
107Inside a category you will find the packages belonging to that category, with a
108seperate directory for each package. Let us take a look at the <c>openoffice</c>
109package:
110</p>
111
112<pre caption="Viewing a package">
113# <i>cd openoffice; ls --classify</i>
114ChangeLog files/ openoffice-1.0.3-r1.ebuild openoffice-1.1.0-r2.ebuild
115Manifest metadata.xml openoffice-1.1.0-r1.ebuild openoffice-1.1.0.ebuild
116</pre>
117
118<p>
119Remember that we told you that a Gentoo package is called an ebuild? Well, in
120the example directory four of such ebuilds are stored. Their naming is
121almost identical: they only differ in the version name.
122You are free to view the contents of such a package: they are plain scripts. We
123will not discuss it right now as it isn't important to know if you plan on just
124using Gentoo.
125</p>
126
127<p>
128The other files are the <path>ChangeLog</path> (which contains a listing of all
129the changes done to the ebuilds), <path>Manifest</path> (which contains the
130checksums and permissions of all the files in the directory) and
131<path>metadata.xml</path> (which contains more information about the package,
132such as the responsible development group -- called <e>herd</e> -- and a more
133extensive description).
134</p>
135
136<p>
137Inside the <path>files</path> directory you will find extra files, needed by
138Portage: digests (checksums and permissions of the files needed by a single
139version of the package), patches, example configuration files, etc.
140</p>
141
142<pre caption="Viewing the extra files">
143# <i>cd files; ls --classify</i>
1441.0.3/ digest-openoffice-1.0.3-r1 digest-openoffice-1.1.0-r1
1451.1.0/ digest-openoffice-1.1.0 digest-openoffice-1.1.0-r2
146# <i>cd 1.1.0; ls --classify</i>
147fixed-gcc.patch ooffice-wrapper-1.3
148newstlportfix.patch openoffice-1.1.0-linux-2.6-fix.patch
149no-mozab.patch openoffice-1.1.0-sparc64-fix.patch
150nptl.patch
151</pre>
152
153<p>
154If you go back to the root of the Portage tree (<path>/usr/portage</path>) you
155will notice that there are other, non-category directories too. We will discuss
156those later in this chapter.
157</p>
158
159</body>
160</subsection>
161<subsection>
162<title>Search for a Package</title>
163<body>
164
165<p>
166If you are new to Linux or Gentoo, you might not know what tool you need for
167what job. To facilitate searching, <c>emerge</c> provides you with a way to
168search through the available packages on your system. There are two ways you can
169search through packages: by <e>name</e>, or by <e>name</e> and
170<e>description</e>.
171</p>
172
173<p>
174To search through the Portage tree by name, use <c>emerge search</c>. For
175instance, to find out more about <c>mozilla</c>:
176</p>
177
178<pre caption="Showing information about mozilla">
179# <i>emerge search mozilla</i>
180Searching...
181[ Results for search key : mozilla ]
182[ Applications found : 5 ]
183<comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
184* net-www/mozilla
185 Latest version available: 1.5-r1
186 Latest version installed: 1.4-r3
187 Size of downloaded files: 29,153 kB
188 Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org
189 Description: The Mozilla Web Browser
190
191* net-www/mozilla-firebird
192 Latest version available: 0.7
193 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
194 Size of downloaded files: 37,850 kB
195 Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org/projects/firebird/
196 Description: The Mozilla Firebird Web Browser
197<comment>(...)</comment>
198</pre>
199
200<p>
201If you want to include a search through the descriptions too, use the
202<c>--searchdesc</c> argument:
203</p>
204
205<pre caption="Search through the descriptions too">
206# <i>emerge --searchdesc mozilla</i>
207Searching...
208[ Results for search key : mozilla ]
209[ Applications found : 10 ]
210<comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
211* dev-libs/nss-3.8
212 Latest version available: 3.8
213 Latest version installed: 3.8
214 Size of downloaded files: 2,782 kB
215 Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org/projects/security/pki/nss/
216 Description: Mozilla's Netscape Security Services Library that implements PKI support
217</pre>
218
219<p>
220As you can see, the output of <c>emerge</c> informs you about the category and
221name of the package, the available version, the currently installed version,
222the size of the downloaded files, the homepage and the small description.
223</p>
224
225<p>
226You see something new? Yes, <e>downloaded files</e>. When you tell Portage to
227install a package, it of course needs to have the necessary sources (or
228precompiled packages) available. It therefore checks the contents of
229<path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> (for sourcecode) or
230<path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> (for precompiled packages) to see if the
231necessary files are already available. If not, it downloads the necessary files
232and places them in those directories.
233</p>
234
235<note>
236Searching the Portage Tree, especially when using <c>--searchdesc</c>, is very
237time consuming. There are other, more performant tools available. We will
238describe those in the chapter on <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=7">Gentoolkit and
239Other Tools</uri>.
240</note>
241
242</body>
243</subsection>
244<subsection>
245<title>Viewing the ChangeLog</title>
246<body>
247
248<p>
249While browsing through the Portage Tree, you saw that there was a ChangeLog for
250each package. You can view this ChangeLog with <c>emerge</c> too. Use the
251<c>--pretend --changelog</c> (<c>-pl</c> in short) options. As an example we
252will view the ChangeLog entries for <c>gnumeric</c>:
253</p>
254
255<pre caption="Viewing the ChangeLog entries for gnumeric">
256# <i>emerge --pretend --changelog gnumeric</i>
257</pre>
258
259</body>
260</subsection>
261</section> 46</section>
262<section> 47<section>
263<title>Updating Portage</title> 48<title>The Portage Tree</title>
264<subsection>
265<title>Introduction</title>
266<body>
267
268<p>
269Searching through Portage is nice, but if you don't update your Portage Tree
270regularly, you will be stuck with the packages and versions available on your
271system. This means that your system will get outdated pretty soon and that
272you will be missing bugfixes and remedies for possible security problems.
273</p>
274
275<p>
276There are several ways to update your Portage Tree. The most popular method is
277by using one of our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">rsync mirrors</uri>.
278Another one is by using a Portage snapshot (in case a firewall or unavailability
279of a network prohibits the use of the rsync server).
280</p>
281
282</body>
283</subsection> 49<subsection>
50<title>Ebuilds</title>
51<body>
52
53<p>
54When we talk about packages, we often mean software titles that are available to
55the Gentoo users through the Portage tree. The Portage tree is a collection of
56<e>ebuilds</e>, files that contain all information Portage needs to maintain
57software (install, search, query, ...). These ebuilds reside in
58<path>/usr/portage</path> by default.
59</p>
60
61<p>
62Whenever you ask Portage to perform some action regarding software titles, it
63will use the ebuilds on your system as a base. It is therefore important that
64you regularly update the ebuilds on your system so Portage knows about new
65software, security updates, etc.
66</p>
67
68</body>
284<subsection> 69</subsection>
285<title>Selecting a Mirror for rsync</title>
286<body>
287
288<p>
289It is adviseable to first select a fast <uri
290link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror</uri> close to you. You can do this manually
291(by setting the <c>SYNC</c> variable in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>) or use
292<c>mirrorselect</c> to do this for you automatically. As the <c>SYNC</c>
293variable will be discussed later on, we will focus on using <c>mirrorselect</c>.
294First install <c>mirrorselect</c> by emerging it:
295</p>
296
297<pre caption="Installing mirrorselect">
298# <i>emerge --usepkg mirrorselect</i>
299</pre>
300
301<p>
302Now run <c>mirrorselect</c> to automatically select mirrors for you (it will
303also setup Portage to use a mirror for the sourcecode):
304</p>
305
306<pre caption="Running mirrorselect">
307# <i>mirrorselect -a -s3</i>
308</pre>
309
310</body>
311</subsection> 70<subsection>
312<subsection>
313<title>Updating Portage</title> 71<title>Updating the Portage Tree</title>
314<body> 72<body>
315 73
316<p>
317To update Portage using rsync, simply run <c>emerge sync</c>:
318</p> 74<p>
75The Portage tree is usually updated with <uri
76link="http://rsync.samba.org/">rsync</uri>, a fast incremental file transfer
77utility. Updating is fairly simple as the <c>emerge</c> command provides a
78front-end for rsync:
79</p>
319 80
320<pre caption="Updating Portage using emerge sync"> 81<pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
321# <i>emerge sync</i> 82# <i>emerge --sync</i>
322</pre> 83</pre>
323 84
324<p>
325If this fails (due to network problems, or a firewall), you can try using
326<c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will download a Portage Tree snapshot using
327<c>wget</c>. This also means that you can use proxies if you want. We discussed
328how to setup your system to use proxies during the Gentoo installation.
329</p> 85<p>
86If you are unable to rsync due to firewall restrictions you can still update
87your Portage tree by using our daily generated Portage tree snapshots. The
88<c>emerge-webrsync</c> tool automatically fetches and installs the latest
89snapshot on your system:
90</p>
330 91
331<pre caption="Updating Portage using emerge-webrsync"> 92<pre caption="Running emerge-webrsync">
332# <i>emerge-webrsync</i> 93# <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
333</pre> 94</pre>
334 95
335</body> 96</body>
336</subsection> 97</subsection>
337</section> 98</section>
338<section> 99<section>
339<title>Maintaining Software</title> 100<title>Maintaining Software</title>
340<subsection> 101<subsection>
341<title>Building or Prebuild?</title> 102<title>Searching for Software</title>
342<body>
343
344<p>
345Gentoo provides ebuilds, the Gentoo packages if you like. But when you want to
346install such an ebuild, you can choose between <e>building</e> the package, or
347using a <e>prebuild</e> package. But what are the advantages/disadvantages of
348both approaches, and can they be used next to each other?
349</p>
350
351<p>
352As you probably have guessed, building packages takes a lot of time (especially
353if you have little resources or want to build big packages, such as <uri
354link="http://www.kde.org">KDE</uri>, <uri
355link="http://www.openoffice.org">OpenOffice.org</uri>, etc.). By building the
356package, you can use the <c>USE</c> setting to tweak the package to your system.
357Of course, you can also define high optimization options (in the <c>CFLAGS</c>
358and <c>CXXFLAGS</c> variables) to compile the package with.
359</p>
360
361<p>
362Using prebuild packages improves the installation time (as no more compilation
363is needed), but you will lose the advantages of the <c>USE</c> setting and the
364<c>CFLAGS</c> &amp; <c>CXXFLAGS</c> variables.
365</p>
366
367<p>
368As previously stated, prebuild packages are stored in the
369<path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> directory, while the sourcecode of the
370packages are placed in <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. If you have finished
371installing a package you can remove the package or sourcecode from the
372respective directory. However, you might want to keep the package/sourcecode of
373the latest version, just in case you want to reinstall the package (so you don't
374have to redownload it).
375</p>
376
377</body> 103<body>
378</subsection> 104
105<p>
106To search through the Portage tree after software titles, you can use
107<c>emerge</c> built-in search capabilities. By default, <c>emerge --search</c>
108returns the names of packages whose title matches (either fully or partially)
109the given search term.
110</p>
111
112<p>
113For instance, to search for all packages who have "pdf" in their name:
114</p>
115
116<pre caption="Searching for pdf-named packages">
117$ <i>emerge --search pdf</i>
118</pre>
119
120<p>
121If you want to search through the descriptions as well you can use the
122<c>--searchdesc</c> (or <c>-S</c>) switch:
123</p>
124
125<pre caption="Searching for pdf-related packages">
126$ <i>emerge --searchdesc pdf</i>
127</pre>
128
129<p>
130When you take a look at the output, you'll notice that it gives you a lot of
131information. The fields are clearly labelled so we won't go further into their
132meanings:
133</p>
134
135<pre caption="Example 'emerge --search' output">
136* net-print/cups-pdf
137 Latest version available: 1.5.2
138 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
139 Size of downloaded files: 15 kB
140 Homepage: http://cip.physik.uni-wuerzburg.de/~vrbehr/cups-pdf/
141 Description: Provides a virtual printer for CUPS to produce PDF files.
142 License: GPL-2
143</pre>
144
145</body>
379<subsection> 146</subsection>
147<subsection>
380<title>Installing Software from Sources</title> 148<title>Installing Software</title>
381<body> 149<body>
382 150
383<p> 151<p>
384Okay, enough talking, let's cut to the chase. To install a package, you will use 152Once you've found a software title to your liking, you can easily install it
385the <c>emerge</c> command. If you don't want to use any prebuild packages, you 153with <c>emerge</c>: just add the package name. For instance, to install
386can just use <c>emerge &lt;package-name&gt;</c> or <c>emerge
387&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package-name&gt;</c>. As an example we'll install
388<c>gnumeric</c>: 154<c>gnumeric</c>:
389</p> 155</p>
390 156
391<pre caption="Building gnumeric"> 157<pre caption="Installing gnumeric">
392# <i>emerge gnumeric</i> 158# <i>emerge gnumeric</i>
393</pre> 159</pre>
394 160
395<p> 161<p>
396This will download the sourcecode for you and unpacks, compiles and installs the 162Since many applications depend on each other, any attempt to install a certain
397package on your system. It will also do the same for all the dependencies. If 163software package might result in the installation of several dependencies as
398you want to see what dependencies will be installed with it, use the 164well. Don't worry, Portage handles dependencies well. If you want to find out
399<c>--pretend</c> option (<c>-p</c> in short): 165what Portage <e>would</e> install when you ask it to install a certain package,
166add the <c>--pretend</c> switch. For instance:
400</p> 167</p>
401 168
402<pre caption="Pretending to build gnumeric"> 169<pre caption="Pretend to install gnumeric">
403# <i>emerge --pretend gnumeric</i> 170# <i>emerge --pretend gnumeric</i>
404</pre> 171</pre>
405 172
406<p> 173<p>
407If you want to download the sourcecode of the package and its dependencies, 174When you ask Portage to install a package, it will download the necessary source
408but don't want to build the package, use the <c>--fetchonly</c> option 175code from the internet (if necessary) and store it by default in
409(<c>-f</c> in short): 176<path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. After this it will unpack, compile and
177install the package. If you want Portage to only download the sources without
178installing them, add the <c>--fetchonly</c> option to the <c>emerge</c> command:
410</p> 179</p>
411 180
412<pre caption="Fetching sources for gnumeric"> 181<pre caption="Download the sourcecode for gnumeric">
413# <i>emerge --fetchonly gnumeric</i> 182# <i>emerge --fetchonly gnumeric</i>
414</pre> 183</pre>
415 184
416<p>
417If you want to see where <c>emerge</c> downloads the sources from, combine the
418<c>--fetchonly</c> and <c>--pretend</c> options:
419</p>
420
421<pre caption="Showing URLs of the sources for gnumeric">
422# <i>emerge --fetchonly --pretend gnumeric</i>
423</pre>
424
425<p>
426You can also opt to install a specific version of a package.
427For instance, if you want to install a gnumeric version older than 1.2 -- for
428any reason whatsoever :) you would type:
429</p>
430
431<pre caption="Installing a specific gnumeric version">
432# <i>emerge "&lt;gnumeric-1.2"</i>
433</pre>
434
435<p>
436Other possibilities are of course "&gt;" (later version) and "=" (the exact
437version).
438</p>
439
440</body> 185</body>
441</subsection>
442<subsection> 186</subsection>
443<title>Installing Prebuild Packages</title> 187<subsection>
188<title>Finding Installed Package Documentation</title>
189<body>
190
191<p>
192Many packages come with their own documentation. Sometimes, the <c>doc</c> USE
193flag determines whether the package documentation should be installed or not.
194You can check the existence of a <c>doc</c> USE flag with the <c>emerge -vp
195&lt;package name&gt;</c> command.
196</p>
197
198<pre caption="Checking the existence of a doc USE flag">
199<comment>(alsa-lib is just an example, of course.)</comment>
200# <i>emerge -vp alsa-lib</i>
201[ebuild N ] media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1 -debug +doc 698 kB
202</pre>
203
204<p>
205You can enable or disable the <c>doc</c> USE flag either globally in the
206<path>/etc/make.conf</path> file or per package in the
207<path>/etc/portage/package.use</path> file. The <uri
208link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE Flags</uri> chapter covers this aspect in detail.
209</p>
210
211<p>
212Once the package installed, its documentation is generally found in a
213subdirectory named after the package under the <path>/usr/share/doc</path>
214directory. You can also list all installed files with the <c>equery</c> tool
215which is part of the <c>app-portage/gentoolkit</c> <uri
216link="/doc/en/gentoolkit.xml">package</uri>.
217</p>
218
219<pre caption="Locating package documentation">
220# <i>ls -l /usr/share/doc/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1</i>
221total 28
222-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 669 May 17 21:54 ChangeLog.gz
223-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 9373 May 17 21:54 COPYING.gz
224drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 8560 May 17 21:54 html
225-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 196 May 17 21:54 TODO.gz
226
227<comment>(Alternatively, use equery to locate interesting files:)</comment>
228# <i>equery files alsa-lib | less</i>
229media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1
230* Contents of media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1:
231/usr
232/usr/bin
233/usr/bin/alsalisp
234<comment>(Output truncated)</comment>
235</pre>
236
444<body> 237</body>
238</subsection>
239<subsection>
240<title>Removing Software</title>
241<body>
445 242
446<p>
447When you want to install a prebuild package, you should use the <c>--usepkg</c>
448option (<c>-k</c> in short). This will use the binary package available in
449<path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> <e>if</e> the package and the version of
450the application you want to install match.
451</p> 243<p>
244When you want to remove a software package from your system, use <c>emerge
245--unmerge</c>. This will tell Portage to remove all files installed by that
246package from your system <e>except</e> the configuration files of that
247application if you have altered those after the installation. Leaving the
248configuration files allows you to continue working with the package if you ever
249decide to install it again.
250</p>
452 251
453<pre caption="Installing a prebuild package for gnumeric"> 252<p>
253However, a <brite>big warning</brite> applies: Portage will <e>not</e> check if
254the package you want to remove is required by another package. It will however
255warn you when you want to remove an important package that breaks your system
256if you unmerge it.
257</p>
258
259<pre caption="Removing gnumeric from the system">
454# <i>emerge --usepkg gnumeric</i> 260# <i>emerge --unmerge gnumeric</i>
455</pre> 261</pre>
456 262
457<p>
458If you want to use the binary package, even if the versions don't match, use
459<c>--usepkgonly</c> (<c>-K</c> in short).
460</p> 263<p>
461 264When you remove a package from your system, the dependencies of that package
462<pre caption="Installing the prebuild package for gnumeric"> 265that were installed automatically when you installed the software are left. To
463# <i>emerge --usepkgonly gnumeric</i> 266have Portage locate all dependencies that can now be removed, use
464</pre> 267<c>emerge</c>'s <c>--depclean</c> functionality. We will talk about this later
465 268on.
466<!-- TODO When handbook goes life, comment out this parts until the mirrors have
467 been updated with online GRP packages. -->
468<p> 269</p>
469If you don't have the prebuild package on your system yet, you can have
470<c>emerge</c> download it from a mirror, defined in the <c>PORTAGE_BINHOST</c>
471variable declared in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>.
472</p>
473
474<p>
475To download the binary package in case this package doesn't exist on
476your system already, use <c>--getbinpkg</c> (<c>-g</c> in short):
477</p>
478
479<pre caption="Downloading and installing a prebuild package for gnumeric">
480# <i>emerge --getbinpkg gnumeric</i>
481</pre>
482
483<p>
484This will download the package and the package-related information for you and
485install it on your system, together with the dependencies. If you want to see
486what dependencies will be installed with it, use the <c>--pretend</c> option
487(<c>-p</c> in short):
488</p>
489
490<pre caption="Pretending to download the prebuild packages for gnumeric">
491# <i>emerge --ginbinpkg --pretend gnumeric</i>
492</pre>
493
494<p>
495You can also opt to download the prebuild package (and the package-related
496information) <e>without</e> checking the information on your local system and
497<e>without</e> using the prebuild package already on your system (if
498applicable), use the <c>--getbinpkgonly</c> option (<c>-G</c> in short):
499</p>
500
501<pre caption="Installing a prebuild package without using local information">
502# <i>emerge --getbinpkgonly gnumeric</i>
503</pre>
504
505<!-- TODO Up until here -->
506
507<p>
508You can also opt to install a specific version of a package.
509For instance, if you want to install a gnumeric version older than 1.2 -- for
510any reason whatsoever :) you would type:
511</p>
512
513<pre caption="Installing a specific gnumeric version">
514# <i>emerge --usepkg "&lt;gnumeric-1.2"</i>
515</pre>
516
517<p>
518Other possibilities are of course "&gt;" (later version) and "=" (the exact
519version).
520</p>
521
522 270
523</body> 271</body>
524</subsection> 272</subsection>
525<subsection> 273<subsection>
526<title>Updating your System</title> 274<title>Updating your System</title>
527<body> 275<body>
528 276
529<p> 277<p>
530Portage knows two special tags to denote a set of software packages: 278To keep your system in perfect shape (and not to mention install the latest
531<e>system</e> and <e>world</e>. You have already seen the former while 279security updates) you need to update your system regularly. Since Portage only
532installing Gentoo if you didn't use a <e>stage3</e> installation. To refresh 280checks the ebuilds in your Portage tree you first have to update your Portage
533things: <e>system</e> is the collection of <e>core</e> packages, necessary to 281tree. When your Portage tree is updated, you can update your system with
534have a working Gentoo system. 282<c>emerge --update world</c>. In the next example, we'll also use the
535</p> 283<c>--ask</c> switch which will tell Portage to display the list of packages it
536 284wants to upgrade and ask you if you want to continue:
537<p> 285</p>
538The <e>world</e> tag consists of all software you have installed yourself on 286
539your system plus the <e>system</e> information. In other words, every time you 287<pre caption="Updating your system">
540emerge a package using <c>emerge &lt;package-name&gt;</c>, the 288# <i>emerge --update --ask world</i>
541<c>&lt;package-name&gt;</c> is registered in the <e>world</e> file 289</pre>
542(<path>/var/cache/edb/world</path>). Dependencies are <e>not</e> part of the 290
543<e>world</e> file, but we will get to that later.
544</p> 291<p>
545 292Portage will then search for newer version of the applications you have
546<p> 293installed. However, it will only verify the versions for the applications you
547If you want to update the system packages, use the <c>--update</c> option 294have <e>explicitly</e> installed (the applications listed in
548(<c>-u</c> in short): 295<path>/var/lib/portage/world</path>) - it does not thoroughly check their
549</p> 296dependencies. If you want to update <e>every single package</e> on your system,
550 297add the <c>--deep</c> argument:
551<pre caption="Updating the system packages">
552# <i>emerge --update system</i>
553</pre>
554
555<p>
556An identical approach can be used for the world packages:
557</p> 298</p>
558 299
559<pre caption="Updating your entire system"> 300<pre caption="Updating your entire system">
560# <i>emerge --update world</i> 301# <i>emerge --update --deep world</i>
561</pre> 302</pre>
562 303
563<p>
564Again, if you want to see what <c>emerge</c> wants to update, use the
565<c>--pretend</c> option together with the <c>--update</c> option:
566</p> 304<p>
567 305Since security updates also happen in packages you have not explicitly installed
568<pre caption="Pretending to update your entire system"> 306on your system (but that are pulled in as dependencies of other programs), it
569# <i>emerge --pretend --update world</i> 307is recommended to run this command once in a while.
570<comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
571[ebuild U ] net-misc/wget-1.9-r1 [1.9]
572[ebuild UD] media-video/dvdauthor-0.5.0 [0.5.3]
573[ebuild U ] net-analyzer/ethereal-0.9.16 [0.9.14]
574</pre>
575
576<p> 308</p>
577Right next to the word "ebuild" you will notice a letter (or combination of 309
578letters) which gives you more information about the package: 310<p>
311If you have altered any of your <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>
312lately you might want to add <c>--newuse</c> as well. Portage will then verify
313if the change requires the installation of new packages or recompilation of
314existing ones:
315</p>
316
317<pre caption="Performing a full update">
318# <i>emerge --update --deep --newuse world</i>
319</pre>
320
321</body>
322</subsection>
323<subsection>
324<title>Metapackages</title>
325<body>
326
327<p>
328Some packages in the Portage tree don't have any real content but are used to
329install a collection of packages. For instance, the <c>kde</c> package will
330install a complete KDE environment on your system by pulling in various
331KDE-related packages as dependencies.
332</p>
333
334<p>
335If you ever want to remove such a package from your system, running <c>emerge
336--unmerge</c> on the package won't have much effect as the dependencies remain
337on the system.
338</p>
339
340<p>
341Portage has the functionality to remove orphaned dependencies as well, but since
342the availability of software is dynamically dependent you first need to update
343your entire system fully, including the new changes you applied when changing
344USE flags. After this you can run <c>emerge --depclean</c> to remove the
345orphaned dependencies. When this is done, you need to rebuild the applications
346that were dynamically linked to the now-removed software titles but don't
347require them anymore.
348</p>
349
350<p>
351All this is handled with the following three commands:
352</p>
353
354<pre caption="Removing orphaned dependencies">
355# <i>emerge --update --deep --newuse world</i>
356# <i>emerge --depclean</i>
357# <i>revdep-rebuild</i>
358</pre>
359
360<p>
361<c>revdep-rebuild</c> is provided by the <c>gentoolkit</c> package; don't forget
362to emerge it first:
363</p>
364
365<pre caption="Installing the gentoolkit package">
366# <i>emerge gentoolkit</i>
367</pre>
368
369</body>
370</subsection>
371</section>
372<section>
373<title>When Portage is Complaining...</title>
374<subsection>
375<title>About SLOTs, Virtuals, Branches, Architectures and Profiles</title>
376<body>
377
378<p>
379As we stated before, Portage is extremely powerful and supports many features
380that other software management tools lack. To understand this, we explain a few
381aspects of Portage without going into too much detail.
382</p>
383
384<p>
385With Portage different versions of a single package can coexist on a system.
386While other distributions tend to name their package to those versions (like
387<c>freetype</c> and <c>freetype2</c>) Portage uses a technology called
388<e>SLOT</e>s. An ebuild declares a certain SLOT for its version. Ebuilds with
389different SLOTs can coexist on the same system. For instance, the
390<c>freetype</c> package has ebuilds with <c>SLOT="1"</c> and <c>SLOT="2"</c>.
391</p>
392
393<p>
394There are also packages that provide the same functionality but are implemented
395differently. For instance, <c>metalogd</c>, <c>sysklogd</c> and <c>syslog-ng</c>
396are all system loggers. Applications that rely on the availability of "a system
397logger" cannot depend on, for instance, <c>metalogd</c>, as the other system
398loggers are as good a choice as any. Portage allows for <e>virtuals</e>: each
399system logger provides <c>virtual/syslog</c> so that applications can depend on
400<c>virtual/syslog</c>.
401</p>
402
403<p>
404Software in the Portage tree can reside in different branches. By default your
405system only accepts packages that Gentoo deems stable. Most new software titles,
406when committed, are added to the testing branch, meaning more testing needs to
407be done before it is marked as stable. Although you will see the ebuilds for
408those software in the Portage tree, Portage will not update them before they are
409placed in the stable branch.
410</p>
411
412<p>
413Some software is only available for a few architectures. Or the software doesn't
414work on the other architectures, or it needs more testing, or the developer that
415committed the software to the Portage tree is unable to verify if the package
416works on different architectures.
417</p>
418
419<p>
420Each Gentoo installation adheres to a certain <c>profile</c> which contains,
421amongst other information, the list of packages that are required for a system
422to function normally.
423</p>
424
425</body>
426</subsection>
427<subsection id="blocked">
428<title>Blocked Packages</title>
429<body>
430
431<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (with --pretend)">
432[blocks B ] mail-mta/ssmtp (is blocking mail-mta/postfix-2.2.2-r1)
433</pre>
434
435<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (without --pretend)">
436!!! Error: the mail-mta/postfix package conflicts with another package.
437!!! both can't be installed on the same system together.
438!!! Please use 'emerge --pretend' to determine blockers.
439</pre>
440
441<p>
442Ebuilds contain specific fields that inform Portage about its dependencies.
443There are two possible dependencies: build dependencies, declared in
444<c>DEPEND</c> and run-time dependencies, declared in <c>RDEPEND</c>. When one of
445these dependencies explicitly marks a package or virtual as being <e>not</e>
446compatible, it triggers a blockage.
447</p>
448
449<p>
450To fix a blockage, you can choose to not install the package or unmerge the
451conflicting package first. In the given example, you can opt not to install
452<c>postfix</c> or to remove <c>ssmtp</c> first.
453</p>
454
455<p>
456It is also possible that two packages that are yet to be installed are blocking
457each other. In this rare case, you should find out why you need to install both.
458In most cases you can do with one of the packages alone. If not, please file a
459bug on <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">Gentoo's bugtracking system</uri>.
460</p>
461
462</body>
463</subsection>
464<subsection id="masked">
465<title>Masked Packages</title>
466<body>
467
468<pre caption="Portage warning about masked packages">
469!!! all ebuilds that could satisfy "bootsplash" have been masked.
470</pre>
471
472<pre caption="Portage warning about masked packages - reason">
473!!! possible candidates are:
474
475- gnome-base/gnome-2.8.0_pre1 (masked by: <i>~x86 keyword</i>)
476- lm-sensors/lm-sensors-2.8.7 (masked by: <i>-sparc keyword</i>)
477- sys-libs/glibc-2.3.4.20040808 (masked by: <i>-* keyword</i>)
478- dev-util/cvsd-1.0.2 (masked by: <i>missing keyword</i>)
479- media-video/ati-gatos-4.3.0 (masked by: <i>package.mask</i>)
480- sys-libs/glibc-2.3.2-r11 (masked by: <i>profile</i>)
481</pre>
482
483<p>
484When you want to install a package that isn't available for your system, you
485will receive this masking error. You should try installing a different
486application that is available for your system or wait until the package is put
487available. There is always a reason why a package is masked:
579</p> 488</p>
580 489
581<ul> 490<ul>
582 <li> 491 <li>
583 <e>B</e> (blocks) The package listed to the left is blocking the emerge of 492 <b>~arch keyword</b> means that the application is not tested sufficiently
584 the package listed to the right 493 to be put in the stable branch. Wait a few days or weeks and try again.
585 </li> 494 </li>
586 <li> 495 <li>
587 <e>N</e> (new) The package is new to your system and will be emerged for the 496 <b>-arch keyword</b> or <b>-* keyword</b> means that the application does
588 first time 497 not work on your architecture. If you believe the package does work file
498 a bug at our <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> website.
589 </li> 499 </li>
590 <li> 500 <li>
591 <e>R</e> (reemerge) The package isn't new, but needs to be reemerged 501 <b>missing keyword</b> means that the application has not been tested on
502 your architecture yet. Ask the architecture porting team to test the package
503 or test it for them and report your findings on our <uri
504 link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> website.
592 </li> 505 </li>
593 <li> 506 <li>
594 <e>F</e> (fetch) The package requires that you download the sourcecode 507 <b>package.mask</b> means that the package has been found corrupt, unstable
595 manually (for instance due to licencing issues) 508 or worse and has been deliberately marked as do-not-use.
596 </li> 509 </li>
597 <li> 510 <li>
598 <e>U</e> (update) The package already exists on your system but will be 511 <b>profile</b> means that the package has been found not suitable for your
599 upgraded 512 profile. The application might break your system if you installed it or is
600 </li> 513 just not compatible with the profile you use.
601 <li>
602 <e>UD</e> (downgrade) The package already exists on your system but will be
603 downgraded
604 </li>
605 <li>
606 <e>U-</e> (slot warning) The package you have installed on your system
607 is listed as a package that can not coexist with a different version, but
608 your update does. The update will be installed and the older version will be
609 removed.
610 </li> 514 </li>
611</ul> 515</ul>
612 516
613<p>
614In certain cases, an update may mean a downgrade (i.e. install an older version
615instead of a newer version). If you don't want this to happen, use the
616<c>--upgradeonly</c> option (<c>-U</c> in short):
617</p>
618
619<pre caption="Upgrading your entire system">
620# <i>emerge --update --upgradeonly world</i>
621</pre>
622
623<p>
624Of course, we are talking here about <e>system</e> and <e>world</e>, but you can
625perform the same actions for individual software packages.
626</p>
627
628</body> 517</body>
629</subsection>
630<subsection> 518</subsection>
631<title>Removing Software</title> 519<subsection id="missingdependencies">
632<body> 520<title>Missing Dependencies</title>
633
634<p>
635If you want to remove software from your system, you can use the <c>unmerge</c>
636option (<c>-C</c> - capital C - in short):
637</p>
638
639<pre caption="Uninstalling software">
640# <i>emerge unmerge gnumeric</i>
641</pre>
642
643<p>
644If you want to test a removal (but not perform it), you can use <c>--pretend</c>
645again:
646</p>
647
648<pre caption="Pretending to uninstall software">
649# <i>emerge --pretend unmerge gnumeric</i>
650</pre>
651
652<warn>
653Portage doesn't verify if a package is a dependency for another
654installed package. It also doesn't warn you if the package is part of
655<e>system</e>, i.e. a core application necessary for the correct functioning of
656your system!
657</warn>
658
659</body> 521<body>
660</subsection> 522
661</section> 523<pre caption="Portage warning about missing dependency">
662<section> 524emerge: there are no ebuilds to satisfy "&gt;=sys-devel/gcc-3.4.2-r4".
663<title>Software Availability</title> 525
526!!! Problem with ebuild sys-devel/gcc-3.4.2-r2
527!!! Possibly a DEPEND/*DEPEND problem.
528</pre>
529
530<p>
531The application you are trying to install depends on another package that is not
532available for your system. Please check <uri
533link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> if the issue is known and if not,
534please report it. Unless you are mixing branches this should not occur and is
535therefore a bug.
536</p>
537
538</body>
664<subsection> 539</subsection>
665<title>ARCH or not?</title> 540<subsection id="ambiguousebuild">
666<body> 541<title>Ambiguous Ebuild Name</title>
667
668<p>
669Gentoo places its packages in two possible stadia called <e>ARCH</e> and
670<e>~ARCH</e>. Don't take this literally: the stadia depend on the architecture
671you are using. In other words, for x86-based systems you have <e>x86</e> and
672<e>~x86</e>, for ppc-based systems you have <e>ppc</e> and <e>~ppc</e> etc.
673</p>
674
675<p>
676The <e>~ARCH</e> stadium means that the package works for the developer in
677charge of the package, but that the package hasn't been tested thoroughly enough
678by the community to be placed in <e>ARCH</e>. <e>~ARCH</e> packages usually go
679to <e>ARCH</e> after being bugfree for a sufficient amount of time.
680</p>
681
682<p>
683Your system will use <e>ARCH</e> packages per default. If you want to live on
684the edge, don't mind having a broken package once in a while, and you like
685submitting bugreports to <uri
686link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugs.gentoo.org</uri>, then you can opt to use
687<e>~ARCH</e> packages. To "move" your system to a <e>~ARCH</e>-using system,
688edit the <c>ACCEPT_KEYWORDS</c> variable in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so that
689it reads <e>~ARCH</e> (again: for x86-based systems: <e>~x86</e>, etc.).
690</p>
691
692<p>
693If you want to update your system now, you will notice that <e>a lot</e> of
694packages will be updated!
695</p>
696
697</body> 542<body>
698</subsection> 543
544<pre caption="Portage warning about ambiguous ebuild names">
545!!! The short ebuild name "aterm" is ambiguous. Please specify
546!!! one of the following fully-qualified ebuild names instead:
547
548 dev-libs/aterm
549 x11-terms/aterm
550</pre>
551
552<p>
553The application you want to install has a name that corresponds with more than
554one package. You need to supply the category name as well. Portage will inform
555you of possible matches to choose from.
556</p>
557
558</body>
699<subsection> 559</subsection>
700<title>Masked Packages</title> 560<subsection id="circulardependencies">
701<body> 561<title>Circular Dependencies</title>
702
703<p>
704When you want to install a package, you might come across the following message:
705</p>
706
707<pre caption="Message about masked packages">
708Calculating dependencies
709!!! <comment>all ebuilds that could satisfy </comment>&lt;your package&gt;<comment> have been masked.</comment>
710</pre>
711
712<p>
713A package can be masked due to two reasons:
714</p>
715
716<ol>
717 <li>The package is in <e>~ARCH</e> while you use <e>ARCH</e></li>
718 <li>The package is hard-masked explicitly</li>
719</ol>
720
721<p>
722If the package is masked because of the first reason, and you <e>really</e> want
723to install it (knowing that there <e>is</e> a reason why it isn't available in
724<e>ARCH</e>), you can temporarily accept <e>~ARCH</e> packages:
725</p>
726
727<pre caption="Temporarily accepting ~ARCH packages">
728# <i>ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~x86" emerge gnumeric</i>
729</pre>
730
731<p>
732A package is hardmasked if it is listed in
733<path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path>. If you read this file, you
734will also read the reason why the package is hardmasked (it is usually added as
735a comment). If you want to install the package nevertheless (despite all the
736possible warnings we could ever throw at your head about "breaking your system",
737"breaks other packages", or "badly needs testing"), create the
738<path>/etc/portage/package.unmask</path> file and list the package in it (use
739the same format as is used in <path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path>).
740</p>
741
742<p>
743Do <e>not</e> alter the <path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path> file as
744all changes are undone the next time you update your Portage tree.
745</p>
746
747<p>
748Another trick to circumvent the "masked package" problem is to install the
749package using the full path. This will ignore both the <c>ACCEPT_KEYWORD</c>
750settings and the <path>package.mask</path> listing.
751</p>
752
753<pre caption="Installing a package without checking for stadium / masking">
754# <i>emerge /usr/portage/app-office/gnumeric/gnumeric-1.2.0.ebuild</i>
755</pre>
756
757</body> 562<body>
758</subsection> 563
564<pre caption="Portage warning about circular dependencies">
565!!! Error: circular dependencies:
566
567ebuild / net-print/cups-1.1.15-r2 depends on ebuild / app-text/ghostscript-7.05.3-r1
568ebuild / app-text/ghostscript-7.05.3-r1 depends on ebuild / net-print/cups-1.1.15-r2
569</pre>
570
571<p>
572Two (or more) packages you want to install depend on each other and can
573therefore not be installed. This is most likely a bug in the Portage tree.
574Please resync after a while and try again. You can also check <uri
575link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> if the issue is known and if not,
576report it.
577</p>
578
579</body>
759<subsection> 580</subsection>
760<title>Blocked Packages</title> 581<subsection id="fetchfailed">
582<title>Fetch failed</title>
583<body>
584
585<pre caption="Portage warning about fetch failed">
586!!! Fetch failed for sys-libs/ncurses-5.4-r5, continuing...
587<comment>(...)</comment>
588!!! Some fetch errors were encountered. Please see above for details.
589</pre>
590
591<p>
592Portage was unable to download the sources for the given application and will
593try to continue installing the other applications (if applicable). This failure
594can be due to a mirror that has not synchronised correctly or because the ebuild
595points to an incorrect location. The server where the sources reside can also be
596down for some reason.
597</p>
598
599<p>
600Retry after one hour to see if the issue still persists.
601</p>
602
761<body> 603</body>
604</subsection>
605<subsection id="profileprotect">
606<title>System Profile Protection</title>
607<body>
762 608
763<p> 609<pre caption="Portage warning about profile-protected package">
764You have a situation when you receive the following error on your screen: 610!!! Trying to unmerge package(s) in system profile. 'sys-apps/portage'
611!!! This could be damaging to your system.
612</pre>
613
765</p> 614<p>
766 615You have asked to remove a package that is part of your system's core packages.
767<pre caption="Blocking package"> 616It is listed in your profile as required and should therefore not be removed
768[blocks B ] gnome-base/bonobo-activation (from pkg gnome-base/libbonobo-2.4.0) 617from the system.
769</pre>
770
771<p> 618</p>
772In the above example, the package <c>bonobo-activation</c> is blocking the 619
773emerge of <c>libbonobo</c>. To resolve this issue, remove the 620</body>
774<c>bonobo-activation</c> package and continue: 621</subsection>
622<subsection id="digesterror">
623<title>Digest Verification Failures</title>
624<body>
625
775</p> 626<p>
776 627Sometimes, when you attempt to emerge a package, it will fail with the message:
777<pre caption="Resolving a blocking situation">
778# <i>emerge unmerge bonobo-activation</i>
779</pre> 628</p>
629
630<pre caption="Digest verification failure">
631&gt;&gt;&gt; checking ebuild checksums
632!!! Digest verification failed:
633</pre>
634
635<p>
636This is a sign that something is wrong with the Portage tree -- often, it is
637because a developer may have made a mistake when committing a package to the
638tree.
639</p>
640
641<p>
642When the digest verification fails, do <e>not</e> try to re-digest the package
643yourself. Running <c>ebuild foo digest</c> will not fix the problem; it will
644almost certainly make it worse!
645</p>
646
647<p>
648Instead, wait an hour or two for the tree to settle down. It's likely that the
649error was noticed right away, but it can take a little time for the fix to
650trickle down the Portage tree. While you're waiting, check <uri
651link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri> and see if anyone has reported
652the problem yet. If not, go ahead and file a bug for the broken package.
653</p>
654
655<p>
656Once you see that the bug has been fixed, you may want to re-sync to pick up
657the fixed digest.
658</p>
659
660<impo>
661This does <e>not</e> mean that you can re-sync your tree multiple times! As
662stated in the rsync policy (when you run <c>emerge --sync</c>), users who sync
663too often will be banned! In fact, it's better to just wait until your next
664scheduled sync, so that you don't overload the rsync servers.
665</impo>
780 666
781</body> 667</body>
782</subsection> 668</subsection>
783</section> 669</section>
784</sections> 670</sections>

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