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2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
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3 6
4<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.6 2003/11/27 14:45:38 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.78 2011/10/26 19:46:19 swift Exp $ -->
5 8
6<sections> 9<sections>
10
11<abstract>
12This chapter explains the "simple" steps a user definitely needs to know to
13maintain the software on his system.
14</abstract>
15
16<version>4</version>
17<date>2011-10-26</date>
18
7<section> 19<section>
8<title>Obtaining Package Information</title> 20<title>Welcome to Portage</title>
9<subsection>
10<title>The Lord of All Tools: emerge</title>
11<body> 21<body>
12 22
13<p>
14The main Portage tool that most users will use is <c>emerge</c>. We have already
15used it during the Gentoo installation and in the previous chapter, but we just
16briefly explained how to use it. This chapter will elaborate on <c>emerge</c>
17and learn you how to use <c>emerge</c> to fix all your software-related needs.
18</p> 23<p>
19 24Portage is probably Gentoo's most notable innovation in software management.
25With its high flexibility and enormous amount of features it is frequently seen
26as the best software management tool available for Linux.
20<p> 27</p>
21<c>emerge</c> is the command used to install, remove, query and maintain 28
22software packages. It is a front-end for <c>ebuild</c>; people interested in
23becoming Gentoo professionals will learn how to use <c>ebuild</c> later on. For
24now, we will focus on <c>emerge</c> as it has functionality that <c>ebuild</c>
25lacks (such as resolving dependencies, searching the Portage tree, etc.).
26</p> 29<p>
27 30Portage is completely written in <uri link="http://www.python.org">Python</uri>
31and <uri link="http://www.gnu.org/software/bash">Bash</uri> and therefore fully
32visible to the users as both are scripting languages.
28<p> 33</p>
29Since <c>emerge</c> is the most important tool for Gentoo users, it has an 34
30extensive manpage you can read by issuing <c>man emerge</c>. You can also view
31the in-command help by running <c>emerge --help</c>.
32</p> 35<p>
36Most users will work with Portage through the <c>emerge</c> tool. This chapter
37is not meant to duplicate the information available from the emerge man page.
38For a complete rundown of emerge's options, please consult the man page:
39</p>
33 40
34<pre caption="Retrieving help for emerge"> 41<pre caption="Reading the emerge man page">
35# <i>man emerge</i> 42$ <i>man emerge</i>
36# <i>emerge --help</i>
37</pre> 43</pre>
38 44
39</body>
40</subsection>
41<subsection>
42<title>The Portage Tree</title>
43<body> 45</body>
44
45<p>
46Before we continue describing <c>emerge</c>, let us first take a look at the
47Portage Tree. Go to <path>/usr/portage</path> and do a listing of the available
48directories. We use <c>ls --classify</c> to list the contents of a
49directory as it will show directories with a trailing "/".
50</p>
51
52<pre caption="Viewing the Portage Tree">
53# <i>cd /usr/portage; ls --classify</i>
54app-admin/ dev-ml/ gnome-libs/ net-print/
55app-arch/ dev-perl/ gnome-office/ net-wireless/
56app-benchmarks/ dev-php/ header.txt net-www/
57app-cdr/ dev-python/ incoming/ net-zope/
58app-crypt/ dev-ruby/ jython/ packages/
59app-dicts/ dev-tcltk/ kde-apps/ profiles/
60app-doc/ dev-tex/ kde-base/ releases/
61app-editors/ dev-util/ kde-i18n/ scripts/
62app-emacs/ distfiles/ kde-libs/ sec-policy/
63app-emulation/ eclass/ licenses/ skel.ChangeLog
64app-games/ experimental/ media-fonts/ skel.ebuild
65app-gnustep/ files/ media-gfx/ skel.metadata.xml
66app-i18n/ fresco-base/ media-libs/ snapshots/
67app-misc/ games-action/ media-plugins/ sys-apps/
68app-office/ games-arcade/ media-radio/ sys-build/
69app-pda/ games-board/ media-sound/ sys-cluster/
70app-portage/ games-emulation/ media-tv/ sys-devel/
71app-sci/ games-engines/ media-video/ sys-fs/
72app-shells/ games-fps/ metadata/ sys-kernel/
73app-text/ games-kids/ net-analyzer/ sys-kmods/
74app-vim/ games-misc/ net-apache/ sys-libs/
75app-xemacs/ games-mud/ net-dialup/ unix2tcp/
76berlin-base/ games-puzzle/ net-dns/ x11-base/
77dev-ada/ games-roguelike/ net-firewall/ x11-libs/
78dev-cpp/ games-rpg/ net-fs/ x11-misc/
79dev-db/ games-server/ net-ftp/ x11-plugins/
80dev-dotnet/ games-simulation/ net-im/ x11-terms/
81dev-embedded/ games-sports/ net-irc/ x11-themes/
82dev-games/ games-strategy/ net-libs/ x11-wm/
83dev-haskell/ games-util/ net-mail/ xfce-base/
84dev-java/ glep/ net-misc/ xfce-extra/
85dev-lang/ gnome-apps/ net-nds/
86dev-libs/ gnome-base/ net-news/
87dev-lisp/ gnome-extra/ net-p2p/
88</pre>
89
90<p>
91As you can see, the Portage tree has several subdirectories. Most of them are
92the <e>categories</e> in which the Gentoo packages, called <e>ebuilds</e>,
93reside. Take a look at, for instance, <path>app-office</path>:
94</p>
95
96<pre caption="Viewing a category">
97# <i>cd app-office; ls --classify</i>
98abiword/ gnotime/ kmymoney2/ ooodi/ plan/ timestamp.x
99dia/ gnucash/ koffice/ oooqs/ qhacc/
100dia2code/ gnumeric/ lxbank/ openoffice/ sc/
101facturalux/ ical/ lyx/ openoffice-bin/ scribus/
102gaby/ kbudget/ mdbtools/ openoffice-ximian/ siag/
103gnofin/ khacc/ mrproject/ phprojekt/ texmacs/
104</pre>
105
106<p>
107Inside a category you will find the packages belonging to that category, with a
108seperate directory for each package. Let us take a look at the <c>openoffice</c>
109package:
110</p>
111
112<pre caption="Viewing a package">
113# <i>cd openoffice; ls --classify</i>
114ChangeLog files/ openoffice-1.0.3-r1.ebuild openoffice-1.1.0-r2.ebuild
115Manifest metadata.xml openoffice-1.1.0-r1.ebuild openoffice-1.1.0.ebuild
116</pre>
117
118<p>
119Remember that we told you that a Gentoo package is called an ebuild? Well, in
120the example directory four of such ebuilds are stored. Their naming is
121almost identical: they only differ in the version name.
122You are free to view the contents of such a package: they are plain scripts. We
123will not discuss it right now as it isn't important to know if you plan on just
124using Gentoo.
125</p>
126
127<p>
128The other files are the <path>ChangeLog</path> (which contains a listing of all
129the changes done to the ebuilds), <path>Manifest</path> (which contains the
130checksums and permissions of all the files in the directory) and
131<path>metadata.xml</path> (which contains more information about the package,
132such as the responsible development group -- called <e>herd</e> -- and a more
133extensive description).
134</p>
135
136<p>
137Inside the <path>files</path> directory you will find extra files, needed by
138Portage: digests (checksums and permissions of the files needed by a single
139version of the package), patches, example configuration files, etc.
140</p>
141
142<pre caption="Viewing the extra files">
143# <i>cd files; ls --classify</i>
1441.0.3/ digest-openoffice-1.0.3-r1 digest-openoffice-1.1.0-r1
1451.1.0/ digest-openoffice-1.1.0 digest-openoffice-1.1.0-r2
146# <i>cd 1.1.0; ls --classify</i>
147fixed-gcc.patch ooffice-wrapper-1.3
148newstlportfix.patch openoffice-1.1.0-linux-2.6-fix.patch
149no-mozab.patch openoffice-1.1.0-sparc64-fix.patch
150nptl.patch
151</pre>
152
153<p>
154If you go back to the root of the Portage tree (<path>/usr/portage</path>) you
155will notice that there are other, non-category directories too. We will discuss
156those later in this chapter.
157</p>
158
159</body>
160</subsection>
161<subsection>
162<title>Search for a Package</title>
163<body>
164
165<p>
166If you are new to Linux or Gentoo, you might not know what tool you need for
167what job. To facilitate searching, <c>emerge</c> provides you with a way to
168search through the available packages on your system. There are two ways you can
169search through packages: by <e>name</e>, or by <e>name</e> and
170<e>description</e>.
171</p>
172
173<p>
174To search through the Portage tree by name, use <c>emerge search</c>. For
175instance, to find out more about <c>mozilla</c>:
176</p>
177
178<pre caption="Showing information about mozilla">
179# <i>emerge search mozilla</i>
180Searching...
181[ Results for search key : mozilla ]
182[ Applications found : 5 ]
183<comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
184* net-www/mozilla
185 Latest version available: 1.5-r1
186 Latest version installed: 1.4-r3
187 Size of downloaded files: 29,153 kB
188 Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org
189 Description: The Mozilla Web Browser
190
191* net-www/mozilla-firebird
192 Latest version available: 0.7
193 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
194 Size of downloaded files: 37,850 kB
195 Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org/projects/firebird/
196 Description: The Mozilla Firebird Web Browser
197<comment>(...)</comment>
198</pre>
199
200<p>
201If you want to include a search through the descriptions too, use the
202<c>--searchdesc</c> argument:
203</p>
204
205<pre caption="Search through the descriptions too">
206# <i>emerge --searchdesc mozilla</i>
207Searching...
208[ Results for search key : mozilla ]
209[ Applications found : 10 ]
210<comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
211* dev-libs/nss-3.8
212 Latest version available: 3.8
213 Latest version installed: 3.8
214 Size of downloaded files: 2,782 kB
215 Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org/projects/security/pki/nss/
216 Description: Mozilla's Netscape Security Services Library that implements PKI support
217</pre>
218
219<p>
220As you can see, the output of <c>emerge</c> informs you about the category and
221name of the package, the available version, the currently installed version,
222the size of the downloaded files, the homepage and the small description.
223</p>
224
225<p>
226You see something new? Yes, <e>downloaded files</e>. When you tell Portage to
227install a package, it of course needs to have the necessary sources (or
228precompiled packages) available. It therefore checks the contents of
229<path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> (for sourcecode) or
230<path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> (for precompiled packages) to see if the
231necessary files are already available. If not, it downloads the necessary files
232and places them in those directories.
233</p>
234
235<note>
236Searching the Portage Tree, especially when using <c>--searchdesc</c>, is very
237time consuming. There are other, more performant tools available. We will
238describe those in the chapter on <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=7">Gentoolkit and
239Other Tools</uri>.
240</note>
241
242</body>
243</subsection>
244<subsection>
245<title>Viewing the ChangeLog</title>
246<body>
247
248<p>
249While browsing through the Portage Tree, you saw that there was a ChangeLog for
250each package. You can view this ChangeLog with <c>emerge</c> too. Use the
251<c>--pretend --changelog</c> (<c>-pl</c> in short) options. As an example we
252will view the ChangeLog entries for <c>gnumeric</c>:
253</p>
254
255<pre caption="Viewing the ChangeLog entries for gnumeric">
256# <i>emerge --pretend --changelog gnumeric</i>
257</pre>
258
259</body>
260</subsection>
261</section> 46</section>
262<section> 47<section>
263<title>Updating Portage</title> 48<title>The Portage Tree</title>
264<subsection>
265<title>Introduction</title>
266<body>
267
268<p>
269Searching through Portage is nice, but if you don't update your Portage Tree
270regularly, you will be stuck with the packages and versions available on your
271system. This means that your system will get outdated pretty soon and that
272you will be missing bugfixes and remedies for possible security problems.
273</p>
274
275<p>
276There are several ways to update your Portage Tree. The most popular method is
277by using one of our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">rsync mirrors</uri>.
278Another one is by using a Portage snapshot (in case a firewall or unavailability
279of a network prohibits the use of the rsync server).
280</p>
281
282</body>
283</subsection> 49<subsection>
50<title>Ebuilds</title>
51<body>
52
53<p>
54When we talk about packages, we often mean software titles that are available to
55the Gentoo users through the Portage tree. The Portage tree is a collection of
56<e>ebuilds</e>, files that contain all information Portage needs to maintain
57software (install, search, query, ...). These ebuilds reside in
58<path>/usr/portage</path> by default.
59</p>
60
61<p>
62Whenever you ask Portage to perform some action regarding software titles, it
63will use the ebuilds on your system as a base. It is therefore important that
64you regularly update the ebuilds on your system so Portage knows about new
65software, security updates, etc.
66</p>
67
68</body>
284<subsection> 69</subsection>
285<title>Selecting a Mirror for rsync</title>
286<body>
287
288<p>
289It is adviseable to first select a fast <uri
290link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror</uri> close to you. You can do this manually
291(by setting the <c>SYNC</c> variable in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>) or use
292<c>mirrorselect</c> to do this for you automatically. As the <c>SYNC</c>
293variable will be discussed later on, we will focus on using <c>mirrorselect</c>.
294First install <c>mirrorselect</c> by emerging it:
295</p>
296
297<pre caption="Installing mirrorselect">
298# <i>emerge --usepkg mirrorselect</i>
299</pre>
300
301<p>
302Now run <c>mirrorselect</c> to automatically select mirrors for you (it will
303also setup Portage to use a mirror for the sourcecode):
304</p>
305
306<pre caption="Running mirrorselect">
307# <i>mirrorselect -a -s3</i>
308</pre>
309
310</body>
311</subsection> 70<subsection>
312<subsection>
313<title>Updating Portage</title> 71<title>Updating the Portage Tree</title>
314<body> 72<body>
315 73
316<p>
317To update Portage using rsync, simply run <c>emerge sync</c>:
318</p> 74<p>
75The Portage tree is usually updated with <uri
76link="http://rsync.samba.org/">rsync</uri>, a fast incremental file transfer
77utility. Updating is fairly simple as the <c>emerge</c> command provides a
78front-end for rsync:
79</p>
319 80
320<pre caption="Updating Portage using emerge sync"> 81<pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
321# <i>emerge sync</i> 82# <i>emerge --sync</i>
322</pre> 83</pre>
323 84
324<p>
325If this fails (due to network problems, or a firewall), you can try using
326<c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will download a Portage Tree snapshot using
327<c>wget</c>. This also means that you can use proxies if you want. We discussed
328how to setup your system to use proxies during the Gentoo installation.
329</p> 85<p>
86If you are unable to rsync due to firewall restrictions you can still update
87your Portage tree by using our daily generated Portage tree snapshots. The
88<c>emerge-webrsync</c> tool automatically fetches and installs the latest
89snapshot on your system:
90</p>
330 91
331<pre caption="Updating Portage using emerge-webrsync"> 92<pre caption="Running emerge-webrsync">
332# <i>emerge-webrsync</i> 93# <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
333</pre> 94</pre>
95
96<p>
97An additional advantage of using <c>emerge-webrsync</c> is that it allows the
98administrator to only pull in portage tree snapshots that are signed by the
99Gentoo release engineering GPG key. More information on this can be found
100in the <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=3">Portage Features</uri> section on
101<uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=3#webrsync-gpg">Fetching Validated Portage Tree
102Snapshots</uri>.
103</p>
334 104
335</body> 105</body>
336</subsection> 106</subsection>
337</section> 107</section>
338<section> 108<section>
339<title>Maintaining Software</title> 109<title>Maintaining Software</title>
340<subsection> 110<subsection>
341<title>Building or Prebuild?</title> 111<title>Searching for Software</title>
342<body>
343
344<p>
345Gentoo provides ebuilds, the Gentoo packages if you like. But when you want to
346install such an ebuild, you can choose between <e>building</e> the package, or
347using a <e>prebuild</e> package. But what are the advantages/disadvantages of
348both approaches, and can they be used next to each other?
349</p>
350
351<p>
352As you probably have guessed, building packages takes a lot of time (especially
353if you have little resources or want to build big packages, such as <uri
354link="http://www.kde.org">KDE</uri>, <uri
355link="http://www.openoffice.org">OpenOffice.org</uri>, etc.). By building the
356package, you can use the <c>USE</c> setting to tweak the package to your system.
357Of course, you can also define high optimization options (in the <c>CFLAGS</c>
358and <c>CXXFLAGS</c> variables) to compile the package with.
359</p>
360
361<p>
362Using prebuild packages improves the installation time (as no more compilation
363is needed), but you will lose the advantages of the <c>USE</c> setting and the
364<c>CFLAGS</c> &amp; <c>CXXFLAGS</c> variables.
365</p>
366
367<p>
368As previously stated, prebuild packages are stored in the
369<path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> directory, while the sourcecode of the
370packages are placed in <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. If you have finished
371installing a package you can remove the package or sourcecode from the
372respective directory. However, you might want to keep the package/sourcecode of
373the latest version, just in case you want to reinstall the package (so you don't
374have to redownload it).
375</p>
376
377</body> 112<body>
378</subsection> 113
114<p>
115To search through the Portage tree after software titles, you can use
116<c>emerge</c> built-in search capabilities. By default, <c>emerge --search</c>
117returns the names of packages whose title matches (either fully or partially)
118the given search term.
119</p>
120
121<p>
122For instance, to search for all packages who have "pdf" in their name:
123</p>
124
125<pre caption="Searching for pdf-named packages">
126$ <i>emerge --search pdf</i>
127</pre>
128
129<p>
130If you want to search through the descriptions as well you can use the
131<c>--searchdesc</c> (or <c>-S</c>) switch:
132</p>
133
134<pre caption="Searching for pdf-related packages">
135$ <i>emerge --searchdesc pdf</i>
136</pre>
137
138<p>
139When you take a look at the output, you'll notice that it gives you a lot of
140information. The fields are clearly labelled so we won't go further into their
141meanings:
142</p>
143
144<pre caption="Example 'emerge --search' output">
145* net-print/cups-pdf
146 Latest version available: 1.5.2
147 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
148 Size of downloaded files: 15 kB
149 Homepage: http://cip.physik.uni-wuerzburg.de/~vrbehr/cups-pdf/
150 Description: Provides a virtual printer for CUPS to produce PDF files.
151 License: GPL-2
152</pre>
153
154</body>
379<subsection> 155</subsection>
156<subsection>
380<title>Installing Software from Sources</title> 157<title>Installing Software</title>
381<body> 158<body>
382 159
383<p> 160<p>
384Okay, enough talking, let's cut to the chase. To install a package, you will use 161Once you've found a software title to your liking, you can easily install it
385the <c>emerge</c> command. If you don't want to use any prebuild packages, you 162with <c>emerge</c>: just add the package name. For instance, to install
386can just use <c>emerge &lt;package-name&gt;</c> or <c>emerge
387&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package-name&gt;</c>. As an example we'll install
388<c>gnumeric</c>: 163<c>gnumeric</c>:
389</p> 164</p>
390 165
391<pre caption="Building gnumeric"> 166<pre caption="Installing gnumeric">
392# <i>emerge gnumeric</i> 167# <i>emerge gnumeric</i>
393</pre> 168</pre>
394 169
395<p> 170<p>
396This will download the sourcecode for you and unpacks, compiles and installs the 171Since many applications depend on each other, any attempt to install a certain
397package on your system. It will also do the same for all the dependencies. If 172software package might result in the installation of several dependencies as
398you want to see what dependencies will be installed with it, use the 173well. Don't worry, Portage handles dependencies well. If you want to find out
399<c>--pretend</c> option (<c>-p</c> in short): 174what Portage <e>would</e> install when you ask it to install a certain package,
175add the <c>--pretend</c> switch. For instance:
400</p> 176</p>
401 177
402<pre caption="Pretending to build gnumeric"> 178<pre caption="Pretend to install gnumeric">
403# <i>emerge --pretend gnumeric</i> 179# <i>emerge --pretend gnumeric</i>
404</pre> 180</pre>
405 181
406<p> 182<p>
407If you want to download the sourcecode of the package and its dependencies, 183When you ask Portage to install a package, it will download the necessary source
408but don't want to build the package, use the <c>--fetchonly</c> option 184code from the internet (if necessary) and store it by default in
409(<c>-f</c> in short): 185<path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. After this it will unpack, compile and
186install the package. If you want Portage to only download the sources without
187installing them, add the <c>--fetchonly</c> option to the <c>emerge</c> command:
410</p> 188</p>
411 189
412<pre caption="Fetching sources for gnumeric"> 190<pre caption="Download the sourcecode for gnumeric">
413# <i>emerge --fetchonly gnumeric</i> 191# <i>emerge --fetchonly gnumeric</i>
414</pre> 192</pre>
415 193
416<p>
417If you want to see where <c>emerge</c> downloads the sources from, combine the
418<c>--fetchonly</c> and <c>--pretend</c> options:
419</p>
420
421<pre caption="Showing URLs of the sources for gnumeric">
422# <i>emerge --fetchonly --pretend gnumeric</i>
423</pre>
424
425<p>
426You can also opt to install a specific version of a package.
427For instance, if you want to install a gnumeric version older than 1.2 -- for
428any reason whatsoever :) you would type:
429</p>
430
431<pre caption="Installing a specific gnumeric version">
432# <i>emerge "&lt;gnumeric-1.2"</i>
433</pre>
434
435<p>
436Other possibilities are of course "&gt;" (later version) and "=" (the exact
437version).
438</p>
439
440</body> 194</body>
441</subsection>
442<subsection> 195</subsection>
443<title>Installing Prebuild Packages</title> 196<subsection>
197<title>Finding Installed Package Documentation</title>
198<body>
199
200<p>
201Many packages come with their own documentation. Sometimes, the <c>doc</c> USE
202flag determines whether the package documentation should be installed or not.
203You can check the existence of a <c>doc</c> USE flag with the <c>emerge -vp
204&lt;package name&gt;</c> command.
205</p>
206
207<pre caption="Checking the existence of a doc USE flag">
208<comment>(alsa-lib is just an example, of course.)</comment>
209# <i>emerge -vp alsa-lib</i>
210[ebuild N ] media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1 -debug +doc 698 kB
211</pre>
212
213<p>
214The best way of enabling the <c>doc</c> USE flag is doing it on a per-package
215basis via <path>/etc/portage/package.use</path>, so that you get documentation
216only for packages that you are interested in. Enabling this flag globally is
217known to cause problems with circular dependencies. For more information, please
218read the <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE Flags</uri> chapter.
219</p>
220
221<p>
222Once the package installed, its documentation is generally found in a
223subdirectory named after the package under the <path>/usr/share/doc</path>
224directory. You can also list all installed files with the <c>equery</c> tool
225which is part of the <c>app-portage/gentoolkit</c> <uri
226link="/doc/en/gentoolkit.xml">package</uri>.
227</p>
228
229<pre caption="Locating package documentation">
230# <i>ls -l /usr/share/doc/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1</i>
231total 28
232-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 669 May 17 21:54 ChangeLog.gz
233-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 9373 May 17 21:54 COPYING.gz
234drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 8560 May 17 21:54 html
235-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 196 May 17 21:54 TODO.gz
236
237<comment>(Alternatively, use equery to locate interesting files:)</comment>
238# <i>equery files alsa-lib | less</i>
239media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1
240* Contents of media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1:
241/usr
242/usr/bin
243/usr/bin/alsalisp
244<comment>(Output truncated)</comment>
245</pre>
246
444<body> 247</body>
248</subsection>
249<subsection>
250<title>Removing Software</title>
251<body>
445 252
446<p>
447When you want to install a prebuild package, you should use the <c>--usepkg</c>
448option (<c>-k</c> in short). This will use the binary package available in
449<path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> <e>if</e> the package and the version of
450the application you want to install match.
451</p> 253<p>
254When you want to remove a software package from your system, use <c>emerge
255--unmerge</c>. This will tell Portage to remove all files installed by that
256package from your system <e>except</e> the configuration files of that
257application if you have altered those after the installation. Leaving the
258configuration files allows you to continue working with the package if you ever
259decide to install it again.
260</p>
452 261
453<pre caption="Installing a prebuild package for gnumeric"> 262<p>
263However, a <brite>big warning</brite> applies: Portage will <e>not</e> check if
264the package you want to remove is required by another package. It will however
265warn you when you want to remove an important package that breaks your system
266if you unmerge it.
267</p>
268
269<pre caption="Removing gnumeric from the system">
454# <i>emerge --usepkg gnumeric</i> 270# <i>emerge --unmerge gnumeric</i>
455</pre> 271</pre>
456 272
457<p>
458If you want to use the binary package, even if the versions don't match, use
459<c>--usepkgonly</c> (<c>-K</c> in short).
460</p> 273<p>
461 274When you remove a package from your system, the dependencies of that package
462<pre caption="Installing the prebuild package for gnumeric"> 275that were installed automatically when you installed the software are left. To
463# <i>emerge --usepkgonly gnumeric</i> 276have Portage locate all dependencies that can now be removed, use
464</pre> 277<c>emerge</c>'s <c>--depclean</c> functionality. We will talk about this later
465 278on.
466<!-- TODO When handbook goes life, comment out this parts until the mirrors have
467 been updated with online GRP packages. -->
468<p> 279</p>
469If you don't have the prebuild package on your system yet, you can have
470<c>emerge</c> download it from a mirror, defined in the <c>PORTAGE_BINHOST</c>
471variable declared in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>.
472</p>
473
474<p>
475To download the binary package in case this package doesn't exist on
476your system already, use <c>--getbinpkg</c> (<c>-g</c> in short):
477</p>
478
479<pre caption="Downloading and installing a prebuild package for gnumeric">
480# <i>emerge --getbinpkg gnumeric</i>
481</pre>
482
483<p>
484This will download the package and the package-related information for you and
485install it on your system, together with the dependencies. If you want to see
486what dependencies will be installed with it, use the <c>--pretend</c> option
487(<c>-p</c> in short):
488</p>
489
490<pre caption="Pretending to download the prebuild packages for gnumeric">
491# <i>emerge --ginbinpkg --pretend gnumeric</i>
492</pre>
493
494<p>
495You can also opt to download the prebuild package (and the package-related
496information) <e>without</e> checking the information on your local system and
497<e>without</e> using the prebuild package already on your system (if
498applicable), use the <c>--getbinpkgonly</c> option (<c>-G</c> in short):
499</p>
500
501<pre caption="Installing a prebuild package without using local information">
502# <i>emerge --getbinpkgonly gnumeric</i>
503</pre>
504
505<!-- TODO Up until here -->
506
507<p>
508You can also opt to install a specific version of a package.
509For instance, if you want to install a gnumeric version older than 1.2 -- for
510any reason whatsoever :) you would type:
511</p>
512
513<pre caption="Installing a specific gnumeric version">
514# <i>emerge --usepkg "&lt;gnumeric-1.2"</i>
515</pre>
516
517<p>
518Other possibilities are of course "&gt;" (later version) and "=" (the exact
519version).
520</p>
521
522 280
523</body> 281</body>
524</subsection> 282</subsection>
525<subsection> 283<subsection>
526<title>Updating your System</title> 284<title>Updating your System</title>
527<body> 285<body>
528 286
529<p> 287<p>
530Portage knows two special tags to denote a set of software packages: 288To keep your system in perfect shape (and not to mention install the latest
531<e>system</e> and <e>world</e>. You have already seen the former while 289security updates) you need to update your system regularly. Since Portage only
532installing Gentoo if you didn't use a <e>stage3</e> installation. To refresh 290checks the ebuilds in your Portage tree you first have to update your Portage
533things: <e>system</e> is the collection of <e>core</e> packages, necessary to 291tree. When your Portage tree is updated, you can update your system with
534have a working Gentoo system. 292<c>emerge --update world</c>. In the next example, we'll also use the
535</p> 293<c>--ask</c> switch which will tell Portage to display the list of packages it
536 294wants to upgrade and ask you if you want to continue:
537<p> 295</p>
538The <e>world</e> tag consists of all software you have installed yourself on 296
539your system plus the <e>system</e> information. In other words, every time you 297<pre caption="Updating your system">
540emerge a package using <c>emerge &lt;package-name&gt;</c>, the 298# <i>emerge --update --ask world</i>
541<c>&lt;package-name&gt;</c> is registered in the <e>world</e> file 299</pre>
542(<path>/var/cache/edb/world</path>). Dependencies are <e>not</e> part of the 300
543<e>world</e> file, but we will get to that later.
544</p> 301<p>
545 302Portage will then search for newer version of the applications you have
303installed. However, it will only verify the versions for the applications you
304have <e>explicitly</e> installed (the applications listed in
305<path>/var/lib/portage/world</path>) - it does not thoroughly check their
306dependencies. If you want to update the dependencies of those packages as well,
307add the <c>--deep</c> argument:
546<p> 308</p>
547If you want to update the system packages, use the <c>--update</c> option 309
548(<c>-u</c> in short): 310<pre caption="Updating your system with dependencies">
311# <i>emerge --update --deep world</i>
312</pre>
313
549</p> 314<p>
550 315Still, this doesn't mean <e>all packages</e>: some packages on your system are
551<pre caption="Updating the system packages"> 316needed during the compile and build process of packages, but once that package
552# <i>emerge --update system</i> 317is installed, these dependencies are no longer required. Portage calls those
553</pre> 318<e>build dependencies</e>. To include those in an update cycle, add
554 319<c>--with-bdeps=y</c>:
555<p>
556An identical approach can be used for the world packages:
557</p> 320</p>
558 321
559<pre caption="Updating your entire system"> 322<pre caption="Updating your entire system">
560# <i>emerge --update world</i> 323# <i>emerge --update --deep --with-bdeps=y world</i>
561</pre> 324</pre>
562 325
563<p>
564Again, if you want to see what <c>emerge</c> wants to update, use the
565<c>--pretend</c> option together with the <c>--update</c> option:
566</p> 326<p>
567 327Since security updates also happen in packages you have not explicitly installed
568<pre caption="Pretending to update your entire system"> 328on your system (but that are pulled in as dependencies of other programs), it
569# <i>emerge --pretend --update world</i> 329is recommended to run this command once in a while.
570<comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
571[ebuild U ] net-misc/wget-1.9-r1 [1.9]
572[ebuild UD] media-video/dvdauthor-0.5.0 [0.5.3]
573[ebuild U ] net-analyzer/ethereal-0.9.16 [0.9.14]
574</pre>
575
576<p> 330</p>
577Right next to the word "ebuild" you will notice a letter (or combination of 331
578letters) which gives you more information about the package: 332<p>
333If you have altered any of your <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>
334lately you might want to add <c>--newuse</c> as well. Portage will then verify
335if the change requires the installation of new packages or recompilation of
336existing ones:
337</p>
338
339<pre caption="Performing a full update">
340# <i>emerge --update --deep --with-bdeps=y --newuse world</i>
341</pre>
342
343</body>
344</subsection>
345<subsection>
346<title>Metapackages</title>
347<body>
348
349<p>
350Some packages in the Portage tree don't have any real content but are used to
351install a collection of packages. For instance, the <c>kde-meta</c> package will
352install a complete KDE environment on your system by pulling in various
353KDE-related packages as dependencies.
354</p>
355
356<p>
357If you ever want to remove such a package from your system, running <c>emerge
358--unmerge</c> on the package won't have much effect as the dependencies remain
359on the system.
360</p>
361
362<p>
363Portage has the functionality to remove orphaned dependencies as well, but since
364the availability of software is dynamically dependent you first need to update
365your entire system fully, including the new changes you applied when changing
366USE flags. After this you can run <c>emerge --depclean</c> to remove the
367orphaned dependencies. When this is done, you need to rebuild the applications
368that were dynamically linked to the now-removed software titles but don't
369require them anymore.
370</p>
371
372<p>
373All this is handled with the following three commands:
374</p>
375
376<pre caption="Removing orphaned dependencies">
377# <i>emerge --update --deep --newuse world</i>
378# <i>emerge --depclean</i>
379# <i>revdep-rebuild</i>
380</pre>
381
382<p>
383<c>revdep-rebuild</c> is provided by the <c>gentoolkit</c> package; don't forget
384to emerge it first:
385</p>
386
387<pre caption="Installing the gentoolkit package">
388# <i>emerge gentoolkit</i>
389</pre>
390
391</body>
392</subsection>
393</section>
394<section id="license">
395<title>Licenses</title>
396<subsection>
397<body>
398
399<p>
400Beginning with Portage version 2.1.7, you can accept or reject software
401installation based on its license. All packages in the tree contain a
402<c>LICENSE</c> entry in their ebuilds. Running <c>emerge --search
403packagename</c> will tell you the package's license.
404</p>
405
406<p>
407By default, Portage permits all licenses, except End User License Agreements
408(EULAs) that require reading and signing an acceptance agreement.
409</p>
410
411<p>
412The variable that controls permitted licenses is <c>ACCEPT_LICENSE</c>, which
413can be set in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
414</p>
415
416<pre caption="Default ACCEPT_LICENSE in /etc/make.conf">
417ACCEPT_LICENSE="* -@EULA"
418</pre>
419
420<p>
421With this configuration, packages that require interaction during installation
422to approve their EULA <e>will not</e> be installed. Packages without an EULA
423<e>will</e> be installed.
424</p>
425
426<p>
427You can set <c>ACCEPT_LICENSE</c> globally in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, or
428you can specify it on a per-package basis in
429<path>/etc/portage/package.license</path>.
430</p>
431
432<p>
433For example, if you want to allow the <c>truecrypt-2.7</c> license for
434<c>app-crypt/truecrypt</c>, add the following to
435<path>/etc/portage/package.license</path>:
436</p>
437
438<pre caption="Specifying a truecrypt license in package.license">
439app-crypt/truecrypt truecrypt-2.7
440</pre>
441
442<p>
443This permits installation of truecrypt versions that have the
444<c>truecrypt-2.7</c> license, but not versions with the <c>truecrypt-2.8</c>
445license.
446</p>
447
448<impo>
449Licenses are stored in <path>/usr/portage/licenses</path>, and license groups
450are kept in <path>/usr/portage/profiles/license_groups</path>. The first entry
451of each line in CAPITAL letters is the name of the license group, and every
452entry after that is an individual license.
453</impo>
454
455<p>
456License groups defined in <c>ACCEPT_LICENSE</c> are prefixed with an <b>@</b>
457sign. Here's an example of a system that globally permits the GPL-compatible
458license group, as well as a few other groups and individual licenses:
459</p>
460
461<pre caption="ACCEPT_LICENSE in /etc/make.conf">
462ACCEPT_LICENSE="@GPL-COMPATIBLE @OSI-APPROVED @EULA atheros-hal BitstreamVera"
463</pre>
464
465<p>
466If you want only free software and documentation on your system, you might use
467the following setup:
468</p>
469
470<pre caption="Use only free licenses">
471ACCEPT_LICENSE="-* @FREE"
472</pre>
473
474<p>
475In this case, "free" is mostly defined by the <uri
476link="http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/free-sw.html">FSF</uri> and <uri
477link="http://www.opensource.org/docs/osd">OSI</uri>. Any package whose license
478does not meet these requirements will not be installed on your system.
479</p>
480
481</body>
482</subsection>
483</section>
484<section>
485<title>When Portage is Complaining...</title>
486<subsection>
487<title>About SLOTs, Virtuals, Branches, Architectures and Profiles</title>
488<body>
489
490<p>
491As we stated before, Portage is extremely powerful and supports many features
492that other software management tools lack. To understand this, we explain a few
493aspects of Portage without going into too much detail.
494</p>
495
496<p>
497With Portage different versions of a single package can coexist on a system.
498While other distributions tend to name their package to those versions (like
499<c>freetype</c> and <c>freetype2</c>) Portage uses a technology called
500<e>SLOT</e>s. An ebuild declares a certain SLOT for its version. Ebuilds with
501different SLOTs can coexist on the same system. For instance, the
502<c>freetype</c> package has ebuilds with <c>SLOT="1"</c> and <c>SLOT="2"</c>.
503</p>
504
505<p>
506There are also packages that provide the same functionality but are implemented
507differently. For instance, <c>metalogd</c>, <c>sysklogd</c> and <c>syslog-ng</c>
508are all system loggers. Applications that rely on the availability of "a system
509logger" cannot depend on, for instance, <c>metalogd</c>, as the other system
510loggers are as good a choice as any. Portage allows for <e>virtuals</e>: each
511system logger provides <c>virtual/syslog</c> so that applications can depend on
512<c>virtual/syslog</c>.
513</p>
514
515<p>
516Software in the Portage tree can reside in different branches. By default your
517system only accepts packages that Gentoo deems stable. Most new software titles,
518when committed, are added to the testing branch, meaning more testing needs to
519be done before it is marked as stable. Although you will see the ebuilds for
520those software in the Portage tree, Portage will not update them before they are
521placed in the stable branch.
522</p>
523
524<p>
525Some software is only available for a few architectures. Or the software doesn't
526work on the other architectures, or it needs more testing, or the developer that
527committed the software to the Portage tree is unable to verify if the package
528works on different architectures.
529</p>
530
531<p>
532Each Gentoo installation adheres to a certain <c>profile</c> which contains,
533amongst other information, the list of packages that are required for a system
534to function normally.
535</p>
536
537</body>
538</subsection>
539<subsection id="blocked">
540<title>Blocked Packages</title>
541<body>
542
543<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (with --pretend)">
544[blocks B ] mail-mta/ssmtp (is blocking mail-mta/postfix-2.2.2-r1)
545</pre>
546
547<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (without --pretend)">
548!!! Error: the mail-mta/postfix package conflicts with another package.
549!!! both can't be installed on the same system together.
550!!! Please use 'emerge --pretend' to determine blockers.
551</pre>
552
553<p>
554Ebuilds contain specific fields that inform Portage about its dependencies.
555There are two possible dependencies: build dependencies, declared in
556<c>DEPEND</c> and run-time dependencies, declared in <c>RDEPEND</c>. When one of
557these dependencies explicitly marks a package or virtual as being <e>not</e>
558compatible, it triggers a blockage.
559</p>
560
561<p>
562While recent versions of Portage are smart enough to work around minor blockages
563without user intervention, occasionally you will need to fix it yourself, as
564explained below.
565</p>
566
567<p>
568To fix a blockage, you can choose to not install the package or unmerge the
569conflicting package first. In the given example, you can opt not to install
570<c>postfix</c> or to remove <c>ssmtp</c> first.
571</p>
572
573<p>
574You may also see blocking packages with specific atoms, such as
575<b>&lt;</b>media-video/mplayer-1.0_rc1-r2. In this case, updating to a more
576recent version of the blocking package would remove the block.
577</p>
578
579<p>
580It is also possible that two packages that are yet to be installed are blocking
581each other. In this rare case, you should find out why you need to install both.
582In most cases you can do with one of the packages alone. If not, please file a
583bug on <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">Gentoo's bugtracking system</uri>.
584</p>
585
586</body>
587</subsection>
588<subsection id="masked">
589<title>Masked Packages</title>
590<body>
591
592<pre caption="Portage warning about masked packages">
593!!! all ebuilds that could satisfy "bootsplash" have been masked.
594</pre>
595
596<pre caption="Portage warning about masked packages - reason">
597!!! possible candidates are:
598
599- gnome-base/gnome-2.8.0_pre1 (masked by: <i>~x86 keyword</i>)
600- lm-sensors/lm-sensors-2.8.7 (masked by: <i>-sparc keyword</i>)
601- sys-libs/glibc-2.3.4.20040808 (masked by: <i>-* keyword</i>)
602- dev-util/cvsd-1.0.2 (masked by: <i>missing keyword</i>)
603- games-fps/unreal-tournament-451 (masked by: <i>package.mask</i>)
604- sys-libs/glibc-2.3.2-r11 (masked by: <i>profile</i>)
605- net-im/skype-2.1.0.81 (masked by: skype-eula <i>license</i>(s))
606</pre>
607
608<p>
609When you want to install a package that isn't available for your system, you
610will receive this masking error. You should try installing a different
611application that is available for your system or wait until the package is put
612available. There is always a reason why a package is masked:
579</p> 613</p>
580 614
581<ul> 615<ul>
582 <li> 616 <li>
583 <e>B</e> (blocks) The package listed to the left is blocking the emerge of 617 <b>~arch keyword</b> means that the application is not tested sufficiently
584 the package listed to the right 618 to be put in the stable branch. Wait a few days or weeks and try again.
585 </li> 619 </li>
586 <li> 620 <li>
587 <e>N</e> (new) The package is new to your system and will be emerged for the 621 <b>-arch keyword</b> or <b>-* keyword</b> means that the application does
588 first time 622 not work on your architecture. If you believe the package does work file
623 a bug at our <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> website.
589 </li> 624 </li>
590 <li> 625 <li>
591 <e>R</e> (reemerge) The package isn't new, but needs to be reemerged 626 <b>missing keyword</b> means that the application has not been tested on
627 your architecture yet. Ask the architecture porting team to test the package
628 or test it for them and report your findings on our <uri
629 link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> website.
592 </li> 630 </li>
593 <li> 631 <li>
594 <e>F</e> (fetch) The package requires that you download the sourcecode 632 <b>package.mask</b> means that the package has been found corrupt, unstable
595 manually (for instance due to licencing issues) 633 or worse and has been deliberately marked as do-not-use.
596 </li> 634 </li>
597 <li> 635 <li>
598 <e>U</e> (update) The package already exists on your system but will be 636 <b>profile</b> means that the package has been found not suitable for your
599 upgraded 637 profile. The application might break your system if you installed it or is
638 just not compatible with the profile you use.
600 </li> 639 </li>
601 <li> 640 <li>
602 <e>UD</e> (downgrade) The package already exists on your system but will be 641 <b>license</b> means that the package's license is not compatible with your
603 downgraded 642 <c>ACCEPT_LICENSE</c> setting. You must explicitly permit its license or
604 </li> 643 license group by setting it in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> or in
605 <li> 644 <path>/etc/portage/package.license</path>. Refer to <uri
606 <e>U-</e> (slot warning) The package you have installed on your system 645 link="#license">Licenses</uri> to learn how licenses work.
607 is listed as a package that can not coexist with a different version, but
608 your update does. The update will be installed and the older version will be
609 removed.
610 </li> 646 </li>
611</ul> 647</ul>
612 648
613<p>
614In certain cases, an update may mean a downgrade (i.e. install an older version
615instead of a newer version). If you don't want this to happen, use the
616<c>--upgradeonly</c> option (<c>-U</c> in short):
617</p>
618
619<pre caption="Upgrading your entire system">
620# <i>emerge --update --upgradeonly world</i>
621</pre>
622
623<p>
624Of course, we are talking here about <e>system</e> and <e>world</e>, but you can
625perform the same actions for individual software packages.
626</p>
627
628</body> 649</body>
629</subsection>
630<subsection> 650</subsection>
631<title>Removing Software</title> 651<subsection id="USEdependency">
632<body> 652<title>Necessary USE Flag Changes</title>
633
634<p>
635If you want to remove software from your system, you can use the <c>unmerge</c>
636option (<c>-C</c> - capital C - in short):
637</p>
638
639<pre caption="Uninstalling software">
640# <i>emerge unmerge gnumeric</i>
641</pre>
642
643<p>
644If you want to test a removal (but not perform it), you can use <c>--pretend</c>
645again:
646</p>
647
648<pre caption="Pretending to uninstall software">
649# <i>emerge --pretend unmerge gnumeric</i>
650</pre>
651
652<warn>
653Portage doesn't verify if a package is a dependency for another
654installed package. It also doesn't warn you if the package is part of
655<e>system</e>, i.e. a core application necessary for the correct functioning of
656your system!
657</warn>
658
659</body> 653<body>
660</subsection> 654
661</section> 655<pre caption="Portage warning about USE flag change requirement">
662<section> 656The following USE changes are necessary to proceed:
663<title>Software Availability</title> 657#required by app-text/happypackage-2.0, required by happypackage (argument)
658>=app-text/feelings-1.0.0 test
659</pre>
660
661<p>
662The error message might also be displayed as follows, if <c>--autounmask</c>
663isn't set:
664</p>
665
666<pre caption="Portage error about USE flag change requirement">
667emerge: there are no ebuilds built with USE flags to satisfy "app-text/feelings[test]".
668!!! One of the following packages is required to complete your request:
669- app-text/feelings-1.0.0 (Change USE: +test)
670(dependency required by "app-text/happypackage-2.0" [ebuild])
671(dependency required by "happypackage" [argument])
672</pre>
673
674<p>
675Such warning or error occurs when you want to install a package which not only
676depends on another package, but also requires that that package is built with a
677particular USE flag (or set of USE flags). In the given example, the package
678<c>app-text/feelings</c> needs to be built with <c>USE="test"</c>, but this USE
679flag is not set on the system.
680</p>
681
682<p>
683To resolve this, either add the requested USE flag to your global USE flags in
684<path>/etc/make.conf</path>, or set it for the specific package in
685<path>/etc/portage/package.use</path>.
686</p>
687
688</body>
664<subsection> 689</subsection>
665<title>ARCH or not?</title> 690<subsection id="missingdependencies">
666<body> 691<title>Missing Dependencies</title>
667
668<p>
669Gentoo places its packages in two possible stadia called <e>ARCH</e> and
670<e>~ARCH</e>. Don't take this literally: the stadia depend on the architecture
671you are using. In other words, for x86-based systems you have <e>x86</e> and
672<e>~x86</e>, for ppc-based systems you have <e>ppc</e> and <e>~ppc</e> etc.
673</p>
674
675<p>
676The <e>~ARCH</e> stadium means that the package works for the developer in
677charge of the package, but that the package hasn't been tested thoroughly enough
678by the community to be placed in <e>ARCH</e>. <e>~ARCH</e> packages usually go
679to <e>ARCH</e> after being bugfree for a sufficient amount of time.
680</p>
681
682<p>
683Your system will use <e>ARCH</e> packages per default. If you want to live on
684the edge, don't mind having a broken package once in a while, and you like
685submitting bugreports to <uri
686link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugs.gentoo.org</uri>, then you can opt to use
687<e>~ARCH</e> packages. To "move" your system to a <e>~ARCH</e>-using system,
688edit the <c>ACCEPT_KEYWORDS</c> variable in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so that
689it reads <e>~ARCH</e> (again: for x86-based systems: <e>~x86</e>, etc.).
690</p>
691
692<p>
693If you want to update your system now, you will notice that <e>a lot</e> of
694packages will be updated!
695</p>
696
697</body> 692<body>
698</subsection> 693
694<pre caption="Portage warning about missing dependency">
695emerge: there are no ebuilds to satisfy "&gt;=sys-devel/gcc-3.4.2-r4".
696
697!!! Problem with ebuild sys-devel/gcc-3.4.2-r2
698!!! Possibly a DEPEND/*DEPEND problem.
699</pre>
700
701<p>
702The application you are trying to install depends on another package that is not
703available for your system. Please check <uri
704link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> if the issue is known and if not,
705please report it. Unless you are mixing branches this should not occur and is
706therefore a bug.
707</p>
708
709</body>
699<subsection> 710</subsection>
700<title>Masked Packages</title> 711<subsection id="ambiguousebuild">
701<body> 712<title>Ambiguous Ebuild Name</title>
702
703<p>
704When you want to install a package, you might come across the following message:
705</p>
706
707<pre caption="Message about masked packages">
708Calculating dependencies
709!!! <comment>all ebuilds that could satisfy </comment>&lt;your package&gt;<comment> have been masked.</comment>
710</pre>
711
712<p>
713A package can be masked due to two reasons:
714</p>
715
716<ol>
717 <li>The package is in <e>~ARCH</e> while you use <e>ARCH</e></li>
718 <li>The package is hard-masked explicitly</li>
719</ol>
720
721<p>
722If the package is masked because of the first reason, and you <e>really</e> want
723to install it (knowing that there <e>is</e> a reason why it isn't available in
724<e>ARCH</e>), you can temporarily accept <e>~ARCH</e> packages:
725</p>
726
727<pre caption="Temporarily accepting ~ARCH packages">
728# <i>ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~x86" emerge gnumeric</i>
729</pre>
730
731<p>
732A package is hardmasked if it is listed in
733<path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path>. If you read this file, you
734will also read the reason why the package is hardmasked (it is usually added as
735a comment). If you want to install the package nevertheless (despite all the
736possible warnings we could ever throw at your head about "breaking your system",
737"breaks other packages", or "badly needs testing"), create the
738<path>/etc/portage/package.unmask</path> file and list the package in it (use
739the same format as is used in <path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path>).
740</p>
741
742<p>
743Do <e>not</e> alter the <path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path> file as
744all changes are undone the next time you update your Portage tree.
745</p>
746
747<p>
748Another trick to circumvent the "masked package" problem is to install the
749package using the full path. This will ignore both the <c>ACCEPT_KEYWORD</c>
750settings and the <path>package.mask</path> listing.
751</p>
752
753<pre caption="Installing a package without checking for stadium / masking">
754# <i>emerge /usr/portage/app-office/gnumeric/gnumeric-1.2.0.ebuild</i>
755</pre>
756
757</body> 713<body>
758</subsection> 714
715<pre caption="Portage warning about ambiguous ebuild names">
716[ Results for search key : listen ]
717[ Applications found : 2 ]
718
719* dev-tinyos/listen [ Masked ]
720 Latest version available: 1.1.15
721 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
722 Size of files: 10,032 kB
723 Homepage: http://www.tinyos.net/
724 Description: Raw listen for TinyOS
725 License: BSD
726
727* media-sound/listen [ Masked ]
728 Latest version available: 0.6.3
729 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
730 Size of files: 859 kB
731 Homepage: http://www.listen-project.org
732 Description: A Music player and management for GNOME
733 License: GPL-2
734
735!!! The short ebuild name "listen" is ambiguous. Please specify
736!!! one of the above fully-qualified ebuild names instead.
737</pre>
738
739<p>
740The application you want to install has a name that corresponds with more than
741one package. You need to supply the category name as well. Portage will inform
742you of possible matches to choose from.
743</p>
744
745</body>
759<subsection> 746</subsection>
760<title>Blocked Packages</title> 747<subsection id="circulardependencies">
748<title>Circular Dependencies</title>
749<body>
750
751<pre caption="Portage warning about circular dependencies">
752!!! Error: circular dependencies:
753
754ebuild / net-print/cups-1.1.15-r2 depends on ebuild / app-text/ghostscript-7.05.3-r1
755ebuild / app-text/ghostscript-7.05.3-r1 depends on ebuild / net-print/cups-1.1.15-r2
756</pre>
757
758<p>
759Two (or more) packages you want to install depend on each other and can
760therefore not be installed. This is most likely a bug in the Portage tree.
761Please resync after a while and try again. You can also check <uri
762link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> if the issue is known and if not,
763report it.
764</p>
765
761<body> 766</body>
767</subsection>
768<subsection id="fetchfailed">
769<title>Fetch failed</title>
770<body>
762 771
763<p> 772<pre caption="Portage warning about fetch failed">
764You have a situation when you receive the following error on your screen: 773!!! Fetch failed for sys-libs/ncurses-5.4-r5, continuing...
774<comment>(...)</comment>
775!!! Some fetch errors were encountered. Please see above for details.
776</pre>
777
765</p> 778<p>
766 779Portage was unable to download the sources for the given application and will
767<pre caption="Blocking package"> 780try to continue installing the other applications (if applicable). This failure
768[blocks B ] gnome-base/bonobo-activation (from pkg gnome-base/libbonobo-2.4.0) 781can be due to a mirror that has not synchronised correctly or because the ebuild
769</pre> 782points to an incorrect location. The server where the sources reside can also be
770 783down for some reason.
771<p> 784</p>
772In the above example, the package <c>bonobo-activation</c> is blocking the 785
773emerge of <c>libbonobo</c>. To resolve this issue, remove the
774<c>bonobo-activation</c> package and continue:
775</p> 786<p>
776 787Retry after one hour to see if the issue still persists.
777<pre caption="Resolving a blocking situation">
778# <i>emerge unmerge bonobo-activation</i>
779</pre> 788</p>
789
790</body>
791</subsection>
792<subsection id="profileprotect">
793<title>System Profile Protection</title>
794<body>
795
796<pre caption="Portage warning about profile-protected package">
797!!! Trying to unmerge package(s) in system profile. 'sys-apps/portage'
798!!! This could be damaging to your system.
799</pre>
800
801<p>
802You have asked to remove a package that is part of your system's core packages.
803It is listed in your profile as required and should therefore not be removed
804from the system.
805</p>
806
807</body>
808</subsection>
809<subsection id="digesterror">
810<title>Digest Verification Failures</title>
811<body>
812
813<p>
814Sometimes, when you attempt to emerge a package, it will fail with the message:
815</p>
816
817<pre caption="Digest verification failure">
818&gt;&gt;&gt; checking ebuild checksums
819!!! Digest verification failed:
820</pre>
821
822<p>
823This is a sign that something is wrong with the Portage tree -- often, it is
824because a developer may have made a mistake when committing a package to the
825tree.
826</p>
827
828<p>
829When the digest verification fails, do <e>not</e> try to re-digest the package
830yourself. Running <c>ebuild foo manifest</c> will not fix the problem; it will
831almost certainly make it worse!
832</p>
833
834<p>
835Instead, wait an hour or two for the tree to settle down. It's likely that the
836error was noticed right away, but it can take a little time for the fix to
837trickle down the Portage tree. While you're waiting, check <uri
838link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri> and see if anyone has reported
839the problem yet. If not, go ahead and file a bug for the broken package.
840</p>
841
842<p>
843Once you see that the bug has been fixed, you may want to re-sync to pick up
844the fixed digest.
845</p>
846
847<impo>
848This does <e>not</e> mean that you can re-sync your tree multiple times! As
849stated in the rsync policy (when you run <c>emerge --sync</c>), users who sync
850too often will be banned! In fact, it's better to just wait until your next
851scheduled sync, so that you don't overload the rsync servers.
852</impo>
780 853
781</body> 854</body>
782</subsection> 855</subsection>
783</section> 856</section>
784</sections> 857</sections>

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