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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-rcscripts.xml,v 1.22 2005/05/19 23:10:20 neysx Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-rcscripts.xml,v 1.35 2011/08/17 07:57:23 swift Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10 10
11<abstract>
12Gentoo uses a special initscript format which, amongst other features, allows
13dependency-driven decisions and virtual initscripts. This chapter explains all
14these aspects and explains how to deal with these scripts.
15</abstract>
16
11<version>1.19</version> 17<version>4</version>
12<date>2005-05-20</date> 18<date>2011-08-17</date>
13 19
14<section> 20<section>
15<title>Runlevels</title> 21<title>Runlevels</title>
16<subsection> 22<subsection>
17<title>Booting your System</title> 23<title>Booting your System</title>
327<pre caption="Removing Postfix from the default runlevel"> 333<pre caption="Removing Postfix from the default runlevel">
328# <i>rc-update del postfix default</i> 334# <i>rc-update del postfix default</i>
329</pre> 335</pre>
330 336
331<p> 337<p>
332The <c>rc-update show</c> command will show all the available init scripts and 338The <c>rc-update -v show</c> command will show all the available init scripts and
333list at which runlevels they will execute: 339list at which runlevels they will execute:
334</p> 340</p>
335 341
336<pre caption="Receiving init script information"> 342<pre caption="Receiving init script information">
337# <i>rc-update show</i> 343# <i>rc-update -v show</i>
344</pre>
345
346<p>
347You can also run <c>rc-update show</c> (without <c>-v</c>) to just view enabled
348init scripts and their runlevels.
338</pre> 349</p>
339 350
340</body> 351</body>
341</subsection> 352</subsection>
342</section> 353</section>
343<section> 354<section>
372configuration file called <path>/etc/conf.d/apache2</path>, which can contain 383configuration file called <path>/etc/conf.d/apache2</path>, which can contain
373the options you want to give to the Apache 2 server when it is started: 384the options you want to give to the Apache 2 server when it is started:
374</p> 385</p>
375 386
376<pre caption="Variable defined in /etc/conf.d/apache2"> 387<pre caption="Variable defined in /etc/conf.d/apache2">
377APACHE2_OPTS="-D PHP4" 388APACHE2_OPTS="-D PHP5"
378</pre> 389</pre>
379 390
380<p> 391<p>
381Such a configuration file contains variables and variables alone (just like 392Such a configuration file contains variables and variables alone (just like
382<path>/etc/make.conf</path>), making it very easy to configure services. It also 393<path>/etc/make.conf</path>), making it very easy to configure services. It also
427} 438}
428 439
429stop() { 440stop() {
430 <comment>(Commands necessary to stop the service)</comment> 441 <comment>(Commands necessary to stop the service)</comment>
431} 442}
432
433restart() {
434 <comment>(Commands necessary to restart the service)</comment>
435}
436</pre> 443</pre>
437 444
438<p> 445<p>
439Any init script <e>requires</e> the <c>start()</c> function to be defined. All 446Any init script <e>requires</e> the <c>start()</c> function to be defined. All
440other sections are optional. 447other sections are optional.
445<subsection> 452<subsection>
446<title>Dependencies</title> 453<title>Dependencies</title>
447<body> 454<body>
448 455
449<p> 456<p>
450There are two dependencies you can define: <c>use</c> and <c>need</c>. As we 457There are two dependency-alike settings you can define that influence the
451have mentioned before, the <c>need</c> dependency is more strict than the 458start-up or sequencing of init scripts: <c>use</c> and <c>need</c>. Next to
452<c>use</c> dependency. Following this dependency type you enter the service 459these two, there are also two order-influencing methods called <c>before</c> and
453you depend on, or the <e>virtual</e> dependency. 460<c>after</c>. These last two are no dependencies per se - they do not make the
461original init script fail if the selected one isn't scheduled to start (or fails
462to start).
463</p>
464
465<ul>
466 <li>
467 The <c>use</c> settings informs the init system that this script <e>uses</e>
468 functionality offered by the selected script, but does not directly depend
469 on it. A good example would be <c>use logger</c> or <c>use dns</c>. If those
470 services are available, they will be put in good use, but if you do not have
471 a logger or DNS server the services will still work. If the services exist,
472 then they are started before the script that <c>use</c>'s them.
473 </li>
474 <li>
475 The <c>need</c> setting is a hard dependency. It means that the script that
476 is <c>need</c>'ing another script will not start before the other script is
477 launched successfully. Also, if that other script is restarted, then this
478 one will be restarted as well.
479 </li>
480 <li>
481 When using <c>before</c>, then the given script is launched before the
482 selected one <e>if</e> the selected one is part of the init level. So an
483 init script <path>xdm</path> that defines <c>before alsasound</c> will start
484 before the <path>alsasound</path> script, but only if <path>alsasound</path>
485 is scheduled to start as well in the same init level. If
486 <path>alsasound</path> is not scheduled to start too, then this particular
487 setting has no effect and <path>xdm</path> will be started when the init
488 system deems it most appropriate.
489 </li>
490 <li>
491 Similarly, <c>after</c> informs the init system that the given script should
492 be launched after the selected one <e>if</e> the selected one is part of the
493 init level. If not, then the setting has no effect and the script will be
494 launched by the init system when it deems it most appropriate.
495 </li>
496</ul>
497
498<p>
499It should be clear from the above that <c>need</c> is the only "true" dependency
500setting as it affects if the script will be started or not. All the others are
501merely pointers towards the init system to clarify in which order scripts can be
502(or should be) launched.
503</p>
504
505<p>
506Now, if you look at many of Gentoo's available init scripts, you will notice
507that some have dependencies on things that are no init scripts. These "things"
508we call <e>virtuals</e>.
454</p> 509</p>
455 510
456<p> 511<p>
457A <e>virtual</e> dependency is a dependency that a service provides, but that is 512A <e>virtual</e> dependency is a dependency that a service provides, but that is
458not provided solely by that service. Your init script can depend on a system 513not provided solely by that service. Your init script can depend on a system
502<subsection> 557<subsection>
503<title>Controlling the Order</title> 558<title>Controlling the Order</title>
504<body> 559<body>
505 560
506<p> 561<p>
507In some cases you might not require a service, but want your service to be 562As we described in the previous section, you can tell the init system what order
508started <c>before</c> (or <c>after</c>) another service <e>if</e> it is 563it should use for starting (or stopping) scripts. This ordering is handled both
509available on the system (note the conditional - this is no dependency anymore) 564through the dependency settings <c>use</c> and <c>need</c>, but also through the
510<e>and</e> run in the same runlevel (note the conditional - only services in the 565order settings <c>before</c> and <c>after</c>. As we have described these
511same runlevel are involved). You can provide this information using the 566earlier already, let's take a look at the Portmap service as an example of such
512<c>before</c> or <c>after</c> settings. 567init script.
513</p>
514
515<p>
516As an example we view the settings of the Portmap service:
517</p> 568</p>
518 569
519<pre caption="The depend() function in the Portmap service"> 570<pre caption="The depend() function in the Portmap service">
520depend() { 571depend() {
521 need net 572 need net
533depend() { 584depend() {
534 before * 585 before *
535} 586}
536</pre> 587</pre>
537 588
589<p>
590If your service must write to local disks, it should need <c>localmount</c>. If
591it places anything in <path>/var/run</path> such as a pidfile, then it should
592start after <c>bootmisc</c>:
593</p>
594
595<pre caption="Example depend() function">
596depend() {
597 need localmount
598 after bootmisc
599}
600</pre>
601
538</body> 602</body>
539</subsection> 603</subsection>
540<subsection> 604<subsection>
541<title>Standard Functions</title> 605<title>Standard Functions</title>
542<body> 606<body>
548<c>eend</c> functions to inform the user about what is happening: 612<c>eend</c> functions to inform the user about what is happening:
549</p> 613</p>
550 614
551<pre caption="Example start() function"> 615<pre caption="Example start() function">
552start() { 616start() {
617 if [ "${RC_CMD}" = "restart" ];
618 then
619 <comment># Do something in case a restart requires more than stop, start</comment>
620 fi
621
553 ebegin "Starting my_service" 622 ebegin "Starting my_service"
554 start-stop-daemon --start --quiet --exec /path/to/my_service 623 start-stop-daemon --start --exec /path/to/my_service \
624 --pidfile /path/to/my_pidfile
555 eend $? 625 eend $?
556} 626}
557</pre> 627</pre>
558 628
559<p> 629<p>
630Both <c>--exec</c> and <c>--pidfile</c> should be used in start and stop
631functions. If the service does not create a pidfile, then use
632<c>--make-pidfile</c> if possible, though you should test this to be sure.
633Otherwise, don't use pidfiles. You can also add <c>--quiet</c> to the
634<c>start-stop-daemon</c> options, but this is not recommended unless the
635service is extremely verbose. Using <c>--quiet</c> may hinder debugging if the
636service fails to start.
637</p>
638
639<p>
640Another notable setting used in the above example is to check the contents of
641the <c>RC_CMD</c> variable. Unlike the previous init script system, the newer
642<c>openrc</c> system does not support script-specific restart functionality.
643Instead, the script needs to check the contents of the <c>RC_CMD</c> variable
644to see if a function (be it <c>start()</c> or <c>stop()</c>) is called as part
645of a restart or not.
646</p>
647
648<note>
649Make sure that <c>--exec</c> actually calls a service and not just a shell
650script that launches services and exits -- that's what the init script is
651supposed to do.
652</note>
653
654<p>
560If you need more examples of the <c>start()</c> function, please read the source 655If you need more examples of the <c>start()</c> function, please read the
561code of the available init scripts in your <path>/etc/init.d</path> directory. 656source code of the available init scripts in your <path>/etc/init.d</path>
657directory.
658</p>
659
660<p>
661Another function you can define is <c>stop()</c>. You are not obliged to define
662this function though! Our init system is intelligent enough to fill in this
663function by itself if you use <c>start-stop-daemon</c>.
664</p>
665
666<p>
667Here is an example of a <c>stop()</c> function:
668</p>
669
670<pre caption="Example stop() function">
671stop() {
672 ebegin "Stopping my_service"
673 start-stop-daemon --stop --exec /path/to/my_service \
674 --pidfile /path/to/my_pidfile
675 eend $?
676}
677</pre>
678
679<p>
680If your service runs some other script (for example, bash, python, or perl),
681and this script later changes names (for example, <c>foo.py</c> to <c>foo</c>),
682then you will need to add <c>--name</c> to <c>start-stop-daemon</c>. You must
683specify the name that your script will be changed to. In this example, a
684service starts <c>foo.py</c>, which changes names to <c>foo</c>:
685</p>
686
687<pre caption="A service that starts the foo script">
688start() {
689 ebegin "Starting my_script"
690 start-stop-daemon --start --exec /path/to/my_script \
691 --pidfile /path/to/my_pidfile --name foo
692 eend $?
693}
694</pre>
695
696<p>
562As for <c>start-stop-daemon</c>, there is an excellent man page available if you 697<c>start-stop-daemon</c> has an excellent man page available if you need more
563need more information: 698information:
564</p> 699</p>
565 700
566<pre caption="Getting the man page for start-stop-daemon"> 701<pre caption="Getting the man page for start-stop-daemon">
567# <i>man start-stop-daemon</i> 702$ <i>man start-stop-daemon</i>
568</pre>
569
570<p>
571Other functions you can define are: <c>stop()</c> and <c>restart()</c>. You are
572not obliged to define these functions! Our init system is intelligent enough to
573fill these functions by itself if you use <c>start-stop-daemon</c>.
574</p> 703</pre>
575 704
576<p> 705<p>
577Gentoo's init script syntax is based on the Bourne Again Shell (bash) so you are 706Gentoo's init script syntax is based on the Bourne Again Shell (bash) so you are
578free to use bash-compatible constructs inside your init script. 707free to use bash-compatible constructs inside your init script. However, you may
708want to write your init scripts to be POSIX-compliant. Future init script
709systems may allow symlinking <path>/bin/sh</path> to other shells besides
710bash. Init scripts that rely on bash-only features will then break these
711configurations.
579</p> 712</p>
580 713
581</body> 714</body>
582</subsection> 715</subsection>
583<subsection> 716<subsection>
593 726
594<pre caption="Supporting the restartdelay option"> 727<pre caption="Supporting the restartdelay option">
595opts="${opts} restartdelay" 728opts="${opts} restartdelay"
596 729
597restartdelay() { 730restartdelay() {
598 stop() 731 stop
599 sleep 3 <comment># Wait 3 seconds before starting again</comment> 732 sleep 3 <comment># Wait 3 seconds before starting again</comment>
600 start() 733 start
601} 734}
602</pre> 735</pre>
736
737<impo>
738The function <c>restart()</c> cannot be overridden in openrc!
739</impo>
603 740
604</body> 741</body>
605</subsection> 742</subsection>
606<subsection> 743<subsection>
607<title>Service Configuration Variables</title> 744<title>Service Configuration Variables</title>
668without <c>net.eth0</c>: 805without <c>net.eth0</c>:
669</p> 806</p>
670 807
671<pre caption="Adding the necessary init scripts"> 808<pre caption="Adding the necessary init scripts">
672<comment>(Copy all services from default runlevel to offline runlevel)</comment> 809<comment>(Copy all services from default runlevel to offline runlevel)</comment>
810# <i>cd /etc/runlevels/default</i>
673# <i>for service in /etc/runlevels/default/*; do rc-update add $service offline; done</i> 811# <i>for service in *; do rc-update add $service offline; done</i>
674<comment>(Remove unwanted service from offline runlevel)</comment> 812<comment>(Remove unwanted service from offline runlevel)</comment>
675# <i>rc-update del net.eth0 offline</i> 813# <i>rc-update del net.eth0 offline</i>
676<comment>(Display active services for offline runlevel)</comment> 814<comment>(Display active services for offline runlevel)</comment>
677# <i>rc-update show offline</i> 815# <i>rc-update show offline</i>
678<comment>(Partial sample Output)</comment> 816<comment>(Partial sample Output)</comment>
681 local | offline 819 local | offline
682 net.eth0 | 820 net.eth0 |
683</pre> 821</pre>
684 822
685<p> 823<p>
824Even though <c>net.eth0</c> has been removed from the offline runlevel,
825<c>udev</c> might want to attempt to start any devices it detects and launch the
826appropriate services, a functionality that is called <e>hotplugging</e>. By
827default, Gentoo does not enable hotplugging.
828</p>
829
830<p>
831If you do want to enable hotplugging, but only for a selected set of scripts,
832use the <c>rc_hotplug</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>:
833</p>
834
835<pre caption="Disabling device initiated services in /etc/rc.conf">
836<comment># Allow net.wlan as well as any other service, except those matching net.*
837# to be hotplugged</comment>
838rc_hotplug="net.wlan !net.*"
839</pre>
840
841<note>
842For more information on device initiated services, please see the comments
843inside <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>.
844</note>
845
846<p>
686Now edit your bootloader configuration and add a new entry for the 847Now edit your bootloader configuration and add a new entry for the
687<c>offline</c> runlevel. For instance, in <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path>: 848<c>offline</c> runlevel. For instance, in <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path>:
688</p> 849</p>
689 850
690<pre caption="Adding an entry for the offline runlevel"> 851<pre caption="Adding an entry for the offline runlevel">

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